Special Issue "Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Omorogieva Ojo Website E-Mail
Department of Adult Nursing and Paramedic Science, Faculty of Education and Health, University of Greenwich, London, SE9 2UG, UK
Phone: +44 (0)20 8331 8626
Fax: +44(0)20 8331 8060
Interests: diabetes, structured education in diabetes for ethnic minorities, evaluation of the glycaemic index of some carbohydrate rich ethnic minority foods in the uk, clinical nutrition, enteral tube feeding in the community, multi-morbidity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevalence of diabetes is on the rise globally, and it is estimated that about 90% of adults currently diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015). According to the World Health Organisation (2016), an estimated 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014 compared with 108 million in 1980 and this condition caused about 1.5 million deaths in 2012.

Strategies for managing type 2 diabetes often include dietary interventions. Therefore, the current Special Issue on dietary intake and type 2 diabetes aims to provide a platform for researchers to publish their research findings. It will also enable patients and others including nurses, dietitians and doctors who are involved in this area of practice to draw on the research findings for management, practice, clinical and professional development.

Dr. Omorogieva Ojo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Macronutrients intake and type 2 diabetes
  • Micronutrients intake and type 2 diabetes
  • Oral nutritional supplements and type 2 diabetes
  • Special diets including low carbohydrate diet, low fat diet, enteral nutrition, diabetes specific formulas and type 2 diabetes
  • Dietary fibre intake and type 2 diabetes
  • Low glycaemic index diet and type 2 diabetes

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092177 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
This editorial aims to examine the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and to discuss the evidence relating to dietary strategies for managing people with this condition. It is clear from the evidence presented that a range of dietary interventions can provide [...] Read more.
This editorial aims to examine the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and to discuss the evidence relating to dietary strategies for managing people with this condition. It is clear from the evidence presented that a range of dietary interventions can provide useful approaches for managing people with type 2 diabetes, including the regulation of blood glucose and lipid parameters, and for reducing the risks of acute and chronic diabetic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Oral Nutritional Supplements with Sucromalt and Isomaltulose versus Standard Formula on Glycaemic Index, Entero-Insular Axis Peptides and Subjective Appetite in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Cross-Over Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071477 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oral diabetes-specific nutritional supplements (ONS-D) induce favourable postprandial responses in subjects with type 2 diabetes (DM2), but they have not been correlated yet with incretin release and subjective appetite (SA). This randomised, double-blind, cross-over study compared postprandial effects of ONS-D with isomaltulose and [...] Read more.
Oral diabetes-specific nutritional supplements (ONS-D) induce favourable postprandial responses in subjects with type 2 diabetes (DM2), but they have not been correlated yet with incretin release and subjective appetite (SA). This randomised, double-blind, cross-over study compared postprandial effects of ONS-D with isomaltulose and sucromalt versus standard formula (ET) on glycaemic index (GI), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and SA in 16 individuals with DM2. After overnight fasting, subjects consumed a portion of supplements containing 25 g of carbohydrates or reference food. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min; and SA sensations were assessed by a visual analogue scale on separate days. Glycaemic index values were low for ONS-D and intermediate for ET (p < 0.001). The insulin area under the curve (AUC0–180 min) (p < 0.02) and GIP AUC (p < 0.02) were lower after ONS-D and higher GLP-1 AUC when compared with ET (p < 0.05). Subjective appetite AUC was greater after ET than ONS-D (p < 0.05). Interactions between hormones, hunger, fullness and GI were found, but not within the ratings of SA; isomaltulose and sucromalt may have influenced these factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Association with Vitamin D Deficiency in Mexican Women of Reproductive Age
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061211 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Based on a nationally representative sample of young Mexican women aged 20 to 49 years (n = 3260), we sought to explore whether cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were associated with vitamin D deficiency (VDD, defined as 25-OH-D <50 [...] Read more.
Based on a nationally representative sample of young Mexican women aged 20 to 49 years (n = 3260), we sought to explore whether cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were associated with vitamin D deficiency (VDD, defined as 25-OH-D <50 nmol/L). To this end, we obtained sociodemographic, serum and anthropometric data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Analyses were developed through logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of VDD was significantly higher in obese women (42.5%, 95% CI; 37.3–47.9) compared to women with a normal body mass index (29.9%, 95% CI; 23.5–37.1, p = 0.05), in those with high total cholesterol (TC) (45.6% 95% CI; 39.4–51.9) compared to those with normal TC levels (33.9%, 95% CI 30–38.1, p = 0.03), and in those with insulin resistance (IR) (44%, 95% CI; 36.9–51.7) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (58.6%, 95% CI 46.9–69.4) compared to those with normal glycemia (no insulin resistance: 34.7%, 95% CI; 30.9–38.8, p = 0.04 and no T2DM: 34.9%, 95% CI 31.4–38.6, p < 0.001). Utilizing individual models to estimate cardiovascular risk according to VDD, we found that the odds of being obese (odds ratio, OR: 1.53, 95% CI 1.02–2.32, p = 0.05), or having high TC levels (OR: 1.43, 95% CI; 1.05–2.01, p = 0.03), T2DM (OR: 2.64, 95% CI; 1.65–4.03, p < 0.001), or IR (OR: 1.48, 95% CI 1.04–2.10, p = 0.026) were significantly higher in women with VDD (p < 0.05). Odds were not statistically significant for overweight, high blood pressure, sedentarism, AMI, high serum concentration of triglycerides, homocysteine, or C-reactive protein models. In conclusion, our results indicate that young Mexican women with VDD show a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessCommunication
Vitamin D Status, Calcium Intake and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes: An Unresolved Issue
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030642 - 16 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The relationship between vitamin D status, calcium intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a topic of growing interest. One of the most interesting non-skeletal functions of vitamin D is its potential role in glucose homeostasis. This possible association [...] Read more.
The relationship between vitamin D status, calcium intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a topic of growing interest. One of the most interesting non-skeletal functions of vitamin D is its potential role in glucose homeostasis. This possible association is related to the secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance in different tissues and its influence on systemic inflammation. However, despite multiple observational studies and several meta-analyses that have shown a positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk of T2D, no randomized clinical trials supplementing with different doses of vitamin D have confirmed this hypothesis definitively. An important question is the identification of what 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are necessary to influence glycemic homeostasis and the risk of developing T2D. These values of vitamin D can be significantly higher than vitamin D levels required for bone health, but the currently available data do not allow us to answer this question adequately. Furthermore, a large number of observational studies show that dairy consumption is linked to a lower risk of T2D, but the components responsible for this relationship are not well established. Therefore, the importance of calcium intake in the risk of developing T2D has not yet been established. Although there is a biological plausibility linking the status of vitamin D and calcium intake with the risk of T2D, well-designed randomized clinical trials are necessary to answer this important question. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Glycemia Lowering Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Hedychium coronarium Leaves in Diabetic Rodent Models
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030629 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hedychium coronarium has a long history of use worldwide as a food and in folk medicine. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of an aqueous extract of H. coronarium leaves (HC) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two types of [...] Read more.
Hedychium coronarium has a long history of use worldwide as a food and in folk medicine. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of an aqueous extract of H. coronarium leaves (HC) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two types of animal models were used in this study: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2DM (Wistar rats; N = 8) and C57BKSdb/db mice (N = 5). After treatment with HC for 28 days, glucose tolerance improved in both of the diabetic animal models. As significant effects were shown after 14 days of treatment in the STZ-induced T2DM model, we carried out the experiments with it. After 28 days of treatment with HC, the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were significantly improved in the STZ-induced T2DM model. The lesions degree of islet β-cells was decreased after the HC treatment. Although the insulin level increased moderately, the aldosterone level was significantly decreased in the HC-treated groups, suggesting that aldosterone might play an important role in this effect. In summary, HC is a natural product and it is worth exploring its effect on T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns Related to Triglyceride and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Men and Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010008 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
We aimed to examine whether dietary patterns that explain the variation of triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio were associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. We included a total of 5097 adults without diabetes at baseline [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine whether dietary patterns that explain the variation of triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio were associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. We included a total of 5097 adults without diabetes at baseline with a mean follow-up of 11.54 years. Usual diet was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of TG and HDL-C were measured at baseline. We derived dietary pattern scores using 41 food groups as predictors and the TG/HDL-C ratio as a response variable in a stepwise linear regression. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) of type 2 diabetes according to pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1069 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified. A list of foods characterizing the dietary pattern differed by sex. Higher dietary pattern scores were associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme quintiles were 1.53 (1.12–2.09; p for trend = 0.008) for men and 1.33 (0.95–1.86; p for trend = 0.011) for women. Our study suggests the evidence that dietary patterns associated with low levels of TG/HDL-C ratio may have the potential to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle
Intakes of Zinc, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Relationship with Glycemic Control
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121948 - 08 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The role of the concomitant intake of zinc, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been extensively discussed. We evaluated the relationship between the dietary intake of these micronutrients and glycemic markers [...] Read more.
The role of the concomitant intake of zinc, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been extensively discussed. We evaluated the relationship between the dietary intake of these micronutrients and glycemic markers in 95 individuals with T2DM (mean age 48.6 ± 8.4 years). Hierarchical grouping analysis was used to divide the individuals into two clusters according to their micronutrient intake, and differences between clusters were statistically assessed. Effects of individual and combination intake of micronutrients on glycated hemoglobin percentage (%HbA1c) were assessed using multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analysis. We observed a high likelihood of inadequate intake of the four micronutrients. The group with lower micronutrient intake (cluster 1) displayed higher %HbA1c (p = 0.006) and triglyceride (p = 0.010) levels. High %HbA1c showed an association with cluster 1 (odds ratio (OR) = 3.041, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.131; 8.175) and time of T2DM diagnosis (OR = 1.155, 95% CI = 1.043; 1.278). Potassium (β = −0.001, p = 0.017) and magnesium (β = −0.007, p = 0.015) intakes were inversely associated with %HbA1c. Reduced concomitant intake of the four micronutrients studied proved to be associated with risk of increased %HbA1c in individuals with T2DM, which was particularly predicted by magnesium and potassium intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Association between Glycemic Status and Body Composition in Men: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121878 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study sought to evaluate the associations between changes in glycemic status and changes in total body (TB), trunk, and appendicular fat (FM) and lean mass (LM) in men. A population-based study of men aged 20–66 years at baseline were included in cross-sectional [...] Read more.
This study sought to evaluate the associations between changes in glycemic status and changes in total body (TB), trunk, and appendicular fat (FM) and lean mass (LM) in men. A population-based study of men aged 20–66 years at baseline were included in cross-sectional (n = 430) and three-year longitudinal (n = 411) analyses. Prediabetes was defined as fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was determined by: self-reported diabetes, current anti-diabetic drug use (insulin/oral hypoglycemic agents), fasting glucose (≥126 mg/dL), or non-fasting glucose (≥200 mg/dL). Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Longitudinal analyses showed that changes in TB FM and LM, and appendicular LM differed among glycemic groups. Normoglycemic men who converted to prediabetes lost more TB and appendicular LM than men who remained normoglycemic (all, p < 0.05). Normoglycemic or prediabetic men who developed T2D had a greater loss of TB and appendicular LM than men who remained normoglycemic (both, p < 0.05). T2D men had greater gains in TB FM and greater losses in TB and appendicular LM than men who remained normoglycemic (all, p < 0.05). Dysglycemia is associated with adverse changes in TB and appendicular LM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Attenuation of Free Fatty Acid-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance by Rosemary Extract
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111623 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Elevated blood free fatty acids (FFAs), as seen in obesity, impair muscle insulin action leading to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) is linked to insulin resistance and a number of serine/threonine kinases including [...] Read more.
Elevated blood free fatty acids (FFAs), as seen in obesity, impair muscle insulin action leading to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) is linked to insulin resistance and a number of serine/threonine kinases including JNK, mTOR and p70 S6K have been implicated in this process. Activation of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases muscle glucose uptake, and in recent years AMPK has been viewed as an important target to counteract insulin resistance. We reported recently that rosemary extract (RE) increased muscle cell glucose uptake and activated AMPK. However, the effect of RE on FFA-induced muscle insulin resistance has never been examined. In the current study, we investigated the effect of RE in palmitate-induced insulin resistant L6 myotubes. Exposure of myotubes to palmitate reduced the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. Importantly, exposure to RE abolished these effects and the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was restored. Treatment with palmitate increased the phosphorylation/activation of JNK, mTOR and p70 S6K whereas RE completely abolished these effects. RE increased the phosphorylation of AMPK even in the presence of palmitate. Our data indicate that rosemary extract has the potential to counteract the palmitate-induced muscle cell insulin resistance and further studies are required to explore its antidiabetic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Effect of Peanuts and Almonds on the Cardio-Metabolic and Inflammatory Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111565 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A low carbohydrate diet (LCD), with some staple food being replaced with nuts, has been shown to reduce weight, improve blood glucose, and regulate blood lipid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These nuts include tree nuts and ground nuts. Tree [...] Read more.
A low carbohydrate diet (LCD), with some staple food being replaced with nuts, has been shown to reduce weight, improve blood glucose, and regulate blood lipid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These nuts include tree nuts and ground nuts. Tree nut consumption is associated with improved cardio-vascular and inflammatory parameters. However, the consumption of tree nuts is difficult to promote in patients with diabetes because of their high cost. As the main ground nut, peanuts contain a large number of beneficial nutrients, are widely planted, and are affordable for most patients. However, whether peanuts and tree nuts in combination with LCD have similar benefits in patients with T2DM remains unknown; although almonds are the most consumed and studied tree nut. This study sought to compare the effect of peanuts and almonds, incorporated into a LCD, on cardio-metabolic and inflammatory measures in patients with T2DM. Of the 32 T2DM patients that were recruited, 17 were randomly allocated to the Peanut group (n = 17) and 15 to the Almond group (n = 15) in a parallel design. The patients consumed a LCD with part of the starchy staple food being replaced with peanuts (Peanut group) or almonds (Almond group). The follow-up duration was three months. The indicators for glycemic control, other cardio-metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were collected and compared between the two groups. Twenty-five patients completed the study. There were no significant differences in the self-reported dietary compliance between the two groups. Compared with the baseline, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial 2-h blood glucose (PPG) decreased in both the Peanut and Almond groups (p < 0.05). After the intervention, no statistically significant differences were found between the Peanut group and the Almond group with respect to the FBG and PPG levels. A decrease in the glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level from the baseline in the Almond group was found (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to the HbA1c level at the third month. The peanut and almond consumption did not increase the body mass index (BMI) and had no effect on the blood lipid profile or interleukin-6 (IL-6).In conclusion, incorporated into a LCD, almonds and peanuts have a similar effect on improving fasting and postprandial blood glucose among patients with T2DM. However, more studies are required to fully establish the effect of almond on the improvement of HbA1c. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Tempeh Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Rhizopus oligosporus on Streptozotocin-Induced Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091143 - 22 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The increased consumption of high fat-containing foods has been linked to the prevalence of obesity and abnormal metabolic syndromes. Rhizopus oligosporus, a fungus in the family Mucoraceae, is widely used as a starter for homemade tempeh. Although R. oligosporus can prevent the [...] Read more.
The increased consumption of high fat-containing foods has been linked to the prevalence of obesity and abnormal metabolic syndromes. Rhizopus oligosporus, a fungus in the family Mucoraceae, is widely used as a starter for homemade tempeh. Although R. oligosporus can prevent the growth of other microorganisms, it grows well with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum can produce β-glucosidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucoside isoflavones into aglycones (with greater bioavailability). Therefore, the development of a soybean-based functional food by the co-inoculation of R. oligosporus and L. plantarum is a promising approach to increase the bioactivity of tempeh. In this study, the ameliorative effect of L. plantarum in soy tempeh on abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats was evaluated. The co-incubation of L. plantarum with R. oligosporus during soy tempeh fermentation reduced the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and low-density lipoprotein contents, and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein content in HFD rats. It also increased the LAB counts, as well as the bile acid, cholesterol, triglyceride, and short-chain fatty acid contents in the feces of HFD rats. Our results suggested that the modulation of serum glucose and lipid levels by LAB occurs via alterations in the internal microbiota, leading to the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and promotion of lipolysis. Tempeh, which was produced with both L. plantarum and R. oligosporus, might be a beneficial dietary supplement for individuals with abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Approaches for Japanese Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081080 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the effect of an energy restricted and carbohydrate restricted diet on the management of Japanese diabetes patients. Several databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society were searched for relevant articles published prior to June 2017. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate the effect of an energy restricted and carbohydrate restricted diet on the management of Japanese diabetes patients. Several databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society were searched for relevant articles published prior to June 2017. The articles identified were systematically reviewed. We identified 286 articles on an energy restricted diet, assessed seven and included two studies in our review. On a carbohydrate restricted diet, 75 articles were extracted, seven articles assessed and three included in the review, of which two were the studies that were selected for the energy restricted diet group, since they compared energy restricted diets with carbohydrate restricted diets. All selected studies were on Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. No studies for type 1 diabetes were found in our search. Two randomized controlled trials on an energy restricted diet were also included in the three studies for a carbohydrate restricted diet. All the three randomized controlled trials showed better glucose management with the carbohydrate restricted diet. Our study revealed that there is very little evidence on diets, particularly in Japanese patients with diabetes, and that the energy restricted diet, which has been recommended by the Japan Diabetes Society in the sole dietary management approach, is not supported by any scientific evidence. Our findings suggest that the carbohydrate restricted diet, but not the energy restricted diet, might have short term benefits for the management of diabetes in Japanese patients. However, since our analysis was based on a limited number of small randomized controlled trials, large scale and/or long term trials examining the dietary approaches in these patients are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Aronia, Red Ginseng, Shiitake Mushroom and Nattokinase Potentiated Insulin Secretion and Reduced Insulin Resistance with Improving Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Insulin Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070948 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The combination of freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng, ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom and nattokinase (AGM; 3.4:4.1:2.4:0.1) was examined to evaluate its effects on insulin resistance, insulin secretion and the gut microbiome in a non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Pancreatectomized (Px) rats were provided high [...] Read more.
The combination of freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng, ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom and nattokinase (AGM; 3.4:4.1:2.4:0.1) was examined to evaluate its effects on insulin resistance, insulin secretion and the gut microbiome in a non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Pancreatectomized (Px) rats were provided high fat diets supplemented with either (1) 0.5 g AGM (AGM-L), (2) 1 g AGM (AGM-H), (3) 1 g dextrin (control), or (4) 1 g dextrin with 120 mg metformin (positive-control) per kg body weight for 12 weeks. AGM (1 g) contained 6.22 mg cyanidin-3-galactose, 2.5 mg ginsenoside Rg3 and 244 mg β-glucan. Px rats had decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur and lean body mass in the hip and leg compared to the normal-control and AGM-L and AGM-H prevented the decrease. Visceral fat mass was lower in the control group than the normal-control group and its decrease was smaller with AGM-L and AGM-H. HOMA-IR was lower in descending order of the control, positive-control, AGM-L, AGM-H and normal-control groups. Glucose tolerance deteriorated in the control group and was improved by AGM-L and AGM-H more than in the positive-control group. Glucose tolerance is associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Insulin tolerance indicated insulin resistance was highly impaired in diabetic rats, but it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Insulin secretion capacity, measured by hyperglycemic clamp, was much lower in the control group than the normal-control group and it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Diabetes modulated the composition of the gut microbiome and AGM prevented the modulation of gut microbiome. In conclusion, AGM improved glucose metabolism by potentiating insulin secretion and reducing insulin resistance in insulin deficient type 2 diabetic rats. The improvement of diabetic status alleviated body composition changes and prevented changes of gut microbiome composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Diabetes-Specific Enteral Nutrition Formula on Cardiometabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta–Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081905 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and worldwide, partly due to unhealthy lifestyles, including poor dietary regimes. Patients with diabetes and other co-morbidities such as stroke, which may affect swallowing ability and lead to malnutrition, could benefit [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and worldwide, partly due to unhealthy lifestyles, including poor dietary regimes. Patients with diabetes and other co-morbidities such as stroke, which may affect swallowing ability and lead to malnutrition, could benefit from enteral nutrition, including the standard formula (SF) and diabetes-specific formulas (DSF). However, enteral nutrition presents its challenges due to its effect on glycaemic control and lipid profile. Aim: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of diabetes-specific enteral nutrition formula versus SF in managing cardiometabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: This review was conducted in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Three databases (Pubmed, EMBASE, PSYCInfo) and Google scholar were searched for relevant articles from inception to 2 January 2019 based on Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes and Study designs (PICOS) framework. Key words, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms, and Boolean operators (AND/OR) formed part of the search strategy. Articles were evaluated for quality and risks of bias. Results: Fourteen articles were included in the systematic review and five articles were selected for the meta-analysis. Based on the findings of the review and meta-analysis, two distinct areas were evident: the effect of DSF on blood glucose parameters and the effect of DSF on lipid profile. All fourteen studies included in the systematic review showed that DSF was effective in lowering blood glucose parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with SF. The results of the meta-analysis confirmed the findings of the systematic review with respect to the fasting blood glucose, which was significantly lower (p = 0.01) in the DSF group compared to SF, with a mean difference of −1.15 (95% CI −2.07, −0.23) and glycated haemoglobin, which was significantly lower (p = 0.005) in the DSF group compared to the SF group following meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis. However, in relation to the sensitivity analysis for the fasting blood glucose, differences were not significant between the two groups when some of the studies were removed. Based on the systematic review, the outcomes of the studies selected to evaluate the effect of DSF on lipid profile were variable. Following the meta-analysis, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the DSF and SF groups with respect to total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. The level of the HDL cholesterol was significantly higher (p = 0.04) in the DSF group compared to the SF group after the intervention, with a mean difference of 0.09 (95% CI, 0.00, 0.18), although this was not consistent based on the sensitivity analysis. The presence of low glycaemic index (GI) carbohydrate, the lower amount of carbohydrate and the higher protein, the presence of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and the different amounts and types of fibre in the DSF compared with SF may be responsible for the observed differences in cardiometabolic parameters in both groups. Conclusion: The results provide evidence to suggest that DSF is effective in controlling fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin and in increasing HDL cholesterol, but has no significant effect on other lipid parameters. However, our confidence in these findings would be increased by additional data from further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview
The Effects of a Low GI Diet on Cardiometabolic and Inflammatory Parameters in Patients with Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071584 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, and its effect on patients and the healthcare system can be significant. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes are well established risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and strategies for managing these conditions include dietary [...] Read more.
The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, and its effect on patients and the healthcare system can be significant. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes are well established risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and strategies for managing these conditions include dietary interventions, such as the use of a low glycemic index (GI) diet. Aims: This review aimed to evaluate the effects of a low GI diet on the cardio-metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes and women with GDM and assess whether the effects are different in these conditions. Methods: This review was based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Three databases (EMBASE, Pubmed, and PsycINFO) were searched from inception to 20 February 2019 using search terms that included synonyms and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in line with the population, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and studies (PICOS) framework. Studies were evaluated for the quality and risk of bias. Results: 10 randomised controlled studies were included in the systematic review, while 9 were selected for the meta-analysis. Two distinct areas were identified: the effect of a low GI diet on lipid profile and the effect of a low GI diet on inflammatory parameters. The results of the meta-analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the low GI and higher GI diets with respect to total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, there was a significant difference (p = 0.027) with respect to triglyceride which increased by a mean of 0.06 mmol/L (0.01, 0.11) in patients with type 2 diabetes on higher GI diet. With respect to the women with GDM, the findings from the systematic review were not consistent in terms of the effect of a low GI diet on the lipid profile. The results of the meta-analysis did not show significant differences (p > 0.05) between low GI and higher GI diets with respect to adiponectin and C-reactive proteins in patients with type 2 diabetes, but a significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the two groups in relation to interleukin–6. Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis have demonstrated that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the low GI and higher GI diets in relation to total cholesterol—HDL and LDL cholesterol—in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the two groups with respect to triglyceride in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of the effect of a low GI diet on the lipid profile in patients with GDM were not consistent. With respect to the inflammatory parameters, the low GI diet significantly decreased interleukin–6 in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to the higher GI diet. More studies are needed in this area of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051067 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The impact of dietary fat on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied in recent decades. Solid evidence indicates that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreases blood cholesterol levels and prevents CVD and CVD mortality. [...] Read more.
The impact of dietary fat on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied in recent decades. Solid evidence indicates that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreases blood cholesterol levels and prevents CVD and CVD mortality. Studies indicate that fat quality also may affect insulin sensitivity and hence, the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A high intake of SFAs has shown to increase the risk of T2D in prospective studies, while a high intake of PUFAs reduces the risk. Whether PUFAs from marine or vegetable sources affect glycemic regulation differently in T2D remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present review was therefore to summarize research on human randomized, controlled intervention studies investigating the effect of dietary PUFAs on glycemic regulation in T2D. About half of the studies investigating the effect of fish, fish oils, vegetable oils, or nuts found changes related to glycemic control in people with T2D, while the other half found no effects. Even though some of the studies used SFA as controls, the majority of the included studies compared PUFAs of different quality. Considering that both marine and vegetable oils are high in PUFAs and hence both oils may affect glycemic regulation, the lack of effect in several of the included studies may be explained by the use of an inappropriate control group. It is therefore not possible to draw a firm conclusion, and more studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview
Zinc Intake and Status and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051027 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Zinc could have a protective role against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between dietary, supplementary, and total zinc intake, as well as serum/plasma and whole blood zinc concentration, and risk of T2DM. Observational [...] Read more.
Zinc could have a protective role against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between dietary, supplementary, and total zinc intake, as well as serum/plasma and whole blood zinc concentration, and risk of T2DM. Observational studies, conducted on cases of incident diabetes or T2DM patients and healthy subjects that reported a measure of association between zinc exposure and T2DM, were selected. Random effects meta-analyses were applied to obtain combined results. Stratified meta-analyses and meta-regressions were executed to assess sources of heterogeneity, as well as the impact of covariates on the findings. From 12,136 publications, 16 studies were selected. The odds ratio (OR) for T2DM comparing the highest versus lowest zinc intake from diet was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78–0.98). Nevertheless, no association between supplementary or total zinc intake from both diet and supplementation, and T2DM was observed. A direct relationship was found between serum/plasma zinc levels and T2DM (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.25–2.14). A moderately high dietary zinc intake, in relation to the Dietary Reference Intake, could reduce by 13% the risk of T2DM, and up to 41% in rural areas. Conversely, elevated serum/plasma zinc concentration was associated with an increased risk of T2DM by 64%, suggesting disturbances in zinc homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview
Reversing Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of the Evidence
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040766 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has long been identified as an incurable chronic disease based on traditional means of treatment. Research now exists that suggests reversal is possible through other means that have only recently been embraced in the guidelines. This narrative review [...] Read more.
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has long been identified as an incurable chronic disease based on traditional means of treatment. Research now exists that suggests reversal is possible through other means that have only recently been embraced in the guidelines. This narrative review examines the evidence for T2D reversal using each of the three methods, including advantages and limitations for each. Methods: A literature search was performed, and a total of 99 original articles containing information pertaining to diabetes reversal or remission were included. Results: Evidence exists that T2D reversal is achievable using bariatric surgery, low-calorie diets (LCD), or carbohydrate restriction (LC). Bariatric surgery has been recommended for the treatment of T2D since 2016 by an international diabetes consensus group. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) now recommend a LC eating pattern and support the short-term use of LCD for weight loss. However, only T2D treatment, not reversal, is discussed in their guidelines. Conclusion: Given the state of evidence for T2D reversal, healthcare providers need to be educated on reversal options so they can actively engage in counseling patients who may desire this approach to their disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview
Insulin in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes—Should the Dose of Insulin Before a Meal be Based on Glycemia or Meal Content?
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030607 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this review was to investigate existing guidelines and scientific evidence on determining insulin dosage in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and in particular to check whether the prandial insulin dose should be calculated based on glycemia or [...] Read more.
The aim of this review was to investigate existing guidelines and scientific evidence on determining insulin dosage in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and in particular to check whether the prandial insulin dose should be calculated based on glycemia or the meal composition, including the carbohydrates, protein and fat content in a meal. By exploring the effect of the meal composition on postprandial glycemia we demonstrated that several factors may influence the increase in glycemia after the meal, which creates significant practical difficulties in determining the appropriate prandial insulin dose. Then we reviewed effects of the existing insulin therapy regimens on glycemic control. We demonstrated that in most existing algorithms aimed at calculating prandial insulin doses in type 1 diabetes only carbohydrates are counted, whereas in type 2 diabetes the meal content is often not taken into consideration. We conclude that prandial insulin doses in treatment of people with diabetes should take into account the pre-meal glycemia as well as the size and composition of meals. However, there are still open questions regarding the optimal way to adjust a prandial insulin dose to a meal and the possible benefits for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes if particular parameters of the meal are taken into account while calculating the prandial insulin dose. The answers to these questions may vary depending on the type of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)

Other

Open AccessFeature PaperProtocol
How Does Diet Change with A Diagnosis of Diabetes? Protocol of the 3D Longitudinal Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010158 - 12 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Diet quality influences glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D), impacting their risk of complications. While there are many cross-sectional studies of diet and diabetes, there is little understanding of the extent to which people with T2D change their diet after [...] Read more.
Diet quality influences glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D), impacting their risk of complications. While there are many cross-sectional studies of diet and diabetes, there is little understanding of the extent to which people with T2D change their diet after diagnosis and of the factors that impact those changes. This paper describes the rationale for and design of the 3D longitudinal Study which aims to: (i) describe diet quality changes in the 12 months following T2D diagnosis, (ii) identify the demographic, physical and psychosocial predictors of sustained improvements in diet quality and glycemic control, and (iii) identify associations between glycemic control and diet quality in the 12 months following diagnosis. This cohort study will recruit adults registered with the Australian National Diabetes Services Scheme who have been recently diagnosed with T2D. Participants will be involved in five purposefully developed telephone surveys, conducted at 3 monthly intervals over a 12-month period. Diet quality will be determined using a 24-h dietary recall at each data collection point and the data will be scored using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet-quality tool. This study is the first dedicated to observing how people newly diagnosed with T2D change their diet quality over time and the predictors of sustained improvements in diet and glycemic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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