Special Issue "Nutrition and Metabolic (Non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jed Friedman
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Associate Vice-Provost for Diabetes Programs and Director, Harold Hamm Diabetes Center |Chickasaw Nation Endowed Chair | Professor of Physiology |Biochemistry & Molecular Biology | Professor of Pediatrics & Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism|The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73103, USA
Interests: 1. Developmental programming of diabetes and obesity from mother to infant in Human and Non-Human Primates.
2. The Microbiome role in Innate Immunity and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
3. Metabolic/genomic determinants of Umbilical-cord derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell fate in Infants of Obese Mothers. 4. Nutritional intervention and epigenetic signatures in mothers and their infants in the developing world.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

NAFLD is becoming an epidemic both in absolute and relative terms due to increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and the successful treatment of virus-induced liver diseases. As currently no drugs are approved for NAFLD, lifestyle modification with the main focus on diet remains key for its treatment. The overarching aim would be to illustrate the role of nutrients for NAFLD to allow for a conclusion on the optimized prevention and treatment by nutrients, and also to identify the obvious gap of knowledge as of today. Thus, the target readership is broad, from translational researchers, nutrition/obesity specialists, endocrinologists/diabetologists to hepatologists.

Such a comprehensive analysis of the role of nutrients for NAFLD requires discussion of the following:

  1. The epidemiological link between nutrients and NAFLD (systematic review)
  2. Description of the impact on liver metabolism and damage using different model organisms
  3. The role of macronutrients in the development and progression of NAFLD (fat, protein, carbohydrates)
  4. The specific relevance of fructose for fatty liver disease
  5. Micronutrients
  6. Macrobiota
  7. Clinical trials comparing low caloric vs specific nutrient-modified diets regarding liver-specific endpoints

Finally, one may also wish to compare the role of alcohol intake vs. overnutrition.

Prof. Dr. Jed Friedman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • NAFLD
  • endocrinology
  • energy metabolism
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • nutrients
  • diet

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Amomum xanthioides Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082433 - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
The global prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be 25% and has continued to increase; however, no drugs have yet been approved for NAFLD treatments. The ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides (EFAX) was previously reported to have an [...] Read more.
The global prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be 25% and has continued to increase; however, no drugs have yet been approved for NAFLD treatments. The ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides (EFAX) was previously reported to have an anti-hepatic fibrosis effect, but its effects on steatosis or steatohepatitis remain unclear. This study investigated the anti-fatty liver of EFAX using a high-fat diet mouse model. High-fat diet intake for 8 weeks induced hepatic steatosis with mild inflammation and oxidative damage and increased the adipose tissue weight along with the development of dyslipidemia. EFAX treatment significantly ameliorated the steatohepatic changes, the increased weight of adipose tissues, and the altered serum lipid profiles. These observed effects were possibly due to the lipolysis-dominant activity of EFAX on multiple hepatic proteins including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (mSREBP)-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, AMP-activated protein kinase, and diglyceride acyltransferases (DGATs). Taken together, these results show that EFAX might be a potential therapeutic agent for regulating a wide spectrum of NAFLDs from steatosis to fibrosis via multiple actions on lipid metabolism-related proteins. Further studies investigating clear mechanisms and their active compounds are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic (Non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD))
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Three Mediterranean Diets on Remnant Cholesterol and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Secondary Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061674 - 04 Jun 2020
Abstract
Background: Elevated fasting remnant cholesterol (REM-C) levels have been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with metabolic syndrome (Mets) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). We aimed to estimate the effect of different diets on REM-C levels in patients with MetS, [...] Read more.
Background: Elevated fasting remnant cholesterol (REM-C) levels have been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with metabolic syndrome (Mets) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). We aimed to estimate the effect of different diets on REM-C levels in patients with MetS, as well as the association between NAFLD and REM-C. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the MEDIDIET study, a parallel-arm Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). We examined 237 people with MetS who underwent Liver Ultrasound (LUS) to assess the NAFLD score at baseline, 3-, and 6-months follow-up. Subjects were randomly assigned to the Mediterranean diet (MD), Low Glycemic Index diet (LGID), or Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean diet (LGIMD). REM-C was calculated as [total cholesterol–low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)–high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)]. Results: REM-C levels were higher in subjects with moderate or severe NAFLD than in mild or absent ones. All diets had a direct effect in lowering the levels of REM-C after 3 and 6 months of intervention. In adherents subjects, this effect was stronger among LGIMD as compared to the control group. There was also a significant increase in REM-C levels among Severe NAFLD subjects at 3 months and a decrease at 6 months. Conclusions: fasting REM-C level is independently associated with the grade of severity of NAFLD. LGIMD adherence directly reduced the fasting REM-C in patients with MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic (Non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD))
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Open AccessArticle
Citrus Peel Extract Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD via Activation of AMPK Signaling
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030673 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in the elderly population, and has symptoms ranging from liver steatosis to advanced fibrosis. Citrus peel extracts (CPEs) contain compounds that potentially improve dyslipidemia; however, the mechanism of action and effects on hepatic steatosis regulation remains [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in the elderly population, and has symptoms ranging from liver steatosis to advanced fibrosis. Citrus peel extracts (CPEs) contain compounds that potentially improve dyslipidemia; however, the mechanism of action and effects on hepatic steatosis regulation remains unclear. Current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of CPEs extracted through hot-air drying (CPEW) and freeze-drying (CPEF) and the underlying mechanism in a rat model of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD. The high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats showed significant increase in total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lipid peroxidation compared to the normal chow-diet (NCD) group rats; but CPEW and CPEF limited this effect. CPEW and CPEF supplementation reduced both hepatocyte steatosis and fat accumulation involving the regulatory effect of mTORC1. Collectively, CPEW and CPEF protected deterioration of liver steatosis with AMPK activation and regulating ROS accumulation associated with interstitial disorders, which are also associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) redox. Thus, the application of CPEW and CPEF may lead to the development of novel therapeutic or preventive agents against NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic (Non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD))
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Nutritional Origins and Potential Molecular Mechanisms
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103166 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the number one chronic liver disease worldwide and is estimated to affect nearly 40% of obese youth and up to 10% of the general pediatric population without any obvious signs or symptoms. Although the early stages of [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the number one chronic liver disease worldwide and is estimated to affect nearly 40% of obese youth and up to 10% of the general pediatric population without any obvious signs or symptoms. Although the early stages of NAFLD are reversible with diet and lifestyle modifications, detecting such stages is hindered by a lack of non-invasive methods of risk assessment and diagnosis. This absence of non-invasive means of diagnosis is directly related to the scarcity of long-term prospective studies of pediatric NAFLD in children and adolescents. In the majority of pediatric NAFLD cases, the mechanisms driving the origin and rapid progression of NAFLD remain unknown. The progression from NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in youth is associated with unique histological features and possible immune processes and metabolic pathways that may reflect different mechanisms compared with adults. Recent data suggest that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are important new biomarkers underlying pathways of liver injury. Several factors may contribute to pediatric NAFLD development, including high-sugar diets, in utero exposures via epigenetic alterations, changes in the neonatal microbiome, and altered immune system development and mitochondrial function. This review focuses on the unique aspects of pediatric NAFLD and how nutritional exposures impact the immune system, mitochondria, and liver/gastrointestinal metabolic health. These factors highlight the need for answers to how NAFLD develops in children and for early stage-specific interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic (Non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD))
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Open AccessReview
Impact of the Co-Administration of N-3 Fatty Acids and Olive Oil Components in Preclinical Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Models: A Mechanistic View
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020499 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 13
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in approximately 25% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, which can progress to steatohepatitis with different degrees of fibrosis, stages that lack approved pharmacological therapies and represent [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in approximately 25% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, which can progress to steatohepatitis with different degrees of fibrosis, stages that lack approved pharmacological therapies and represent an indication for liver transplantation with consistently increasing frequency. In view that hepatic steatosis is a reversible condition, effective strategies preventing disease progression were addressed using combinations of natural products in the preclinical high-fat diet (HFD) protocol (60% of fat for 12 weeks). Among them, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:5n-3, DHA), DHA and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), or EPA plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) attained 66% to 83% diminution in HFD-induced steatosis, with the concomitant inhibition of the proinflammatory state associated with steatosis. These supplementations trigger different molecular mechanisms that modify antioxidant, antisteatotic, and anti-inflammatory responses, and in the case of DHA and HT co-administration, prevent NAFLD. It is concluded that future studies in NAFLD patients using combined supplementations such as DHA plus HT are warranted to prevent liver steatosis, thus avoiding its progression into more unmanageable stages of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic (Non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD))
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