E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Daniel Moore

Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education, University of Toronto, 100 Devonshire Place, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2C9
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary protein and amino acids are indispensable for the post-exercise recovery process, through their ability to help repair and remodel a variety of body proteins, including skeletal muscle. Evidence is also emerging that protein and amino acids may help with fluid homeostasis and glycogen resynthesis, thus serving as a potential linchpin for the three “R’s” of recovery: Repair, rehydrate, and refuel. The articles in this Special Issue will highlight the role dietary protein and amino acids play in enhancing the recovery from and adaptation to exercise in active and athletic populations.

Daniel Moore, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor

Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education
University of Toronto
100 Devonshire Place
Toronto, ON, Canada
M5S 2C9

Dr. Daniel Moore
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • protein
  • amino acids
  • muscle
  • rehydration
  • glycogen synthesis
  • recovery
  • performance
  • body composition
  • exercise

Published Papers (16 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Glucose with Casein Peptide Supplementation on Post-Exercise Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis in C57BL/6J Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060753
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous studies have reported that post-exercise ingestion of carbohydrates with protein supplementation can enhance glycogen recovery. However, few reports have focused on the degrees of degradation of the ingested proteins due to post-exercise glycogen resynthesis. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have reported that post-exercise ingestion of carbohydrates with protein supplementation can enhance glycogen recovery. However, few reports have focused on the degrees of degradation of the ingested proteins due to post-exercise glycogen resynthesis. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to clarify the effects of differences in protein degradation on muscle glycogen recovery. Male seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice performed a single bout of 60-min treadmill running exercise and were then orally administered glucose (Glu; 1.5 mg/g body weight (BW)), glucose with casein peptide (Glu + Pep; 1.5 + 0.5 mg/g BW) or its constituent amino acid mixture (Glu + AA; 1.5 + 0.5 mg/g BW). At 120 min after supplementation, the soleus muscle glycogen content in the Glu and Glu + AA groups was significantly higher than that immediately after exercise; however, no such difference was observed in the Glu + Pep group. Blood substrate concentration and insulin signaling did not differ among the three groups. Furthermore, energy expenditure during the recovery period in the Glu + Pep group was significantly higher than that in the Glu and Glu + AA groups. These findings suggest that post-exercise co-ingestion of glucose and casein peptide might delay glycogen resynthesis, at least in part through increased energy expenditure caused by casein peptide ingestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Post-Game High Protein Intake May Improve Recovery of Football-Specific Performance during a Congested Game Fixture: Results from the PRO-FOOTBALL Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040494
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of protein supplementation on performance recovery and inflammatory responses during a simulated one-week in-season microcycle with two games (G1, G2) performed three days apart were examined. Twenty football players participated in two trials, receiving either milk protein concentrate (1.15 and 0.26 [...] Read more.
The effects of protein supplementation on performance recovery and inflammatory responses during a simulated one-week in-season microcycle with two games (G1, G2) performed three days apart were examined. Twenty football players participated in two trials, receiving either milk protein concentrate (1.15 and 0.26 g/kg on game and training days, respectively) (PRO) or an energy-matched placebo (1.37 and 0.31 g/kg of carbohydrate on game and training days, respectively) (PLA) according to a randomized, repeated-measures, crossover, double-blind design. Each trial included two games and four daily practices. Speed, jump height, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee flexors (KF) and extensors (KE) were measured before G1 and daily thereafter for six days. Blood was drawn before G1 and daily thereafter. Football-specific locomotor activity and heart rate were monitored using GPS technology during games and practices. The two games resulted in reduced speed (by 3–17%), strength of knee flexors (by 12–23%), and jumping performance (by 3–10%) throughout recovery, in both trials. Average heart rate and total distance covered during games remained unchanged in PRO but not in PLA. Moreover, PRO resulted in a change of smaller magnitude in high-intensity running at the end of G2 (75–90 min vs. 0–15 min) compared to PLA (P = 0.012). KE concentric strength demonstrated a more prolonged decline in PLA (days 1 and 2 after G1, P = 0.014–0.018; days 1, 2 and 3 after G2, P = 0.016–0.037) compared to PRO (days 1 after G1, P = 0.013; days 1 and 2 after G2, P = 0.014–0.033) following both games. KF eccentric strength decreased throughout recovery after G1 (PLA: P=0.001–0.047—PRO: P =0.004–0.22) in both trials, whereas after G2 it declined throughout recovery in PLA (P = 0.000–0.013) but only during the first two days (P = 0.000–0.014) in PRO. No treatment effect was observed for delayed onset of muscle soreness, leukocyte counts, and creatine kinase activity. PRO resulted in a faster recovery of protein and lipid peroxidation markers after both games. Reduced glutathione demonstrated a more short-lived reduction after G2 in PRO compared to PLA. In summary, these results provide evidence that protein feeding may more efficiently restore football-specific performance and strength and provide antioxidant protection during a congested game fixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Insect Protein Supplementation during Resistance Training on Changes in Muscle Mass and Strength in Young Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030335
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein [...] Read more.
During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein as a dietary supplement to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during prolonged resistance training in young men. Eighteen healthy young men performed resistance training four day/week for eight weeks. Subjects were block randomized into two groups consuming either an insect protein isolate or isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation within 1 h after training and pre-sleep on training days. Strength and body composition were measured before and after intervention to detect adaptions to the resistance training. Three-day weighed dietary records were completed before and during intervention. Fat- and bone- free mass (FBFM) improved significantly in both groups (Mean (95% confidence interval (CI))), control group (Con): (2.5 kg (1.5, 3.5) p < 0.01), protein group (Pro): (2.7 kg (1.6, 3.8) p < 0.01) from pre- to post-. Leg and bench press one repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by Con: (42.0 kg (32.0, 52.0) p < 0.01) and (13.8 kg (10.3, 17.2) p < 0.01), Pro: (36.6 kg (27.3, 45.8) p < 0.01) and (8.1 kg (4.5, 11.8) p < 0.01), respectively. No significant differences in body composition and muscle strength improvements were found between groups. In young healthy men, insect protein supplementation did not improve adaptations to eight weeks of resistance training in comparison to carbohydrate supplementation. A high habitual protein intake in both Con and Pro may partly explain our observation of no superior effect of insect protein supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Protein Supplementation During or Following a Marathon Run Influences Post-Exercise Recovery
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030333
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of protein supplementation on the ratings of energy/fatigue, muscle soreness [ascending (A) and descending (D) stairs], and serum creatine kinase levels following a marathon run were examined. Variables were compared between recreational male and female runners ingesting carbohydrate + protein (CP) [...] Read more.
The effects of protein supplementation on the ratings of energy/fatigue, muscle soreness [ascending (A) and descending (D) stairs], and serum creatine kinase levels following a marathon run were examined. Variables were compared between recreational male and female runners ingesting carbohydrate + protein (CP) during the run (CPDuring, n = 8) versus those that were consuming carbohydrate (CHODuring, n = 8). In a second study, outcomes were compared between subjects who consumed CP or CHO immediately following exercise [CPPost (n = 4) versus CHOPost (n = 4)]. Magnitude-based inferences revealed no meaningful differences between treatments 24 h post-marathon. At 72 h, recovery [Δ(72 hr-Pre)] was likely improved with CPDuring versus CHODuring, respectively, for Physical Energy (+14 ± 64 vs −74 ± 70 mm), Mental Fatigue (−52 ± 59 vs +1 ± 11 mm), and Soreness-D (+15 ± 9 vs +21 ± 70 mm). In addition, recovery at 72 h was likely-very likely improved with CPPost versus CHOPost for Physical Fatigue, Mental Energy, and Soreness-A. Thus, protein supplementation did not meaningfully alter recovery during the initial 24 h following a marathon. However, ratings of energy/fatigue and muscle soreness were improved over 72 h when CP was consumed during exercise, or immediately following the marathon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Restoration of Muscle Glycogen and Functional Capacity: Role of Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and Protein Co-Ingestion
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020253
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor [...] Read more.
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3–6 h) recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required. Current nutritional guidelines to maximise muscle glycogen availability within limited recovery are provided under the assumption that similar fatigue mechanisms (i.e., muscle glycogen depletion) are involved during a repeated exercise bout. Indeed, recent data support the notion that muscle glycogen availability is a determinant of subsequent endurance capacity following limited recovery. Thus, carbohydrate ingestion can be utilised to influence the restoration of endurance capacity following exhaustive exercise. One strategy with the potential to accelerate muscle glycogen resynthesis and/or functional capacity beyond merely ingesting adequate carbohydrate is the co-ingestion of added protein. While numerous studies have been instigated, a consensus that is related to the influence of carbohydrate-protein ingestion in maximising muscle glycogen during short-term recovery and repeated exercise capacity has not been established. When considered collectively, carbohydrate intake during limited recovery appears to primarily determine muscle glycogen resynthesis and repeated exercise capacity. Thus, when the goal is to optimise repeated exercise capacity following short-term recovery, ingesting carbohydrate at an amount of ≥1.2 g kg body mass−1·h−1 can maximise muscle glycogen repletion. The addition of protein to carbohydrate during post-exercise recovery may be beneficial under circumstances when carbohydrate ingestion is sub-optimal (≤0.8 g kg body mass−1·h−1) for effective restoration of muscle glycogen and repeated exercise capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Characterisation of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1) Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle by Immunofluorescent Microscopy
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010023
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1); however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human [...] Read more.
The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1); however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT) and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO) mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle. In human skeletal muscle, positive LAT1 staining was noted close to the sarcolemmal membrane (dystrophin positive staining), with a greater staining intensity for LAT1 observed in the sarcoplasmic regions of type II fibres (those not stained positively for myosin heavy-chain 1, Type II—25.07 ± 5.93, Type I—13.71 ± 1.98, p < 0.01), suggesting a greater abundance of this protein in these fibres. Finally, we observed association with LAT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), suggesting LAT1 association close to the microvasculature. This is the first study to visualise the distribution and localisation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle. As such, this approach provides a validated experimental platform to study the role and regulation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle in response to various physiological and pathophysiological models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Muscle Glycogen Content in Rats Seven Days after Eccentric Contraction
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101159
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains [...] Read more.
Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains unclear. We evaluated the content in glycogen and high energy phosphates molecules (phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) and ATP) in rats that were following electrically stimulated eccentric contractions. Muscle glycogen content decreased immediately after the contraction and remained low for the first three days after the stimulation, but increased seven days after the eccentric contraction. LEAAs administration did not change muscle glycogen content during the first three days after the contraction. Interestingly, however, it induced a further increase in muscle glycogen seven days after the stimulation. Contrarily, ATP content decreased immediately after the eccentric contraction, and remained lower for up to seven days after. Additionally, LEAAs administration did not affect the ATP content over the experimental period. Finally, ADP and PCr levels did not significantly change after the contractions or LEAA administration. LEAAs modulate the recovery of glycogen content in muscle after damage-inducing exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Citrulline Malate Does Not Improve Muscle Recovery after Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Adult Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101132
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men [...] Read more.
The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men (24.0 ± 3.3 years) participated in a double-blind crossover study in which they received 6 g of CM and placebo (PL) on two occasions, separated by a seven-day washout period. Each occasion consisted of a single session of high-intensity RE (0 h) and three subsequent fatigue tests sessions (at 24, 48, and 72 h) to assess the time course of muscle recovery. During the tests sessions, we assessed the following variables: number of maximum repetitions, electromyographic signal (i.e., root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF)), muscle soreness and perceived exertion, as well as blood levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate, insulin, and testosterone:cortisol ratio. CK levels increased at 24 h post-exercise and remained elevate at 48 and 72 h, with no difference between CM and PL conditions. Muscle soreness increased at 24 h post-exercise, which progressively returned to baseline at 72 h in both conditions. Lactate levels increased immediately post-exercise and remained elevated at 24, 48, and 72 h in both conditions. No significant treatment × time interaction was found for all dependents variables (maximum repetitions, perceived exertion, CK, lactate, RMS, MF, and testosterone:cortisol ratio) during the recovery period. In conclusion, our data indicate that CM supplementation (single 6 g dose pre-workout) does not improve the muscle recovery process following a high-intensity RE session in untrained young adult men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101071
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis [...] Read more.
Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS), we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR), plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090972
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU) or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving) on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the [...] Read more.
We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU) or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving) on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE); age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg) were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 15), LEU (n = 14), whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 17), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, n = 14), or soy protein concentrate (SPC, n = 15) group. Participants performed whole-body resistance training three days per week for 12 weeks while consuming supplements twice daily. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (SQ) fat biopsies were obtained at baseline (T1) and ~72 h following the last day of training (T39). Tissue samples were analyzed for changes in type I and II fiber cross sectional area (CSA), non-fiber specific satellite cell count, and SQ adipocyte CSA. On average, all supplement groups including PLA exhibited similar training volumes and experienced statistically similar increases in total body skeletal muscle mass determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (+2.2 kg; time p = 0.024) and type I and II fiber CSA increases (+394 μm2 and +927 μm2; time p < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). Notably, all groups reported increasing Calorie intakes ~600–800 kcal/day from T1 to T39 (time p < 0.001), and all groups consumed at least 1.1 g/kg/day of protein at T1 and 1.3 g/kg/day at T39. There was a training, but no supplementation, effect regarding the reduction in SQ adipocyte CSA (−210 μm2; time p = 0.001). Interestingly, satellite cell counts within the WPC (p < 0.05) and WPH (p < 0.05) groups were greater at T39 relative to T1. In summary, LEU or protein supplementation (standardized to LEU content) does not provide added benefit in increasing whole-body skeletal muscle mass or strength above PLA following 3 months of training in previously untrained college-aged males that increase Calorie intakes with resistance training and consume above the recommended daily intake of protein throughout training. However, whey protein supplementation increases skeletal muscle satellite cell number in this population, and this phenomena may promote more favorable training adaptations over more prolonged periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070735
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance [...] Read more.
No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036) but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP), maximal strength (MVC), peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ) at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre). At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56), mean power (ES = 0.49), and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49) in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030349
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen [...] Read more.
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l-carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. Studies in older adults further showed that l-carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. Based on current animal studies, a role of l-carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Achieving Optimal Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Remodeling in Physically Active Adults through Whole Food Consumption
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020224
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary protein ingestion is critical to maintaining the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle mass throughout adult life. The performance of acute exercise enhances muscle protein remodeling by stimulating protein synthesis rates for several hours after each bout, which can be optimized by [...] Read more.
Dietary protein ingestion is critical to maintaining the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle mass throughout adult life. The performance of acute exercise enhances muscle protein remodeling by stimulating protein synthesis rates for several hours after each bout, which can be optimized by consuming protein during the post-exercise recovery period. To date, the majority of the evidence regarding protein intake to optimize post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates is limited to isolated protein sources. However, it is more common to ingest whole food sources of protein within a normal eating pattern. Emerging evidence demonstrates a promising role for the ingestion of whole foods as an effective nutritional strategy to support muscle protein remodeling and recovery after exercise. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of the ingestion of nutrient-rich and protein-dense whole foods to support post-exercise muscle protein remodeling and recovery with pertinence towards physically active people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Open AccessReview
The Effect of Whey Protein Supplementation on the Temporal Recovery of Muscle Function Following Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020221
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whey protein (WP) is a widely consumed nutritional supplement, known to enhance strength and muscle mass during resistance training (RT) regimens. Muscle protein anabolism is acutely elevated following RT, which is further enhanced by WP. As a result, there is reason to suggest [...] Read more.
Whey protein (WP) is a widely consumed nutritional supplement, known to enhance strength and muscle mass during resistance training (RT) regimens. Muscle protein anabolism is acutely elevated following RT, which is further enhanced by WP. As a result, there is reason to suggest that WP supplementation may be an effective nutritional strategy for restoring the acute loss of contractile function that occurs following strenuous RT. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a synthesis of the literature to date, investigating the effect of WP supplementation on the recovery of contractile function in young, healthy adults. Eight studies, containing 13 randomised control trials (RCTs) were included in this review and meta-analysis, from which individual standardised effect sizes (ESs) were calculated, and a temporal overall ES was determined using a random-effects model. Whilst only half of the individual studies reported beneficial effects for WP, the high-quality evidence taken from the 13 RCTs was meta-analysed, yielding overall positive small to medium effects for WP from < 24 to 96 h (ES range = 0.4 to 0.7), for the temporal restoration of contractile function compared to the control treatment. Whilst the effects for WP were shown to be consistent over time, these results are limited to 13 RCTs, principally supporting the requirement for further comprehensive research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Potential Role of Amino Acid/Protein Nutrition and Exercise in Serum Albumin Redox State
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010017
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin [...] Read more.
Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin has three isoforms based on the redox states of the free cysteine residue at position 34. The redox state of serum albumin has long been extensively investigated in terms of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases, with the redox state of serum albumin having been regarded as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. However, according to recent animal studies, the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by albumin turnover and may also reflect amino acid/protein nutritional status. Furthermore, as the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by exercise training, measuring the pre- and post-exercise redox states of serum albumin in athletes may be useful in assessing amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise-induced oxidative stress, which are closely associated with skeletal muscle adaptive responses. This article extensively reviews serum albumin and the redox state of albumin in the context of amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Is Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation an Efficient Nutritional Strategy to Alleviate Skeletal Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101047
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have [...] Read more.
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury. The potential benefit of a BCAAs supplementation was also analyzed according to the supplementation strategy—amount of BCAAs, frequency and duration of the supplementation—and the extent of muscle damage. The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42017073006) and followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Literature search was performed from the date of commencement until August 2017 using four online databases (Medline, Cochrane library, Web of science and ScienceDirect). Original research articles: (i) written in English; (ii) describing experiments performed in Humans who received at least one oral BCAAs supplementation composed of leucine, isoleucine and valine mixture only as a nutritional strategy and (iii) reporting a follow-up of at least one day after exercise-induced muscle damage, were included in the systematic review analysis. Quality assessment was undertaken independently using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were considered as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures were the extent of change in indirect markers of muscle damage. In total, 11 studies were included in the analysis. A high heterogeneity was found regarding the different outcomes of these studies. The risk of bias was moderate considering the quality ratings were positive for six and neutral for three. Although a small number of studies were included, BCAAs supplementation can be efficacious on outcomes of exercise-induced muscle damage, as long as the extent of muscle damage was low-to-moderate, the supplementation strategy combined a high daily BCAAs intake (>200 mg kg−1 day−1) for a long period of time (>10 days); it was especially effective if taken prior to the damaging exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top