Special Issue "Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tanja C. Adam
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Interests: Obesity, food intake regulation, gut brain axis, lifestyle intervention, psychobiology, stress
Prof. Dr. Ronald P. Mensink
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands
Interests: lipids; bioactive nutrients; cardiometabolic health; metabolic syndrome; dietary intervention studies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The spectrum of diet related diseases is broad and includes all ages. Eating disorders and other diet related diseases including obesity are often considered separately due to the classification of eating disorders as a mental disorder. However, regardless of their origin and their classification, they all have substantial impact on metabolic health. While all diet related diseases are associated with aspects of psychological health, it is the purpose of this special issue to emphasize the impact on human metabolic health. This includes, but is not limited to, endocrinological aspects, inflammatory pathways, hunger and satiety regulation, aspects of energy expenditure but also eating disorder related interventions and their ramifications for metabolic health.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tanja C. Adam
Prof. Dr. Ronald P. Mensink
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Eating disorders
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic health
  • Nutrition
  • Nutrition intervention
  • Food intake regulation
  • Endocrinological pathways
  • Inflammation
  • Behavior

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Study on the Influence of Psychopathological Risk and Impulsivity on BMI and Perceived Quality of Life in Obese Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050431 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the psychological profiles of adult male and female obese patients, as well as to verify the possible influence of their psychopathological risk and impulsivity on their body mass index (BMI) and perceived quality of life. A total [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess the psychological profiles of adult male and female obese patients, as well as to verify the possible influence of their psychopathological risk and impulsivity on their body mass index (BMI) and perceived quality of life. A total of 64 obese subjects accessing a center for care of their obesity were assessed through anthropometric and psychometric measurements. All anthropometric measures in men were higher than in women, while in turn, women showed higher psychopathological symptoms. Furthermore, the symptoms of somatization and psychoticism were predictors for a higher BMI in men, but there was no effect of psychopathological symptoms on the perceived quality of life (QoL) of male subjects. Moreover, in women, somatization and attentional impulsivity were predictors for a higher BMI, whereas no correlation was found between their psychopathological risk and perceived QoL. The results of regression analysis underlined that somatization is a “core” psychopathological symptom in obese subjects regardless of their sex, which is a potential predictor for a higher BMI. The psychological difficulties of the subjects had no effect on their perceived QoL, suggesting that they find it difficult to reflect on the impact that obesity has on their life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030305 - 19 Mar 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Micronutrient Status in 153 Patients with Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030225 - 02 Mar 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters [...] Read more.
Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and body composition data were collected at referral in 153 patients with AN (28.5 ± 11 years). At least one trace element deficit was observed in almost half of patients; the most frequent was selenium deficit (40% of patients). At least one vitamin deficit was observed in 45.7% of patients, mostly vitamin A and B9. Albumin, transthyretin and CRP were within normal range in most patients. No correlations were found between body composition and micronutrient status. Our study suggests that micronutrient status is often altered in AN patients, which may contribute to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Monitoring of micronutrients and correction of deficits should be included in the routine care of AN patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Disability, Physical Inactivity, and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life Are Not Different in Metabolically Healthy vs. Unhealthy Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120759 - 25 Nov 2016
Cited by 14
Abstract
Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obese subjects with regard to physical [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Methods: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire), disability (TSD-OC test), and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire). MHO and MUO were defined based on the absence or the presence of the metabolic syndrome, respectively. Results: 253 subjects were included (54 men and 199 women; age: 51.7 ± 12.8 vs. 50.3 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 38.1 ± 5.7 vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2, p = 0.37). No significant difference was observed in body composition. There was no difference between MHO and MUO considering inflammation (hs-CRP: 6517.1 ± 11,409.9 vs. 5294.1 ± 5612.2 g/L; p = 0.37), physical inactivity (IPAQ score below 3000 METs-min/week in 77.6% of MHO vs. 80% of MUO subjects; p = 0.36), obesity-related disability (TSD-OC score > 33%, indicating a high level of obesity-related disability, in 20.2% of MHO vs. 26.5% of MUO subjects; p = 0.28), and the HR-QoL (SF-36 total score: 60 ± 20.8 vs. 62.8 ± 18.2, p = 0.27). Discussion and Conclusion: The metabolic comorbidity and the impairment of functional ability and psycho-social functioning may have a different timing in the natural history of obesity. Alterations in the physical activity level and mobility disabilities may precede the onset of metabolic abnormalities. (Trial registration 2369 prot 166/12—registered 23 February 2012; Amendment 223/14—registered 13 February 2014). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Impulsivity on Weight Loss Four Years after Bariatric Surgery
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110721 - 14 Nov 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Bariatric surgery has serious implications on metabolic health. The reasons for a failure of bariatric surgery, i.e., limited weight loss, are multifactorial and include psychological factors. We established a theoretical model of how impulsivity is related to weight loss outcome. We propose that [...] Read more.
Bariatric surgery has serious implications on metabolic health. The reasons for a failure of bariatric surgery, i.e., limited weight loss, are multifactorial and include psychological factors. We established a theoretical model of how impulsivity is related to weight loss outcome. We propose that depressive symptoms act as a mediator between impulsivity and pathological eating behavior, and that pathological eating behavior has a direct impact on weight loss outcome. We calculated excessive weight loss (%EWL) and assessed self-reported impulsivity (using the Baratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15) total score), depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score), and pathological eating behavior (the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2) total score) in 65 patients four years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Regression and mediation analyses were computed to validate the theoretical model. The BIS-15, PHQ-9, and EDI-2 have medium to high correlations between each other, and EDI-2 correlated with %EWL. The mediation analysis yielded that the PHQ-9 represents a significant mediator between BIS-15 and EDI-2. The regression model between EDI-2 and %EWL was also significant. These results support our theoretical model, i.e., suggest that impulsivity has an indirect impact on weight loss outcome after bariatric surgery, mediated by depression and transferred through pathological eating behavior. Thus, the underlying psychological factors should be addressed in post-operative care to optimize weight loss outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110673 - 26 Oct 2016
Cited by 20
Abstract
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages [...] Read more.
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Are the Gut Bacteria Telling Us to Eat or Not to Eat? Reviewing the Role of Gut Microbiota in the Etiology, Disease Progression and Treatment of Eating Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060602 - 14 Jun 2017
Cited by 21
Abstract
Traditionally recognized as mental illnesses, eating disorders are increasingly appreciated to be biologically-driven. There is a growing body of literature that implicates a role of the gut microbiota in the etiology and progression of these conditions. Gut bacteria may act on the gut–brain [...] Read more.
Traditionally recognized as mental illnesses, eating disorders are increasingly appreciated to be biologically-driven. There is a growing body of literature that implicates a role of the gut microbiota in the etiology and progression of these conditions. Gut bacteria may act on the gut–brain axis to alter appetite control and brain function as part of the genesis of eating disorders. As the illnesses progress, extreme feeding patterns and psychological stress potentially feed back to the gut ecosystem that can further compromise physiological, cognitive, and social functioning. Given the established causality between dysbiosis and metabolic diseases, an altered gut microbial profile is likely to play a role in the co-morbidities of eating disorders with altered immune function, short-chain fatty acid production, and the gut barrier being the key mechanistic links. Understanding the role of the gut ecosystem in the pathophysiology of eating disorders will provide critical insights into improving current treatments and developing novel microbiome-based interventions that will benefit patients with eating disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Sensory Neuronopathy Revealing Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa: An Often-Forgotten Reversible Cause
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030281 - 15 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential [...] Read more.
Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential cause of sensory neuronopathy. Moreover, as many medical conditions can falsely normalize serum B12 levels even in the context of a real B12 deficiency, some cases may easily remain underdiagnosed. We report the illustrating case of an anorexic patient with sensory neuronopathy and consistently normal serum B12 levels. After all classical causes of sensory neuronopathy were ruled out, her clinical and electrophysiological conditions first worsened after folate administration, but finally improved dramatically after B12 administration. B12 deficiency should be systematically part of the etiologic workup of sensory neuronopathy, especially in a high risk context such as anorexia nervosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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