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The Link between Diet, Gut Microbes and Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Prebiotics and Probiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 62463

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Public Health Sciences, Parkinson School of Health Sciences and Public Health, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
Interests: gut microbiota; short chain fatty acids; obesity; type 2 diabetes; Africa-origin populations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue in Nutrients, we will be highlighting the intersection between diet, the gut microbiota, and human health. Recent evidence indicates that the gut microbiota may be critical for overall good health, including cardiometabolic outcomes, such as obesity, type two diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, as well as neurodegenerative diseases, such as painful peripheral neuropathy and Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. While the composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by a multitude of environmental influences, the overall quality of the host’s habitual diet remains one of the primary determinants. The aim of this Special Issue is to explore the intersection between diet quality, including macro- and micronutrient intake, supplements (pre- and probiotics), and the gut microbiota and overall human health.

We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles and up-to-date reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses).

Potential topics may include but are not limited to the associations between the gut microbiota, macronutrient and micronutrient intake, dietary patterns, nutritional biomarkers, and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as obesity and type two diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, including painful peripheral neuropathy, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and inflammatory disorders.

Dr. Lara R. Dugas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gut microbiota
  • Diet
  • Nutrients
  • Human health
  • Chronic disease

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
Protein-Rich Flours from Quinoa and Buckwheat Favourably Affect the Growth Parameters, Intestinal Microbial Activity and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats
by Bartosz Fotschki, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Adam Jurgoński, Ryszard Amarowicz, Paulina Opyd, Jürgen Bez, Isabel Muranyi, Iben Lykke Petersen and Moisés Laparra Llopis
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092781 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3996
Abstract
In recent years, dietary products with quinoa and buckwheat have attracted attention mostly due to the high nutritive value of their protein fraction. However, their dietary effect on intestinal microbiota activity and related systemic responses are still poorly understood. Therefore, a 2 week [...] Read more.
In recent years, dietary products with quinoa and buckwheat have attracted attention mostly due to the high nutritive value of their protein fraction. However, their dietary effect on intestinal microbiota activity and related systemic responses are still poorly understood. Therefore, a 2 week study of twenty-eight growing male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the effects of quinoa (QU) and buckwheat (BK) protein-rich flours on the growth parameters, intestinal microbial activity, plasma lipid profile, and inflammatory markers. The biological value of protein and body weight gain were considerably increased in the QU and BK groups compared with those in the soy protein isolate group. Moreover, both flours increased the microbial activity of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and α-galactosidase and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the caecum. The studied flours favourably reduced the plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. In rats fed a diet with QU, elevated levels of plasma interleukin 6 and alanine transaminase were observed. The effect of QU on inflammatory markers may be related to the increased expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the liver and to the decreased level of plasma albumin. In conclusion, quinoa and buckwheat protein-rich flours are valuable sources of proteins that favourably affect growth parameters, gut metabolism, and blood lipid profile in rats; however, only the buckwheat flour has no effect on inflammatory processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Diet, Gut Microbes and Health)
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15 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Their Relations to the Milk Microbiota of Breastfeeding Mothers in Dubai
by Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Maryam Lootah, Muna Tahlak and Koen Venema
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061727 - 9 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4048
Abstract
The composition of human breast milk is affected by several factors, including genetics, geographic location and maternal nutrition. This study investigated the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) of breastfeeding mothers living in Dubai and their relations with the milk microbiota. A total of 30 [...] Read more.
The composition of human breast milk is affected by several factors, including genetics, geographic location and maternal nutrition. This study investigated the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) of breastfeeding mothers living in Dubai and their relations with the milk microbiota. A total of 30 breast milk samples were collected from healthy Emirati and UAE-expatriates at Latifa Hospital. HMO profiling was performed using UHPLC-MS. Microbiota profiles were determined by sequencing amplicons of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. HMO concentrations were significantly higher in Emirati, and dropped with the lactation period in both groups of mothers. The Le (ab+)-secretor (Le+Se+) type was the most abundant in Dubai mothers (60%), followed by the Le(ab)-secretor (LeSe+) type (23%). Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were considerably lower in Dubai-based mothers, while Pseudomonas and Delftia (Hydrogenophaga) were detected at a higher abundance compared to mothers from other countries. Atopobium was correlated with sialyl-lacto-N-tetraose c, Leptotrichia and Veillonella were correlated with 6’-sialyl-lactose, and Porphyromonas was correlated with lacto-N-hexaose. The study highlights the HMO profiles of breastfeeding mothers in Dubai and reveals few correlations with milk microbial composition. Targeted genomic analyses may help in determining whether these differences are due to genetic variations or to sociocultural and environmental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Diet, Gut Microbes and Health)
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16 pages, 3256 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Patients with Biopsy-Proven Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan
by Ming-Chao Tsai, Yu-Yin Liu, Chih-Che Lin, Chih-Chi Wang, Yi-Ju Wu, Chee-Chien Yong, Kuang-Den Chen, Seng-Kee Chuah, Chih-Chien Yao, Pao-Yuan Huang, Chien-Hung Chen, Tsung-Hui Hu and Chao-Long Chen
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030820 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 4528
Abstract
The gut microbiota plays a role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but data about gut dysbiosis in Asians with NAFLD remains scarce. We analyzed the differences in fecal microbiota between adults with and without NAFLD. This cross-sectional study examined adults with histology-proven [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota plays a role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but data about gut dysbiosis in Asians with NAFLD remains scarce. We analyzed the differences in fecal microbiota between adults with and without NAFLD. This cross-sectional study examined adults with histology-proven NAFLD (25 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients, 25 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients, and 25 living liver donors (healthy controls)). The taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of stool samples. The NAFL and NASH groups showed lower total bacterial diversity and richness than the controls. NAFLD patients had higher levels of the phylum Bacteroidetes and lower levels of Firmicutes than controls. The genus Ruminococcaceae UCG-010, family Ruminococcaceae, order Clostridiales, and class Clostridia were less abundant in patients with NAFL or NASH than healthy individuals. The lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway was differentially enriched in the NASH group. This study examined the largest number of Asian patients with biopsy-proven NAFL and NASH in terms of dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients. NAFLD patients had higher levels of Bacteroidetes and lower levels of Firmicutes. These results are different from research from western countries and could provide different targets for therapies by region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Diet, Gut Microbes and Health)
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16 pages, 2631 KiB  
Article
Combined Soluble Fiber-Mediated Intestinal Microbiota Improve Insulin Sensitivity of Obese Mice
by Chuanhui Xu, Jianhua Liu, Jianwei Gao, Xiaoyu Wu, Chenbin Cui, Hongkui Wei, Rong Zheng and Jian Peng
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020351 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3925
Abstract
Dietary fiber, an important regulator of intestinal microbiota, is a promising tool for preventing obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, the functional links between dietary fiber, intestinal microbiota, and obesity phenotype are still not fully understood. Combined soluble fiber (CSF) is a synthetic [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber, an important regulator of intestinal microbiota, is a promising tool for preventing obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, the functional links between dietary fiber, intestinal microbiota, and obesity phenotype are still not fully understood. Combined soluble fiber (CSF) is a synthetic mixture of polysaccharides and displays high viscosity, water-binding capacity, swelling capacity, and fermentability. We found that supplementing high-fat diet (HFD) with 6% CSF significantly improved the insulin sensitivity of obese mice without affecting their body weight. Replacing the HFD with normal chow basal diet (NCD), the presence of CSF in the feed significantly enhanced satiety, decreased energy intake, promoted weight and fat loss, and augmented insulin sensitivity. CSF also improved the intestinal morphological integrity, attenuated systemic inflammation, promoted intestinal microbiota homeostasis, and stabilized the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that was perturbed during HFD-induced obesity, and these stabilizing effects were more prominent when the basal diet was switched to NCD. The enrichment of bacteria of the S24-7 family and Allobaculum genus increased markedly in the intestine following 6% CSF supplementation- and correlated with decreased adiposity and insulin resistance. Five bacterial genera that were decreased by CSF, including Oscillospira, unclassified Lachonospitaceae, unclassified Clostridiales, unclassified Desulfovibrionaceae, and unclassified Ruminococcae, were subjected to co-occurrence network analysis and were positively correlated to adiposity and insulin resistance, indicating a key role in the microbial response to CSF. Thus, CSF has a potential to promote insulin sensitivity and even reduce obesity via beneficial regulation of the gut microecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Diet, Gut Microbes and Health)
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Review

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29 pages, 3297 KiB  
Review
Probiotic Strains and Intervention Total Doses for Modulating Obesity-Related Microbiota Dysbiosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
by Ana López-Moreno, Antonio Suárez, Camila Avanzi, Mercedes Monteoliva-Sánchez and Margarita Aguilera
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071921 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 8358
Abstract
Obesity is a growing health threat worldwide. Administration of probiotics in obesity has also parallelly increased but without any protocolization. We conducted a systematic review exploring the administration pattern of probiotic strains and effective doses for obesity-related disorders according to their capacity of [...] Read more.
Obesity is a growing health threat worldwide. Administration of probiotics in obesity has also parallelly increased but without any protocolization. We conducted a systematic review exploring the administration pattern of probiotic strains and effective doses for obesity-related disorders according to their capacity of positively modulating key biomarkers and microbiota dysbiosis. Manuscripts targeting probiotic strains and doses administered for obesity-related disorders in clinical studies were sought. MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using keywords during the last fifteen years up to April 2020. Two independent reviewers screened titles, abstracts, and then full-text papers against inclusion criteria according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. From 549 interventional reports identified, we filtered 171 eligible studies, from which 24 full-text assays were used for calculating intervention total doses (ITD) of specific species and strains administered. Nine of these reports were excluded in the second-step because no specific data on gut microbiota modulation was found. Six clinical trials (CT) and 9 animal clinical studies were retained for analysis of complete outcome prioritized (body mass index (BMI), adiposity parameters, glucose, and plasma lipid biomarkers, and gut hormones). Lactobacillus spp. administered were double compared to Bifidobacterium spp.; Lactobacillus as single or multispecies formulations whereas most Bifidobacteria only through multispecies supplementations. Differential factors were estimated from obese populations’ vs. obesity-induced animals: ITD ratio of 2 × 106 CFU and patterns of administrations of 11.3 weeks to 5.5 weeks, respectively. Estimation of overall probiotics impact from selected CT was performed through a random-effects model to pool effect sizes. Comparisons showed a positive association between the probiotics group vs. placebo on the reduction of BMI, total cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin. Moreover, negative estimation appeared for glucose (FPG) and CRP. While clinical trials including data for positive modulatory microbiota capacities suggested that high doses of common single and multispecies of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ameliorated key obesity-related parameters, the major limitation was the high variability between studies and lack of standardized protocols. Efforts in solving this problem and searching for next-generation probiotics for obesity-related diseases would highly improve the rational use of probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Diet, Gut Microbes and Health)
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17 pages, 598 KiB  
Review
The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes Ratio: A Relevant Marker of Gut Dysbiosis in Obese Patients?
by Fabien Magne, Martin Gotteland, Lea Gauthier, Alejandra Zazueta, Susana Pesoa, Paola Navarrete and Ramadass Balamurugan
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051474 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 1028 | Viewed by 36977
Abstract
The gut microbiota is emerging as a promising target for the management or prevention of inflammatory and metabolic disorders in humans. Many of the current research efforts are focused on the identification of specific microbial signatures, more particularly for those associated with obesity, [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is emerging as a promising target for the management or prevention of inflammatory and metabolic disorders in humans. Many of the current research efforts are focused on the identification of specific microbial signatures, more particularly for those associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies have described that the gut microbiota of obese animals and humans exhibits a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with normal-weight individuals, proposing this ratio as an eventual biomarker. Accordingly, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is frequently cited in the scientific literature as a hallmark of obesity. The aim of the present review was to discuss the validity of this potential marker, based on the great amount of contradictory results reported in the literature. Such discrepancies might be explained by the existence of interpretative bias generated by methodological differences in sample processing and DNA sequence analysis, or by the generally poor characterization of the recruited subjects and, more particularly, the lack of consideration of lifestyle-associated factors known to affect microbiota composition and/or diversity. For these reasons, it is currently difficult to associate the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio with a determined health status and more specifically to consider it as a hallmark of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Diet, Gut Microbes and Health)
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