Special Issue "Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Lidia A. Daimiel Ruiz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nutritional Control of the Epigenome Group, Precision Nutrition and Obesity Program, IMDEA Food, CEU UAM+CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Interests: nutrition and health; physical activity; epigenome; microRNAs; DNA methylation; disease biomarkers, cardiovascular disease; healthy aging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The discovery of gene–diet interactions and how they modulate risk of disease has opened a new horizon in the field of nutrition research and paved the way for personalized nutritional approaches, aiming to increase the effectiveness of nutritional advice for improving an individual’s health state, followed by the development of new -omics technologies and its recent affordability, which allowed the exponential increase of the knowledge in the field—knowledge that has been commercially exploited with the emergence of companies offering personalized nutritional advices based on nutrigenetic tests.

However, with the advance of knowledge in the field, the complexity of gene–nutrient interactions has become evident. Moreover, the need to take into consideration not only interactions between genes and nutrients but also between nutrients and the epigenome or the microbiome is being considered. In this regard, the term precision nutrition has emerged that includes the complexity of the interaction between nutrients and biological processes.

In this Special Issue, we would like to bring readers closer to the state-of-the-art in the field by gathering papers covering different aspects of gene–nutrient, epigenome–nutrient, and microbiome–nutrient interactions related to human health. Original research articles and reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses) are welcome.

Dr. Lidia A. Daimiel Ruiz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer
  • Dietary habits
  • Food
  • Supplements
  • Physical activity Polymorphisms
  • Gene–diet interactions
  • Epigenome
  • Microbiome
  • Clustering
  • Categorization
  • Machine learning
  • GWA studies

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Circulating Adiponectin and Its Association with Metabolic Traits and Type 2 Diabetes: Gene-Diet Interactions Focusing on Selected Gene Variants and at the Genome-Wide Level in High-Cardiovascular Risk Mediterranean Subjects
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020541 - 07 Feb 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Adiponectin is gaining renewed interest since, in addition to its possible protective role against insulin resistance and arteriosclerosis, recent studies suggest other additional favorable effects. However, the influence of gene-diet interactions on plasma adiponectin levels is still little understood. We analyzed the association [...] Read more.
Adiponectin is gaining renewed interest since, in addition to its possible protective role against insulin resistance and arteriosclerosis, recent studies suggest other additional favorable effects. However, the influence of gene-diet interactions on plasma adiponectin levels is still little understood. We analyzed the association between plasma adiponectin levels and various metabolic traits in a high-cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population, as well as the genetic effect of four candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and their interactions with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Additionally, we explored, at the genome-wide level, the SNPs most associated with plasma adiponectin levels, as well as gene–diet interactions with the Mediterranean diet. In the 954 participants studied (aged 55–80 years), plasma adiponectin levels were strongly associated with plasma HDL-C concentrations (p = 6.6 × 10−36) and inversely related to triglycerides (p = 4.7 × 10−18), fasting glucose (p = 3.5 × 10−16) and type 2 diabetes (p = 1.4 × 10−7). Of the four pre-selected ADIPOQ candidate SNPs, the one most associated with plasma adiponectin was the −11391G > A (rs17300539) promoter SNP (p = 7.2 × 10−5, in the multivariable adjusted model). No significant interactions with the Mediterranean diet pattern were observed for these SNPs. Additionally, in the exploratory genome-wide association study (GWAS), we found new SNPs associated with adiponectin concentrations at the suggestive genome-wide level (p < 1 × 10−5) for the whole population, including the lead SNP rs9738548 (intergenic) and rs11647294 in the VAT1L (Vesicle Amine Transport 1 Like) gene. We also found other promising SNPs on exploring different strata such as men, women, diabetics and non-diabetics (p = 3.5 × 10−8 for rs2850066). Similarly, we explored gene–Mediterranean diet interactions at the GWAS level and identified several SNPs with gene–diet interactions at p < 1 × 10−5. A remarkable gene–diet interaction was revealed for the rs2917570 SNP in the OPCML (Opioid Binding Protein/Cell Adhesion Molecule Like) gene, previously reported to be associated with adiponectin levels in some populations. Our results suggest that, in this high-cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population, and even though adiponectin is favorably associated with metabolic traits and lower type 2 diabetes, the gene variants more associated with adiponectin may be population-specific, and some suggestive gene–Mediterranean diet interactions were detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beer Modulate Plasma and Macrophage microRNAs Differently in a Pilot Intervention in Humans with Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010069 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Beer is a popular beverage and some beneficial effects have been attributed to its moderate consumption. We carried out a pilot study to test if beer and non-alcoholic beer consumption modify the levels of a panel of 53 cardiometabolic microRNAs in plasma and [...] Read more.
Beer is a popular beverage and some beneficial effects have been attributed to its moderate consumption. We carried out a pilot study to test if beer and non-alcoholic beer consumption modify the levels of a panel of 53 cardiometabolic microRNAs in plasma and macrophages. Seven non-smoker men aged 30–65 with high cardiovascular risk were recruited for a non-randomised cross-over intervention consisting of the ingestion of 500 mL/day of beer or non-alcoholic beer for 14 days with a 7-day washout period between interventions. Plasma and urine isoxanthohumol were measured to assess compliance with interventions. Monocytes were isolated and differentiated into macrophages, and plasma and macrophage microRNAs were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Anthropometric, biochemistry and dietary parameters were also measured. We found an increase in plasma miR-155-5p, miR-328-3p, and miR-92a-3p after beer and a decrease after non-alcoholic beer consumption. Plasma miR-320a-3p levels decreased with both beers. Circulating miR-320a-3p levels correlated with LDL-cholesterol. We found that miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-26b-5p, and miR-223-3p macrophage levels increased after beer and decreased after non-alcoholic beer consumption. Functional analyses suggested that modulated microRNAs were involved in catabolism, nutrient sensing, Toll-like receptors signalling and inflammation. We concluded that beer and non-alcoholic beer intake modulated differentially plasma and macrophage microRNAs. Specifically, microRNAs related to inflammation increased after beer consumption and decreased after non-alcoholic beer consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intervention Modulates the Expression of Splicing Machinery in Cardiovascular Patients at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Development: From the CORDIOPREV Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113528 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major health problem worldwide. T2DM risk can be reduced with healthy dietary interventions, but the precise molecular underpinnings behind this association are still incompletely understood. We recently discovered that the expression profile of the splicing machinery [...] Read more.
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major health problem worldwide. T2DM risk can be reduced with healthy dietary interventions, but the precise molecular underpinnings behind this association are still incompletely understood. We recently discovered that the expression profile of the splicing machinery is associated with the risk of T2DM development. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of 3-year dietary intervention in the expression pattern of the splicing machinery components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients within the CORDIOPREV study. Expression of splicing machinery components was determined in PBMCs, at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up, from all patients who developed T2DM (Incident-T2DM, n = 107) and 108 randomly selected non-T2DM subjects, who were randomly enrolled in two healthy dietary patterns (Mediterranean or low-fat diets). Dietary intervention modulated the expression of key splicing machinery components (i.e., up-regulation of SPFQ/RMB45/RNU6, etc., down-regulation of RNU2/SRSF6) after three years, independently of the type of healthy diet. Some of these changes (SPFQ/RMB45/SRSF6) were associated with key clinical features and were differentially induced in Incident-T2DM patients and non-T2DM subjects. This study reveals that splicing machinery can be modulated by long-term dietary intervention, and could become a valuable tool to screen the progression of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Low-dose Bisphenol-A Promotes Epigenetic Changes at Pparγ Promoter in Adipose Precursor Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113498 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as Bisphenol-A (BPA) is associated with an increase in obesity prevalence. Diet is the primary cause of human exposure to this contaminant. BPA promotes obesity by inducing adipocyte dysfunction and altering adipogenesis. Contradictory evidence and unanswered questions are [...] Read more.
Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as Bisphenol-A (BPA) is associated with an increase in obesity prevalence. Diet is the primary cause of human exposure to this contaminant. BPA promotes obesity by inducing adipocyte dysfunction and altering adipogenesis. Contradictory evidence and unanswered questions are reported in the literature concerning the BPA effects on adipogenesis. To clarify this issue, we tested the effects of prolonged low-dose BPA exposure on different phases of adipogenesis in committed 3T3L1 and uncommitted NIH3T3 preadipocytes. Our findings show that BPA effects on the adipogenesis are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms by reducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ) promoter methylation in preadipocytes. Nevertheless, in BPA-exposed 3T3L1, Pparγ expression only transiently increases as lipid accumulation at day 4 of differentiation, without altering the adipogenic potential of the precursor cells. In the absence of differentiation mix, BPA does not make the 3T3L1 an in vitro model of spontaneous adipogenesis and the effects on the Pparγ expression are still limited at day 4 of differentiation. Furthermore, BPA exposure does not commit the NIH3T3 to the adipocyte lineage, although Pparγ overexpression is more evident both in preadipocytes and during the adipocyte differentiation. Interestingly, termination of the BPA exposure restores the Pparγ promoter methylation and inflammatory profile of the 3T3L1 cells. This study shows that BPA induces epigenetic changes in a key adipogenic gene. These modifications are reversible and do not affect preadipocyte commitment and/or differentiation. We identify an alternative transcriptional mechanism by which BPA affects gene expression and demonstrate how the challenge of preventing exposure is fundamental for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identifying Interactions between Dietary Sodium, Potassium, Sodium–Potassium Ratios, and FGF5 rs16998073 Variants and Their Associated Risk for Hypertension in Korean Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072121 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Hypertension is affected by both genetic and dietary factors. This study aimed to examine the interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake, sodium–potassium ratios, and FGF5 rs16998073 and link these with increased risk for developing hypertension. Using data from the Health Examinee (HEXA) Study of [...] Read more.
Hypertension is affected by both genetic and dietary factors. This study aimed to examine the interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake, sodium–potassium ratios, and FGF5 rs16998073 and link these with increased risk for developing hypertension. Using data from the Health Examinee (HEXA) Study of the Korean Genome and Epidemiologic Study (KoGES), we were able to identify a total of 17,736 middle-aged Korean adults who could be included in our genome-wide association study (GWAS) to confirm any associations between hypertension and the FGF5 rs16998073 variant. GWAS analysis revealed that the FGF5 rs16698073 variant demonstrated the strongest association with hypertension in this population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between dietary intake of sodium, potassium, and sodium–potassium ratios and the FGF5 rs16998073 genotypes (AA, AT, TT) and any increased risk of hypertension. Carriers with at least one minor T allele for FGF5 rs16998073 were shown to be at significantly higher risk for developing hypertension. Male TT carriers with a daily sodium intake ≥2000 mg also demonstrated an increased risk for developing hypertension compared to the male AA carriers with daily sodium intake <2000 mg (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.41, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.84–3.15, p-interaction < 0.0001). Female AA carriers with a daily potassium intake ≥3500 mg showed a reduced risk for hypertension when compared to female AA carriers with a daily potassium intake <3500 mg (AOR = 0.75. 95% CIs = 0.58–0.95, p-interaction < 0.0001). Male TT carriers in the mid-tertile for sodium–potassium ratio values showed the highest odds ratio for hypertension when compared to male AA carriers in the lowest-tertile for sodium–potassium ratio values (AOR = 3.03, 95% CIs = 2.14–4.29, p-interaction < 0.0001). This study confirmed that FGF5 rs16998073 variants do place their carriers (men and women) at increased risk for developing hypertension. In addition, we showed that high daily intake of sodium exerted a synergistic effect for hypertension when combined with FGF5 rs16998073 variants in both genders and that dietary sodium, potassium, and sodium–potassium ratios all interact with FGF5 rs16998073 and alter the risk of developing hypertension in carriers of either gender among Koreans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Polymorphic Appetite Effects on Waist Circumference Depend on rs3749474 CLOCK Gene Variant
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061846 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Chronobiological aspects controlled by CLOCK genes may influence obesity incidence. Although there are studies that show an association between the expression of these genes and energy intake, waist circumference or abdominal obesity phenotypes, interactions with appetite have been insufficiently investigated in relation to [...] Read more.
Chronobiological aspects controlled by CLOCK genes may influence obesity incidence. Although there are studies that show an association between the expression of these genes and energy intake, waist circumference or abdominal obesity phenotypes, interactions with appetite have been insufficiently investigated in relation to chrononutrition. The objective was to identify interactions between CLOCK genetic variants involved in appetite status. A total of 442 subjects (329 women, 113 men; aged 18 to 65 years) were recruited. Anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by trained nutritionists. Participants were classified according to their appetite feelings with a Likert scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of the type genotype x appetite status on adiposity-related variables. p values were corrected by the Bonferroni method. A significant influence was found concerning the effects of appetite on waist circumference with respect to rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism (p < 0.001). An additive model analysis (adjusted by age, gender, exercise and energy intake) showed that risk allele carriers, increased the waist circumference around 14 cm (β = 14.1, CI = 6.3–22.0) by each increment in the level of appetite. The effects of appetite on waist circumference may be partly modulated by the rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
LMX1B rs10733682 Polymorphism Interacts with Macronutrients, Dietary Patterns on the Risk of Obesity in Han Chinese Girls
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051227 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Previous studies have found that LMX1B rs10733682 polymorphism is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in European and American Indian adults. In this study, the association of rs10733682 polymorphism with obesity-related indicators, and its interaction with macronutrients and dietary patterns (DPs) were explored [...] Read more.
Previous studies have found that LMX1B rs10733682 polymorphism is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in European and American Indian adults. In this study, the association of rs10733682 polymorphism with obesity-related indicators, and its interaction with macronutrients and dietary patterns (DPs) were explored in Chinese children (n = 798). The rs10733682 polymorphism was genotyped by improved Multiple Ligase Detection Reaction (iMLDR). Four DPs were identified by factor analysis. The AA genotype had a higher incidence of overweight/obesity than GG+GA genotypes (P = 0.010) in girls (n = 398), but no difference in boys. The AA genotype in girls could interact with intake of energy, fat and carbohydrate, causing an increased triglyceride (TG), (P = 0.021, 0.003, 0.002, respectively), and also could interact with energy from protein, causing an elevated BMI (P = 0.023) and waist (P = 0.019). Girls inclining to the HED (high-energy density)-DP were associated with increased TG (P = 0.033), and girls inclining to the VEF (vegetables, eggs, and fishes based)-DP were associated with decreased total cholesterol (TC, P = 0.045) and decreased low density lipoprotein cholesterin (LDL, P = 0.016). The findings indicated that the AA genotype of rs10733682 and the HED-DP are potential risk factors of obesity in Chinese girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interactions and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop