Special Issue "Perspectives from Experimental to Translational Research: Dietary Intake in Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alice J. Owen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Senior Research Fellow, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 553 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne 3004, Australia
Interests: healthy ageing; bioactive nutrients; hypertension; cardiovascular disease and epidemiological modelling
Dr. Danijela Gasevic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Senior Lecturer, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 553 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne 3004, Australia; Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Interests: cardiovascular disease; diabetes; obesity; physical activity; ethnicity; socio-economic status; built environment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a leading cause of death, while obesity (high body mass index) is a significant risk factor for major chronic non-communicable diseases and among the leading global risks for mortality. Diet has a key role to play in reducing disease and obesity risks, but limitations in availability of regionally and culturally specific data remain a barrier to a clearer understanding of dietary risks, and to the development of effective interventions to reduce the risk of obesity and CVD conferred by poor diet. On the other hand, the potential of new approaches to enhance cardiovascular and obesity risk reduction through functional foods and nutrients, optimisation of dietary patterns and nutrigenomics offers promise for improving health and wellbeing outcomes.

This Special Issue seeks to broaden our perspectives on the role of diet in obesity and CVD by gathering exciting new evidence, from the experimental through to clinical and beyond to translational, capturing the best nutritional science from the laboratory through to the ‘real world impact’. We encourage you to submit your article for consideration by 31st January 2020 for this Special Issue of Nutrients.

Dr. Alice J. Owen
Dr. Danijela Gasevic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutritional epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular disease risk
  • Obesity
  • Nutrients
  • Dietary intake
  • Visceral obesity
  • Body mass index
  • Waist circumference
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Heart failure
  • Hypertension

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Free-Living Glycemic Profiles after 12 Months of Lifestyle Intervention in Children with Overweight and with Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051228 - 26 Apr 2020
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Previous studies demonstrated that hyperglycemic glucose concentrations are observed in children that are overweight or have obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12 month lifestyle intervention on free-living glycemic profiles in children that were overweight or [...] Read more.
Previous studies demonstrated that hyperglycemic glucose concentrations are observed in children that are overweight or have obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12 month lifestyle intervention on free-living glycemic profiles in children that were overweight or had obesity, and the association of the alterations with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters. BMI z-score, free-living glycemic profiles, continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA), and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated before and after a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention, in 33 non-diabetic children that were overweight or had obesity. In children with a decrease in BMI z-score, the duration which glucose concentrations were above the high-normal threshold (6.7 mmol/L) and the glycemic variability decreased significantly. In these children, a decrease in median sensor glucose was associated with decreases in LDL-cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure z-score. A decrease in BMI z-score was associated with a decrease in CONGA1, 2, and 4. In conclusion, the glycemic profiles in free-living conditions in children that were overweight improved in children with a decrease in BMI z-score after lifestyle intervention. In those children, changes in median sensor glucose concentrations were associated with changes in LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure z-scores. These results suggest that glucose homeostasis can improve after one year of lifestyle intervention and that these improvements are associated with improvements in cardiovascular health parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Two Meal Replacement strategies on Cardiovascular Risk Parameters in Advanced Age Patients with Obesity and Osteoarthritis
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040976 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Background and aims: Meal replacement diets consist of replacing one or more meals with an artificial nutritional supplement. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of one against two meal replacement strategies on body composition and cardiovascular risk parameters in [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Meal replacement diets consist of replacing one or more meals with an artificial nutritional supplement. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of one against two meal replacement strategies on body composition and cardiovascular risk parameters in patients with obesity. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was designed with a modified hypocaloric diet with an artificial nutritional preparation replacing one or two meals for three months in patients with obesity and osteoarthritis pending orthopedic surgery. An anthropometric evaluation and a measurement of the body composition were done with bioelectrical impedance measurement at the beginning and at three months. Results: A total of 112 patients were recruited. Fifty-two patients (46.4%) were randomized to one replacement and 60 patients (53.6%) to two meal replacements. Eighty-one patients (72.3%) were women, and the average age was 61 (11.03) years. The percentage of weight loss at three months was 8.27 (4.79)% (one meal replacement: 7.98 (5.97)%; two meal replacements: 8.50 (3.48)%; p = 0.56). A decrease in fat mass measured by the fat mass index (FMI) was detected (one meal replacement: −2.15 (1.45) kg/m2 vs. two meal replacements: −2.78 (2.55) kg/m2; p > 0.05), and a relative increase in fat-free mass was observed (one meal replacement: +3.57 (4.61)% vs. two meal replacements: +2.14 (4.45)%; p > 0.05). A decrease in HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and total cholesterol was observed in both groups without differences between them. Conclusions: The substitution strategies of one or two meal replacements were effective in weight loss and fat mass decrease without differences between the two groups. An improvement in lipid parameters, glycemic control, and systolic blood pressure was observed without differences between strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy on Early Childhood Growth Trajectories and Obesity Risk: The CANDLE Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020465 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
We investigated the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and early childhood growth trajectories and overweight/obesity risk in offspring. Maternal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire during the second trimester, and dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. The [...] Read more.
We investigated the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and early childhood growth trajectories and overweight/obesity risk in offspring. Maternal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire during the second trimester, and dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. The associations between maternal dietary pattern scores and body mass index (BMI) trajectories from birth to age four (rising-high, moderate, and low BMI trajectories) as well as overweight/obesity risk at age four were analyzed (n = 1257). Two maternal dietary patterns were identified. The fast food pattern included a higher intake of fried chicken and fish, fruit juices, mayonnaise, and sugar-sweetened beverages, while the processed food pattern included a higher intake of dairy, salad dressing, processed meat, and cold breakfast cereal. Women with greater adherence to the fast food pattern were more likely to have children in the rising-high BMI trajectory group [OR (95% CI) = 1.32 (1.07–1.62); p = 0.008] or having overweight/obesity at age four [OR (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.11–1.54); p = 0.001]. The processed food pattern was not associated with these outcomes. The maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy represented by fried foods and sugar-sweetened beverages may contribute to rapid early childhood growth and increased risk for obesity in offspring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hypertension Programmed by Perinatal High-Fat Diet: Effect of Maternal Gut Microbiota-Targeted Therapy
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2908; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122908 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Hypertension can originate in early life caused by perinatal high-fat (HF) consumption. Gut microbiota and their metabolites short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are involved in the development of hypertension. Despite the beneficial effects of prebiotic/probiotic on human [...] Read more.
Hypertension can originate in early life caused by perinatal high-fat (HF) consumption. Gut microbiota and their metabolites short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are involved in the development of hypertension. Despite the beneficial effects of prebiotic/probiotic on human health, little is known whether maternal use of prebiotics/probiotics could protect offspring against the development of hypertension in adulthood. We investigated whether perinatal HF diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring can be prevented by therapeutic uses of prebiotic inulin or probiotic Lactobacillus casei during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets), with 5% w/w long chain inulin (PRE), or 2 × 108 CFU/day Lactobacillus casei via oral gavage (PRO) during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n = 8/group) were assigned to four groups: control, HF, PRE, and PRO. Rats were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. Maternal prebiotic or probiotic therapy prevents elevated blood pressure (BP) programmed by perinatal HF consumption. Both prebiotic and probiotic therapies decreased the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and renal mRNA expression of Ace, but increased abundance of genus Lactobacillus and Akkermansia. Additionally, prebiotic treatment prevents HF-induced elevation of BP is associated with reduced fecal propionate and acetate levels, while probiotic therapy restored several Lactobacillus species. Maternal probiotic or prebiotic therapy caused a reduction in plasma TMAO level and TMAO-to-TMA ratio. The beneficial effects of prebiotic or probiotic therapy on elevated BP programmed by perinatal HF diet are relevant to alterations of microbial populations, modulation of microbial-derived metabolites, and mediation of the renin-angiotensin system. Our results cast a new light on the use of maternal prebiotic/probiotic therapy to prevent hypertension programmed by perinatal HF consumption. The possibility of applying gut microbiota-targeted therapies as a reprogramming strategy for hypertension warrants further clinical translation. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Non-Systematic Review of Diet and Nutritional Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease in Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030814 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Although cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have been widely studied and new methods of diagnosis and treatment have been developed and implemented, the morbidity and mortality levels are still rising—cardiovascular disease is responsible for more than four million deaths each year in [...] Read more.
Although cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have been widely studied and new methods of diagnosis and treatment have been developed and implemented, the morbidity and mortality levels are still rising—cardiovascular disease is responsible for more than four million deaths each year in Europe alone. Even though nutrition is classified as one of the main and changeable risk factors, the quality of the diet in the majority of people does not follow the recommendations essential for prevention of obesity and cardiovascular disease. It demonstrates the need for better nutritional education in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment, and the need to emphasize dietary components most relevant in cardiovascular disease. In our non-systematic review, we summarize the most recent knowledge about nutritional risk and prevention in cardiovascular disease and obesity. Full article
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