Special Issue "Energy Balance and Body Weight"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2021) | Viewed by 8419

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Paolo Piaggi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Energy Physiology, Obesity and Diabetes Clinical Research Section, NIH/NIDDK, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Interests: energy metabolism; obesity; weight gain; genetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Weight change is a dynamic function of whole-body energy balance, that is, energy intake and energy expenditure (EE). A straightforward view of energy homeostasis in relation to body weight regulation assumes that these two factors independently affect energy balance. However, recent research suggests that that these two factors interact in contributing to daily energy balance, thereby impacting weight change. The causal effect of energy intake on EE (i.e., diet-induced thermogenesis) has indeed been extensively studied in humans. Yet, the causal effect of EE on energy intake has not been fully explored despite seminal research on this topic more than 50 years ago, but likely because of technical difficulties in the precise assessment of energy intake in humans. Research in this field has resurged in the past 10 years, with multiple independent reports showing that higher EE is associated with greater energy intake independently from, and mediating the effects of, body composition on energy intake.

The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “Energy Balance and Body Weight” is to publish selected manuscripts detailing specific aspects of the complex relationships between EE, energy intake, and weight change that will advance our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of weight gain.

Thank you very much for your contribution

Dr. Paolo Piaggi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Energy metabolism
  • Metabolic rate
  • Energy intake
  • Energy balance
  • Energy turnover
  • Weight change
  • Weight gain
  • Weight loss

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Effect of Caloric Restriction with and without n-3 PUFA Supplementation on Bone Turnover Markers in Blood of Subjects with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3096; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093096 - 02 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Weight loss contributes to an increased risk of hip fracture, especially in postmenopausal women. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation could diminish the adverse effect of weight loss on bone health. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial was to [...] Read more.
Weight loss contributes to an increased risk of hip fracture, especially in postmenopausal women. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation could diminish the adverse effect of weight loss on bone health. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial was to investigate the effect of caloric restriction and n-3 PUFA supplement intake on osteogenic markers (carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC); procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), as well as a bone resorption marker (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I)) in a serum of 64 middle aged individuals (BMI 25–40 kg/m2) with abdominal obesity. Bone remodeling, metabolic and inflammatory parameters and adipokines were determined before and after 3 months of an isocaloric diet (2300–2400 kcal/day) or a low-calorie diet (1200 kcal/day for women and 1500 kcal/day for men) along with n-3 PUFA (1.8 g/day) or placebo capsules. CTX-I and adiponectin concentrations were increased following 7% weight loss independently of supplement use. Changes in CTX-I were positively associated with changes in adiponectin level (rho = 0.25, p = 0.043). Thus, an increase in serum adiponectin caused by body weight loss could adversely affect bone health. N-3 PUFAs were without effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance and Body Weight)
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Review

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Review
Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Cardiometabolic Health: An Energy Metabolism Perspective
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030489 - 23 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4001
Abstract
This review summarizes the effects of different types of intermittent fasting (IF) on human cardiometabolic health, with a focus on energy metabolism. First, we discuss the coordinated metabolic adaptations (energy expenditure, hormonal changes and macronutrient oxidation) occurring during a 72 h fast. We [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the effects of different types of intermittent fasting (IF) on human cardiometabolic health, with a focus on energy metabolism. First, we discuss the coordinated metabolic adaptations (energy expenditure, hormonal changes and macronutrient oxidation) occurring during a 72 h fast. We then discuss studies investigating the effects of IF on cardiometabolic health, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Finally, we discuss how IF may be optimized by combining it with exercise. In general, IF regimens improve body composition, ectopic fat, and classic cardiometabolic risk factors, as compared to unrestricted eating, especially in metabolically unhealthy participants. However, it is still unclear whether IF provides additional cardiometabolic benefits as compared to continuous daily caloric restriction (CR). Most studies found no additional benefits, yet some preliminary data suggest that IF regimens may provide cardiometabolic benefits in the absence of weight loss. Finally, although IF and continuous daily CR appear to induce similar changes in energy expenditure, IF regimens may differentially affect substrate oxidation, increasing protein and fat oxidation. Future tightly controlled studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of IF and its role in cardiometabolic health and energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance and Body Weight)
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Review
What Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake?
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103508 - 05 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Coupling energy intake (EI) to increases in energy expenditure (EE) may be adaptively, compensatorily, or maladaptively leading to weight gain. This narrative review examines if functioning of the homeostatic responses depends on the type of physiological perturbations in EE (e.g., due to exercise, [...] Read more.
Coupling energy intake (EI) to increases in energy expenditure (EE) may be adaptively, compensatorily, or maladaptively leading to weight gain. This narrative review examines if functioning of the homeostatic responses depends on the type of physiological perturbations in EE (e.g., due to exercise, sleep, temperature, or growth), or if it is influenced by protein intake, or the extent, duration, timing, and frequency of EE. As different measures to increase EE could convey discrepant neuronal or humoral signals that help to control food intake, the coupling of EI to EE could be tight or loose, which implies that some ways to increase EE may have advantages for body weight regulation. Exercise, physical activity, heat exposure, and a high protein intake favor weight loss, whereas an increase in EE due to cold exposure or sleep loss likely contributes to an overcompensation of EI, especially in vulnerable thrifty phenotypes, as well as under obesogenic environmental conditions, such as energy dense high fat—high carbohydrate diets. Irrespective of the type of EE, transient elevations in the metabolic rate seem to be general risk factors for weight gain, because a subsequent decrease in energy requirement is not compensated by an adequate adaptation of appetite and EI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance and Body Weight)
Review
Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103394 - 27 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Many breast cancer survivors (BCS) gain fat mass and lose fat-free mass during treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, surgery) and estrogen suppression therapy, which increases the risk of developing comorbidities. Whether these body composition alterations are a result of changes in dietary intake, energy expenditure, [...] Read more.
Many breast cancer survivors (BCS) gain fat mass and lose fat-free mass during treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, surgery) and estrogen suppression therapy, which increases the risk of developing comorbidities. Whether these body composition alterations are a result of changes in dietary intake, energy expenditure, or both is unclear. Thus, we reviewed studies that have measured components of energy balance in BCS who have completed treatment. Longitudinal studies suggest that BCS reduce self-reported energy intake and increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Although some evidence suggests that resting metabolic rate is higher in BCS than in age-matched controls, no study has measured total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in this population. Whether physical activity levels are altered in BCS is unclear, but evidence suggests that light-intensity physical activity is lower in BCS compared to age-matched controls. We also discuss the mechanisms through which estrogen suppression may impact energy balance and develop a theoretical framework of dietary intake and TDEE interactions in BCS. Preclinical and human experimental studies indicate that estrogen suppression likely elicits increased energy intake and decreased TDEE, although this has not been systematically investigated in BCS specifically. Estrogen suppression may modulate energy balance via alterations in appetite, fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate, and physical activity. There are several potential areas for future mechanistic energetic research in BCS (e.g., characterizing predictors of intervention response, appetite, dynamic changes in energy balance, and differences in cancer sub-types) that would ultimately support the development of more targeted and personalized behavioral interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance and Body Weight)
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