Special Issue "Dietary Restriction and Lifespan"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Macronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Thomas Roeder
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Kiel University, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24098 Kiel, Germany
Interests: Metabolic disorder; Dietary restriction; Disease model; Lifespan; Lung diseases; Microbiome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the few natural interventions that can lead to a longer and more healthy life. DR is an umbrella term for various forms of nutritional intervention, including caloric reduction, the reduction of macronutrients, and the temporal limitation of food intake. In this Special Issue of Nutrients, particular attention will be paid to studies using these different forms of DR to extend the life or health span. A main focus of this Special Issue of Nutrients will be on human studies, but studies employing cell culture systems or informative animal models are also welcome. Furthermore, mechanistic studies addressing those signaling pathways and effector systems that are of central importance to transducing DR into a longer life or those employing potential DR mimetics will also be considered.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Roeder
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • dietary restriction
  • caloric restriction
  • time-restricted food intake
  • recurrent diet
  • protein restriction
  • starvation-mimicking diet
  • mTOR signaling
  • insulin signaling
  • sirtuins

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Identification and Validation of Nutrient State-Dependent Serum Protein Mediators of Human CD4+ T Cell Responsiveness
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051492 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Intermittent fasting and fasting mimetic diets ameliorate inflammation. Similarly, serum extracted from fasted healthy and asthmatic subjects’ blunt inflammation in vitro, implicating serum components in this immunomodulation. To identify the proteins orchestrating these effects, SOMAScan technology was employed to evaluate serum protein levels [...] Read more.
Intermittent fasting and fasting mimetic diets ameliorate inflammation. Similarly, serum extracted from fasted healthy and asthmatic subjects’ blunt inflammation in vitro, implicating serum components in this immunomodulation. To identify the proteins orchestrating these effects, SOMAScan technology was employed to evaluate serum protein levels in healthy subjects following an overnight, 24-h fast and 3 h after refeeding. Partial least square discriminant analysis identified several serum proteins as potential candidates to confer feeding status immunomodulation. The characterization of recombinant IGFBP1 (elevated following 24 h of fasting) and PYY (elevated following refeeding) in primary human CD4+ T cells found that they blunted and induced immune activation, respectively. Furthermore, integrated univariate serum protein analysis compared to RNA-seq analysis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells identified the induction of IL1RL1 and MFGE8 levels in refeeding compared to the 24-h fasting in the same study. Subsequent quantitation of these candidate proteins in lean versus obese individuals identified an inverse regulation of serum levels in the fasted subjects compared to the obese subjects. In parallel, IL1RL1 and MFGE8 supplementation promoted increased CD4+ T responsiveness to T cell receptor activation. Together, these data show that caloric load-linked conditions evoke serological protein changes, which in turn confer biological effects on circulating CD4+ T cell immune responsiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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Article
Preconditioning with Short-Term Dietary Restriction Attenuates Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy Induced by Chronic Pressure Overload
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030737 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and associated heart failure are becoming a more prevalent and critical public health issue with the aging of society, and are exacerbated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary restriction (DR) markedly inhibits senescent changes; however, prolonged DR is difficult. [...] Read more.
Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and associated heart failure are becoming a more prevalent and critical public health issue with the aging of society, and are exacerbated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary restriction (DR) markedly inhibits senescent changes; however, prolonged DR is difficult. We herein investigated whether preconditioning with short-term DR attenuates chronic pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and associated oxidative stress. Male c57BL6 mice were randomly divided into an ad libitum (AL) diet or 40% restricted diet (DR preconditioning, DRPC) group for 2 weeks prior to ascending aortic constriction (AAC), and all mice were fed ad libitum after AAC surgery. Two weeks after surgery, pressure overload by AAC increased LV wall thickness in association with LV diastolic dysfunction and promoted myocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis in the AL+AAC group. Oxidative stress in cardiac tissue and mitochondria also increased in the AL+AAC group in association with increments in cardiac NADPH oxidase-derived and mitochondrial ROS production. LV hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress were significantly attenuated in the DRPC+AAC group. Moreover, less severe mitochondrial oxidative damage in the DRPC+AAC group was associated with the suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition and cardiac apoptosis. These results indicate that chronic pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in association with cardiac and mitochondrial oxidative damage were attenuated by preconditioning with short-term DR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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Article
Associating Intake Proportion of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein with All-Cause Mortality in Korean Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103208 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Determining the ideal ratio of macronutrients for increasing life expectancy remains a high priority in nutrition research. We aim to investigate the association between carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake and all-cause mortality in Koreans. This cohort study investigated 42,192 participants from the Korea [...] Read more.
Determining the ideal ratio of macronutrients for increasing life expectancy remains a high priority in nutrition research. We aim to investigate the association between carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake and all-cause mortality in Koreans. This cohort study investigated 42,192 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) linked with causes of death data (2007–2015). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using the multivariable Cox proportional regression model after adjusting for confounders. We documented 2110 deaths during the follow-up period. Time to exceed 1% of the all-cause mortality rate was longest in participants with 50–60% carbohydrate, 30–40% fat, and 20–30% protein intake. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was 1.313 (1.031–1.672, p = 0.0272) for <50% carbohydrate intake, 1.322 (1.116–1.567, p = 0.0013) for ≥60% carbohydrate intake, 1.439 (1.018–2.035, p = 0.0394) for <30% fat intake, and 3.255 (1.767–5.997, p = 0.0002) for ≥40% fat intake. There was no significant association between protein intake proportion and all-cause mortality. We found a U-shaped association between all-cause mortality and carbohydrate intake as well as fat intake, with minimal risk observed at 50–60% carbohydrate and 30–40% fat intake. Our findings suggest current Korean dietary guidelines should be revised to prolong life expectancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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Article
Furbellow (Brown Algae) Extract Increases Lifespan in Drosophila by Interfering with TOR-Signaling
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041172 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Algal products are well known for their health promoting effects. Nonetheless, an in depth understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still only fragmentary. Here, we show that aqueous furbelow extracts (brown algae, Saccorhiza polyschides) lengthen the life of both sexes of [...] Read more.
Algal products are well known for their health promoting effects. Nonetheless, an in depth understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still only fragmentary. Here, we show that aqueous furbelow extracts (brown algae, Saccorhiza polyschides) lengthen the life of both sexes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster substantially, if used as nutritional additives to conventional food. This life prolonging effect became even more pronounced in the presence of stressors, such as high-fat dieting of living under drought conditions. Application of the extracts did not change food intake, excretion, or other major physiological parameters. Nevertheless, effects on the intestinal microbiota were observed, leading to an increased species richness, which is usually associated with healthy conditions. Lifespan extension was not observed in target of rapamycin (TOR)-deficient animals, implying that functional TOR signaling is necessary to unfold the positive effects of brown algae extract (BAE) on this important trait. The lack of life lengthening in animals with deregulated TOR signaling exclusively targeted to body fat showed that this major energy storage organ is instrumental for transmitting these effects. In addition, expression of Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), an effective inhibitor of insulin signaling implies that BAE exerts their positive effects through interaction with the tightly interwoven TOR- and insulin-signaling systems, although insulin levels were not directly affected by this intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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Article
In Contrast to Dietary Restriction, Application of Resveratrol in Mice Does not Alter Mouse Major Urinary Protein Expression
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030815 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in mice has been discussed as partly mimicking the beneficial effects of dietary restriction (DR). However, data on putative benefits from resveratrol application in mice and other model organisms including humans is contradictory. Mouse major urinary proteins (MUPs) are a [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in mice has been discussed as partly mimicking the beneficial effects of dietary restriction (DR). However, data on putative benefits from resveratrol application in mice and other model organisms including humans is contradictory. Mouse major urinary proteins (MUPs) are a family of proteins that are expressed in rodent liver and secreted via urine. Impacting (mating) behavior and pheromone communication, they are severely down-regulated upon DR. We carried out two studies in C57BL/6Rj mice where RSV was either supplemented via diet or injected intraperitoneally for 8 weeks. Contrary to −40% DR, RSV did not decrease total MUP protein expression or Mup (amongst others Mup3, Mup5, Mup6, Mup15, and Mup20) mRNA levels in mouse liver when compared to ad-libitum (AL)-fed controls. Since inhibitory glucocorticoid response elements can be found in Mup promoters, we also measured glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in nuclear hepatic extracts. Consistent with differential MUP expression, we observed more nuclear GR in DR mice than in RSV-supplemented and AL control mice with no difference between RSV and AL. These findings point to the notion that, in mice, RSV does not mimic DR in terms of differential MUP expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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Article
A Novel Micronutrient Blend Mimics Calorie Restriction Transcriptomics in Multiple Tissues of Mice and Increases Lifespan and Mobility in C. elegans
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020486 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Background: We previously described a novel micronutrient blend that behaves like a putative calorie restriction mimetic. The aim of this paper was to analyze the beneficial effects of our micronutrient blend in mice and C. elegans, and compare them with calorie restriction. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: We previously described a novel micronutrient blend that behaves like a putative calorie restriction mimetic. The aim of this paper was to analyze the beneficial effects of our micronutrient blend in mice and C. elegans, and compare them with calorie restriction. Methods: Whole transcriptomic analysis was performed in the brain cortex, skeletal muscle and heart in three groups of mice: old controls (30 months), old + calorie restriction and old + novel micronutrient blend. Longevity and vitality were tested in C. elegans. Results: The micronutrient blend elicited transcriptomic changes in a manner similar to those in the calorie-restricted group and different from those in the control group. Subgroup analysis revealed that nuclear hormone receptor, proteasome complex and angiotensinogen genes, all of which are known to be directly related to aging, were the most affected. Furthermore, a functional analysis in C. elegans was used. We found that feeding C. elegans the micronutrient blend increased longevity as well as vitality. Conclusions: We describe a micronutrient supplement that causes similar changes (transcriptomic and promoting longevity and vitality) as a calorie restriction in mice and C. elegans, respectively, but further studies are required to confirm these effects in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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Hypothesis
Adolescent Dietary Habit-induced Obstetric and Gynecologic Disease (ADHOGD) as a New Hypothesis—Possible Involvement of Clock System
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051294 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
There are growing concerns that poor dietary behaviors at young ages will increase the future risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. We found that female college students who skipped breakfast had higher incidences of dysmenorrhea and irregular menstruation, suggesting that meal skipping affects [...] Read more.
There are growing concerns that poor dietary behaviors at young ages will increase the future risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. We found that female college students who skipped breakfast had higher incidences of dysmenorrhea and irregular menstruation, suggesting that meal skipping affects ovarian and uterine functions. Since dysmenorrhea is more prevalent in those with a past history of dieting, we proposed a novel concept that inadequate dietary habits in adolescence become a trigger for the subsequent development of organic gynecologic diseases. Since inadequate feeding that was limited during the non-active phase impaired reproductive functions in post-adolescent female rats, we hypothesize that circadian rhythm disorders due to breakfast skipping disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, impairs the reproductive rhythm, and leads to ovarian and uterine dysfunction. To explain how reproductive dysfunction is memorized from adolescence to adulthood, we hypothesize that the peripheral clock system also plays a critical role in the latent progression of reproductive diseases together with the central system, and propose naming this concept “adolescent dietary habit-induced obstetric and gynecologic disease (ADHOGD)”. This theory will contribute to analyzing the etiologies of and developing prophylaxes for female reproductive diseases from novel aspects. In this article, we describe the precise outline of the above hypotheses with the supporting evidence in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
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