Special Issue "Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2022) | Viewed by 12115

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Andrew W. McHill
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Nursing, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 3455 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, USAOregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland OR, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road - L606, USA
Interests: circadian misalignment; cardiometabolic health; meal timing; shiftwork; insufficient and disrupted sleep
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the industrialized world, many work and social activities are scheduled to occur at times when the internal biological clock (i.e., the circadian system) is promoting sleep, fasting, and inactivity. Wakefulness and eating during these biological times results in a disruption of the circadian system that, if chronically induced, is associated with not only impairments in safety, cognitive functioning, and sleep but also a multitude of poor health consequences, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and obesity. A growing body of literature has begun to recognize the importance of circadian disruption toward health; however, additional research is needed on the interaction between nutrition (what a person eats, how much a person eats, and when a person eats), circadian disruption, and cardiometabolic health. Importantly, mechanisms for adverse health need to be identified in order to create research-based countermeasures to help combat disease in those at risk of circadian disruption, including the >20% of the U.S. workforce that work shift hours and those that keep irregular sleep/wake schedules.

Original research at mechanistic, observational, and epidemiological levels on topics regarding nutrition, circadian disruption, and cardiometabolic health, including, but not limited to, topics focused on energy metabolism, meal timing, meal composition, and all aspects of health, are encouraged. Reviews of the literature are also welcome.

Dr. Andrew W. McHill
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • circadian
  • meal timing
  • metabolism
  • metabolic syndrome
  • hypertension
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • health
  • macronutrients
  • calories
  • sleep
  • irregular sleep

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Lower Serum Calcium Levels Associated with Disrupted Sleep and Rest–Activity Rhythm in Shift Workers
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153021 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in many developed countries, and several studies suggest that vitamin D plays an essential role in brain function. A recent study showed that vitamin D deficiency was closely associated with daytime sleepiness and shorter sleep time. The relationshipbetween [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in many developed countries, and several studies suggest that vitamin D plays an essential role in brain function. A recent study showed that vitamin D deficiency was closely associated with daytime sleepiness and shorter sleep time. The relationshipbetween vitamin D levels and calcium levels is well established, and calcium level regulates slow-wave sleep generation. It is conceivable that the sleep disturbance in vitamin D deficiency may be due to an altered calcium level. Nonetheless, calcium levels, sleep disturbances, and activity rhythms have not been investigated directly. Therefore, we hypothesized that calcium and vitamin D levels might be important in regulating sleep and activity rhythm, and we analyzed the correlation with calcium levels by actigraphy analysis. Interestingly, a negative correlation was found between calcium level and sleep latency, total sleep time, use of sleep medicine, and daytime dysfunction among shift workers. In contrast, non-shift workers showed a negative correlation between the calcium level and the circadian phase. These findings suggest that low serum calcium levels may disrupt sleep–wake control and rest–activity rhythm, even if they are within the normal range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Chronic Circadian Disruption and Sleep Restriction Influence Subjective Hunger, Appetite, and Food Preference
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091800 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Chronic circadian disruption (CCD), such as occurs during rotating shiftwork, and insufficient sleep are each independently associated with poor health outcomes, including obesity and glucose intolerance. A potential mechanism for poor health is increased energy intake (i.e., eating), particularly during the circadian night, [...] Read more.
Chronic circadian disruption (CCD), such as occurs during rotating shiftwork, and insufficient sleep are each independently associated with poor health outcomes, including obesity and glucose intolerance. A potential mechanism for poor health is increased energy intake (i.e., eating), particularly during the circadian night, when the physiological response to energy intake is altered. However, the contributions of CCD and insufficient sleep to subjective hunger, appetite, food preference, and appetitive hormones are not clear. To disentangle the influences of these factors, we studied seventeen healthy young adults in a 32-day in-laboratory study designed to distribute sleep, wakefulness, and energy intake equally across all phases of the circadian cycle, thereby imposing CCD. Participants were randomized to the Control (1:2 sleep:wake ratio, n = 8) or chronic sleep restriction (CSR, 1:3.3 sleep:wake ratio, n = 9) conditions. Throughout each waking episode the participants completed visual analog scales pertaining to hunger, appetite, and food preference. A fasting blood sample was collected to assess appetitive hormones. CCD was associated with a significant decrease in hunger and appetite in a multitude of domains in both the Control and CSR groups. This change in hunger was significantly correlated with changes in the ghrelin/leptin ratio. These findings further our understanding of the contributions of CCD and insufficient sleep on subjective hunger and appetite as well as of their possible contributions to adverse health behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Time-of-Day Circadian Modulation of Grape-Seed Procyanidin Extract (GSPE) in Hepatic Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cafeteria-Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040774 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Major susceptibility to alterations in liver function (e.g., hepatic steatosis) in a prone environment due to circadian misalignments represents a common consequence of recent sociobiological behavior (i.e., food excess and sleep deprivation). Natural compounds and, more concisely, polyphenols have been shown as an [...] Read more.
Major susceptibility to alterations in liver function (e.g., hepatic steatosis) in a prone environment due to circadian misalignments represents a common consequence of recent sociobiological behavior (i.e., food excess and sleep deprivation). Natural compounds and, more concisely, polyphenols have been shown as an interesting tool for fighting against metabolic syndrome and related consequences. Furthermore, mitochondria have been identified as an important target for mediation of the health effects of these compounds. Additionally, mitochondrial function and dynamics are strongly regulated in a circadian way. Thus, we wondered whether some of the beneficial effects of grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on metabolic syndrome could be mediated by a circadian modulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. For this purpose, rats were subjected to “standard”, “cafeteria” and “cafeteria diet + GSPE” treatments (n = 4/group) for 9 weeks (the last 4 weeks, GSPE/vehicle) of treatment, administering the extract/vehicle at diurnal or nocturnal times (ZT0 or ZT12). For circadian assessment, one hour after turning the light on (ZT1), animals were sacrificed every 6 h (ZT1, ZT7, ZT13 and ZT19). Interestingly, GSPE was able to restore the rhythm on clock hepatic genes (Bmal1, Per2, Cry1, Rorα), as this correction was more evident in nocturnal treatment. Additionally, during nocturnal treatment, an increase in hepatic fusion genes and a decrease in fission genes were observed. Regarding mitochondrial complex activity, there was a strong effect of cafeteria diet at nearly all ZTs, and GSPE was able to restore activity at discrete ZTs, mainly in the diurnal treatment (ZT0). Furthermore, a differential behavior was observed in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolites between GSPE diurnal and nocturnal administration times. Therefore, GSPE may serve as a nutritional preventive strategy in the recovery of hepatic-related metabolic disease by modulating mitochondrial dynamics, which is concomitant to the restoration of the hepatic circadian machinery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Face Validity of Observed Meal Patterns Reported with 7-Day Diet Diaries in a Large Population-Based Cohort Using Diurnal Variation in Concentration Biomarkers of Dietary Intake
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020238 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 593
Abstract
In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993–1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain [...] Read more.
In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993–1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Time-Restricted Feeding in Mice Prevents the Disruption of the Peripheral Circadian Clocks and Its Metabolic Impact during Chronic Jetlag
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113846 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
We used time-restricted feeding (TRF) to investigate whether microbial metabolites and the hunger hormone ghrelin can become the dominant entraining factor during chronic jetlag to prevent disruption of the master and peripheral clocks, in order to promote health. Therefore, hypothalamic clock gene and [...] Read more.
We used time-restricted feeding (TRF) to investigate whether microbial metabolites and the hunger hormone ghrelin can become the dominant entraining factor during chronic jetlag to prevent disruption of the master and peripheral clocks, in order to promote health. Therefore, hypothalamic clock gene and Agrp/Npy mRNA expression were measured in mice that were either chronically jetlagged and fed ad libitum, jetlagged and fed a TRF diet, or not jetlagged and fed a TRF diet. Fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, plasma ghrelin and corticosterone levels, and colonic clock gene mRNA expression were measured. Preventing the disruption of the food intake pattern during chronic jetlag using TRF restored the rhythmicity in hypothalamic clock gene mRNA expression of Reverbα but not of Arntl. TRF countered the changes in plasma ghrelin levels and in hypothalamic Npy mRNA expression induced by chronic jetlag, thereby reestablishing the food intake pattern. Increase in body mass induced by chronic jetlag was prevented. Alterations in diurnal fluctuations in fecal SCFAs during chronic jetlag were prevented thereby re-entraining the rhythmic expression of peripheral clock genes. In conclusion, TRF during chronodisruption re-entrains the rhythms in clock gene expression and signals from the gut that regulate food intake to normalize body homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Review

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Review
Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Reproductive Hormone Levels in Females and Males: A Review of Human Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112343 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels [...] Read more.
Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels in humans. Our results suggest that intermittent fasting decreases androgen markers (i.e., testosterone and the free androgen index (FAI)) while increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in premenopausal females with obesity. This effect was more likely to occur when food consumption was confined to earlier in the day (eating all food before 4 pm). In contrast, fasting did not have any effect on estrogen, gonadotropins, or prolactin levels in women. As for men, intermittent fasting reduced testosterone levels in lean, physically active, young males, but it did not affect SHBG concentrations. Interestingly, muscle mass and muscular strength were not negatively affected by these reductions in testosterone. In interpreting these findings, it is important to note that very few studies have been conducted on this topic. Thus, it is difficult to draw solid conclusions at present. From the limited data presented here, it is possible that intermittent fasting may decrease androgen markers in both genders. If this is the case, these results would have varied health implications. On the one hand, fasting may prove to be a valuable tool for treating hyperandrogenism in females with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by improving menstruation and fertility. On the other hand, fasting may be shown to decrease androgens among males, which could negatively affect metabolic health and libido. More research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
Review
A Time to Rest, a Time to Dine: Sleep, Time-Restricted Eating, and Cardiometabolic Health
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030420 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) poses a serious health and economic burden worldwide. Modifiable lifestyle factors are a focus of research into reducing the burden of CVD, with diet as one of the most investigated factors. Specifically, the timing and regularity of food intake is [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) poses a serious health and economic burden worldwide. Modifiable lifestyle factors are a focus of research into reducing the burden of CVD, with diet as one of the most investigated factors. Specifically, the timing and regularity of food intake is an emerging research area, with approaches such as time-restricted eating (TRE) receiving much attention. TRE involves shortening the time available to eat across the day and is associated with improved CVD outcomes compared with longer eating windows. However, studies that have examined TRE have not considered the impact of sleep on CVD outcomes despite recent evidence showing that sleep duration can influence the timing and amount of food eaten. In this article, we argue that as TRE and sleep influence each other, and influence the same cardiometabolic parameters, experiencing inadequate sleep may attenuate any positive impact TRE has on CVD. We examine the relationship between TRE and CVD, with sleep as a potential mediator in this relationship, and propose a research agenda to investigate this relationship. This will provide necessary evidence to inform future interventions aimed at reducing the burden of CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Review
Social Jetlag and Related Risks for Human Health: A Timely Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124543 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
The term social jetlag is used to describe the discrepancy between biological time, determined by our internal body clock, and social times, mainly dictated by social obligations such as school or work. In industrialized countries, two-thirds of the studying/working population experiences social jetlag, [...] Read more.
The term social jetlag is used to describe the discrepancy between biological time, determined by our internal body clock, and social times, mainly dictated by social obligations such as school or work. In industrialized countries, two-thirds of the studying/working population experiences social jetlag, often for several years. Described for the first time in 2006, a considerable effort has been put into understanding the effects of social jetlag on human physiopathology, yet our understanding of this phenomenon is still very limited. Due to its high prevalence, social jetlag is becoming a primary concern for public health. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding social jetlag, social jetlag associated behavior (e.g., unhealthy eating patterns) and related risks for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Other

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Reply
Reply to Erren et al. Chronodisruption: Origin, Roots, and Developments of an 18-Year-Old Concept. Comment on “Desmet et al. Time-Restricted Feeding in Mice Prevents the Disruption of the Peripheral Circadian Clocks and Its Metabolic Impact during Chronic Jetlag. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3846”
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020316 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
We would like to thank Erren et al. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
Comment
Chronodisruption: Origin, Roots, and Developments of an 18-Year-Old Concept. Comment on Desmet et al. Time-Restricted Feeding in Mice Prevents the Disruption of the Peripheral Circadian Clocks and Its Metabolic Impact during Chronic Jetlag. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3846
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020315 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 540
Abstract
We read with interest the article by Desmet and colleagues entitled “Time-Restricted Feeding in Mice Prevents the Disruption of the Peripheral Circadian Clocks and Its Metabolic Impact during Chronic Jetlag” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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