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Special Issue "Vegan Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Winston Craig

Adjunct Professor of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: vegetarian diets; phytochemicals; spices and herbs; chronic diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nutrients will highlight the research supporting the health benefits and advantages of a total plant-based diet, including protection against major chronic diseases. In addition, research documenting any nutritional concerns relating to the regular consumption of a vegan diet, and papers dealing with diet sustainability and impact of a vegan diet on the environment, will be considered. We will also highlight any differences, in health and nutritional status, seen in population groups following a vegan diet as compared to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. Research that highlights the health outcomes of different ethnic groups consuming a vegan diet is encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Winston Craig
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Health benefits
  • Chronic diseases
  • Vegan diets
  • Plant foods

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Food and Nutrient Composition of Whole-Food Plant-Based and Vegan Diets Compared to Current Dietary Recommendations
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030625
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
Public interest in popular diets is increasing, in particular whole-food plant-based (WFPB) and vegan diets. Whether these diets, as theoretically implemented, meet current food-based and nutrient-based recommendations has not been evaluated in detail. Self-identified WFPB and vegan diet followers in the Adhering to [...] Read more.
Public interest in popular diets is increasing, in particular whole-food plant-based (WFPB) and vegan diets. Whether these diets, as theoretically implemented, meet current food-based and nutrient-based recommendations has not been evaluated in detail. Self-identified WFPB and vegan diet followers in the Adhering to Dietary Approaches for Personal Taste (ADAPT) Feasibility Survey reported their most frequently used sources of information on nutrition and cooking. Thirty representative days of meal plans were created for each diet. Weighted mean food group and nutrient levels were calculated using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) and data were compared to DRIs and/or USDA Dietary Guidelines/MyPlate meal plan recommendations. The calculated HEI-2015 scores were 88 out of 100 for both WFPB and vegan meal plans. Because of similar nutrient composition, only WFPB results are presented. In comparison to MyPlate, WFPB meal plans provide more total vegetables (180%), green leafy vegetables (238%), legumes (460%), whole fruit (100%), whole grains (132%), and less refined grains (−74%). Fiber level exceeds the adequate intakes (AI) across all age groups. WFPB meal plans failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)s for vitamin B12 and D without supplementation, as well as the RDA for calcium for women aged 51–70. Individuals who adhere to WFBP meal plans would have higher overall dietary quality as defined by the HEI-2015 score as compared to typical US intakes with the exceptions of calcium for older women and vitamins B12 and D without supplementation. Future research should compare actual self-reported dietary intakes to theoretical targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Plant-Based Diet, Cholesterol, and Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Prospective Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020335
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Vegetarian diets may lower symptomatic gallstone disease via cholesterol lowering. This study aimed to examine the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease (GSD) in Taiwanese vegetarians vs. nonvegetarians in a prospective cohort and to explore if this association is related to cholesterol concentration. We [...] Read more.
Vegetarian diets may lower symptomatic gallstone disease via cholesterol lowering. This study aimed to examine the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease (GSD) in Taiwanese vegetarians vs. nonvegetarians in a prospective cohort and to explore if this association is related to cholesterol concentration. We prospectively followed 4839 participants, and in the 29,295 person-years of follow-up, 104 new incident GSD cases were confirmed. Diet was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Symptomatic GSD was ascertained through linkage to the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Blood cholesterol profiles were measured at recruitment. Cox regression was applied to assess the effect of diet on symptomatic GSD, adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activities, diabetes, kidney diseases, body mass index, lipid-lowering medication, and hypercholesterolemia. Vegetarian diet was associated with a decreased risk of symptomatic GSD compared with nonvegetarian diet in women (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28–0.96) but not in men. In women, nonvegetarians with hypercholesterolemia had 3.8 times the risk of GSD compared with vegetarians with normal cholesterol (HR, 3.81, 95% CI, 1.61–9.01). A vegetarian diet may therefore protect against GSD independent of baseline hypercholesterolemia. A nonvegetarian diet and hypercholesterolemia may have an additive effect in increasing GSD risk in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Vegetarian Diet with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020279
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications are major global public health issues. Vegetarian diets are associated with a more favorable profile of metabolic risk factors and lower blood pressure, but the protective effect in CKD is still unknown. We aim to assess [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications are major global public health issues. Vegetarian diets are associated with a more favorable profile of metabolic risk factors and lower blood pressure, but the protective effect in CKD is still unknown. We aim to assess the association between vegetarian diets and CKD. A cross-sectional study was based on subjects who received physical checkups at the Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from 5 September 2005, to 31 December 2016. All subjects completed a questionnaire to assess their demographics, medical history, diet pattern, and lifestyles. The diet patterns were categorized into vegan, ovo-lacto vegetarian, or omnivore. CKD was defined as an estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of proteinuria. We evaluated the association between vegetarian diets and CKD prevalence by using multivariate analysis. Our study recruited 55,113 subjects. CKD was significantly less common in the vegan group compared with the omnivore group (vegan 14.8%, ovo-lacto vegetarians 20%, and omnivores 16.2%, P < 0.001). The multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that vegetarian diets including vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets were possible protective factors [odds ratios = 0.87 (0.77–0.99), P = 0.041; 0.84 (0.78–0.90), P < 0.001]. Our study showed a strong negative association between vegetarian diets and prevalence of CKD. If such associations are causal, vegetarian diets could be helpful in reducing the occurrence of CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
A Plant-Based Meal Increases Gastrointestinal Hormones and Satiety More Than an Energy- and Macronutrient-Matched Processed-Meat Meal in T2D, Obese, and Healthy Men: A Three-Group Randomized Crossover Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010157
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Gastrointestinal hormones are involved in regulation of glucose metabolism and satiety. We tested the acute effect of meal composition on these hormones in three population groups. A randomized crossover design was used to examine the effects of two energy- and macronutrient-matched meals: a [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal hormones are involved in regulation of glucose metabolism and satiety. We tested the acute effect of meal composition on these hormones in three population groups. A randomized crossover design was used to examine the effects of two energy- and macronutrient-matched meals: a processed-meat and cheese (M-meal) and a vegan meal with tofu (V-meal) on gastrointestinal hormones, and satiety in men with type 2 diabetes (T2D, n = 20), obese men (O, n = 20), and healthy men (H, n = 20). Plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1), amylin, and peptide YY (PYY) were determined at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. Visual analogue scale was used to assess satiety. We used repeated-measures Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for statistical analysis. Postprandial secretion of GLP-1 increased after the V-meal in T2D (by 30.5%; 95%CI 21.2 to 40.7%; p < 0.001) and H (by 15.8%; 95%CI 8.6 to 23.5%; p = 0.01). Postprandial plasma concentrations of amylin increased in in all groups after the V-meal: by 15.7% in T2D (95%CI 11.8 to 19.6%; p < 0.001); by 11.5% in O (95%CI 7.8 to 15.3%; p = 0.03); and by 13.8% in H (95%CI 8.4 to 19.5%; p < 0.001). An increase in postprandial values of PYY after the V-meal was significant only in H (by 18.9%; 95%CI 7.5 to 31.3%; p = 0.03). Satiety was greater in all participants after the V-meal: by 9% in T2D (95%CI 4.4 to 13.6%; p = 0.004); by 18.7% in O (95%CI 12.8 to 24.6%; p < 0.001); and by 25% in H (95%CI 18.2 to 31.7%; p < 0.001). Our results indicate there is an increase in gut hormones and satiety, following consumption of a single plant-based meal with tofu when compared with an energy- and macronutrient-matched processed-meat meat and cheese meal, in healthy, obese and diabetic men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Healthy Lifestyle Practices among Argentinian Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010154
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Although current research has contributed to the promotion of whole-food plant-based diets, few studies have examined healthy vegan dietary and lifestyle factors, especially in South America. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the adherence to healthy vegan lifestyle habits among Argentinian vegetarians and omnivorous, [...] Read more.
Although current research has contributed to the promotion of whole-food plant-based diets, few studies have examined healthy vegan dietary and lifestyle factors, especially in South America. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the adherence to healthy vegan lifestyle habits among Argentinian vegetarians and omnivorous, using a recently developed vegetarian lifestyle index adapted to the vegan dietary pattern. Also, accessibility of vegetarian foods, and the proportion of household income spent on food were assessed in a cross-sectional approach with 1454 participants. The population was comprised of females (84.9%), singles (55.0%), young-adults (mean age 32.1, standard deviation (SD) = 13.6), employed (50.8%), with high educational levels (50.4%), and low prevalence of both tobacco smoking (7.0%) and frequent alcohol consumption (7.6%). The mean score of adherence to healthy vegan lifestyle habits was 6.64 (SD = 1.72), with higher scores indicating better adherence. Non-vegetarians (5.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.61–5.89) had a significantly lower adjusted mean score compared to semi-(6.32; 95% CI, 6.17–6.47), pesco-(6.99; 95% CI, 6.59–7.39), lacto-ovo-vegetarians (7.10; 95% CI, 6.96–7.24), as well as vegans (8.59; 95% CI, 8.35–8.83). The mean proportion of household income spent on food was significantly lower among vegans compared with other dietary patterns. The whole population that was studied showed a low consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Although vegans showed a better diet and lifestyle pattern there is a need to improve eating and lifestyle habits to address risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Argentina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Developing a Food Exchange System for Meal Planning in Vegan Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010043
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Vegan diets in children need to be adequately planned so they can safely meet children’s requirements for growth and development. Adequate and realistic meal planning guidelines should not be difficult to achieve, thanks to the increasing number and availability of natural and fortified [...] Read more.
Vegan diets in children need to be adequately planned so they can safely meet children’s requirements for growth and development. Adequate and realistic meal planning guidelines should not be difficult to achieve, thanks to the increasing number and availability of natural and fortified vegan foods, which can help children to meet all their nutrients requirements. In order to ensure an adequate supply of key nutrients, families and health professionals need accurate, reliable, and easy-to-use meal planning tools. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach system to meal planning, based on the same food exchange methodology that has been already published in adults. Daily portions of each food exchange group have been calculated so the resulting menu provides at least 90% of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of protein, iron, zinc, calcium, and n-3 fatty acids for each age group, sex, and physical activity level. These diets do not provide enough vitamin B-12 and vitamin D. Although fortified plant drinks, breakfast cereals or plant protein-rich products could provide variable amounts of these two vitamins, B12 supplementation is always recommended and vitamin D supplementation should be considered whenever sun exposure is limited. This tool can be used to plan healthful and balanced vegan diets for children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Plant-Based Diets for Cardiovascular Safety and Performance in Endurance Sports
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010130
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Studies suggest that endurance athletes are at higher-than-average risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial damage. The ability of plant-based regimens to reduce risk and affect performance was reviewed. The effect of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly plasma lipid concentrations, body weight, and [...] Read more.
Studies suggest that endurance athletes are at higher-than-average risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial damage. The ability of plant-based regimens to reduce risk and affect performance was reviewed. The effect of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly plasma lipid concentrations, body weight, and blood pressure, and, as part of a healthful lifestyle, reversing existing atherosclerotic lesions, may provide a substantial measure of cardiovascular protection. In addition, plant-based diets may offer performance advantages. They have consistently been shown to reduce body fat, leading to a leaner body composition. Because plants are typically high in carbohydrate, they foster effective glycogen storage. By reducing blood viscosity and improving arterial flexibility and endothelial function, they may be expected to improve vascular flow and tissue oxygenation. Because many vegetables, fruits, and other plant-based foods are rich in antioxidants, they help reduce oxidative stress. Diets emphasizing plant foods have also been shown to reduce indicators of inflammation. These features of plant-based diets may present safety and performance advantages for endurance athletes. The purpose of this review was to explore the role of nutrition in providing cardioprotection, with a focus on plant-based diets previously shown to provide cardiac benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)

Other

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Open AccessPerspective
Vegan Nutrition for Mothers and Children: Practical Tools for Healthcare Providers
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010005
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As the number of subjects choosing vegan diets increases, healthcare providers must be prepared to give the best advice to vegan patients during all stages of life. A completely plant-based diet is suitable during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood, provided that it is [...] Read more.
As the number of subjects choosing vegan diets increases, healthcare providers must be prepared to give the best advice to vegan patients during all stages of life. A completely plant-based diet is suitable during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood, provided that it is well-planned. Balanced vegan diets meet energy requirements on a wide variety of plant foods and pay attention to some nutrients that may be critical, such as protein, fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12. This paper contains recommendations made by a panel of experts from the Scientific Society for Vegetarian Nutrition (SSNV) after examining the available literature concerning vegan diets during pregnancy, breastfeeding, infancy, and childhood. All healthcare professionals should follow an approach based on the available evidence in regard to the issue of vegan diets, as failing to do so may compromise the nutritional status of vegan patients in these delicate periods of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan Nutrition)
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