Special Issue "Respiratory Disease and Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Hiam Abdala-Valencia
Website
Guest Editor
Research Assistant Professor of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Interests: Lung Biology; Asthma; Cell Metabolism; Metabolomics; Epigenetics; Nutrigenetics; Nutrigenomics; Cell development; Lung Microbiome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most complex respiratory conditions invoke interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, pollution, and diet. There is increasing evidence that diet and nutrition are important factors not only in disease prevention but also in their contribution to the chronicity and heterogeneity of lung disorders. Nutrients exert potent effects on metabolism through a variety of regulatory mechanisms, resulting in local and systemic changes in metabolite levels. In this issue of Nutrients, we would like to bring together papers dealing with the topic of “Respiratory Diseases and Nutrition”. We welcome manuscripts detailing human and animal studies focused on the roles of dietary and metabolic factors in the initiation and progression of respiratory diseases, including but not limited to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In vitro studies aimed at elucidating the potential molecular mechanisms of diet–metabolic interactions are also invited. We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles and up-to-date reviews and commentaries.

We are looking forward to receiving your contribution.

Dr. Hiam Abdala-Valencia
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Respiratory diseases
  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Nutrition
  • Nutrients
  • Metabolism
  • Mitochondria
  • Antioxidants
  • Carotenoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin C
  • Fatty acids saturated fat
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Amino acids
  • Sugars

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Characterising a Weight Loss Intervention in Obese Asthmatic Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020507 - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity in asthmatic children is high and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. We have previously reported that weight loss leads to improvements in lung function and asthma control in obese asthmatic children. The objectives of this secondary analysis were [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity in asthmatic children is high and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. We have previously reported that weight loss leads to improvements in lung function and asthma control in obese asthmatic children. The objectives of this secondary analysis were to examine: (1) changes in diet quality and (2) associations between the baseline subject characteristics and the degree of weight loss following the intervention. Twenty-eight obese asthmatic children, aged 8–17 years, completed a 10-week diet-induced weight loss intervention. Dietary intake, nutritional biomarkers, anthropometry, lung function, asthma control, and clinical outcomes were analysed before and after the intervention. Following the intervention, the body mass index (BMI) z-score decreased (Δ = 0.18 ± 0.04; p < 0.001), %energy from protein increased (Δ = 4.3 ± 0.9%; p = 0.002), and sugar intake decreased (Δ = 23.2 ± 9.3 g; p= 0.025). Baseline lung function and physical activity level were inversely associated with Δ% fat mass. The ΔBMI z-score was negatively associated with physical activity duration at baseline. Dietary intervention is effective in achieving acute weight loss in obese asthmatic children, with significant improvements in diet quality and body composition. Lower lung function and physical engagement at baseline were associated with lesser weight loss, highlighting that subjects with these attributes may require greater support to achieve weight loss goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) Triggers Systemic Para-Inflammation and is Sufficient to Induce Airway Allergic Sensitization in Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020343 - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Allergic airway diseases are accompanied by increased permeability and an inflammatory state of epithelial barriers, which are thought to be susceptible to allergen sensitization. Although exogenous drivers (proteases, allergens) of epithelial barrier disruption and sensitization are well studied, endogenous contributors (diet, xenobiotics, hormones, [...] Read more.
Allergic airway diseases are accompanied by increased permeability and an inflammatory state of epithelial barriers, which are thought to be susceptible to allergen sensitization. Although exogenous drivers (proteases, allergens) of epithelial barrier disruption and sensitization are well studied, endogenous contributors (diet, xenobiotics, hormones, and metabolism) to allergic sensitization are much less understood. Xenoestrogens are synthetic or natural chemical compounds that have the ability to mimic estrogen and are ubiquitous in the food and water supply of developed countries. By interfering with the estrogen produced by the endocrine system, these compounds have the systemic potential to disrupt the homeostasis of multiple tissues. Our study examined the potential of prototypical xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) to disrupt epithelial homeostasis in vitro and promote allergic responses in vivo. We found that BPA exposure in epithelial cultures in vitro significantly inhibited epithelial cell proliferation and wound healing, as well as promoted the expression of the innate alarmin cytokine TSLP in a time-and dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the exposure to BPA through water supply or inhalation induced a systemic para-inflammatory response by promoting the expression of innate inflammatory mediators in the skin, gut, and airway. In a murine tolerogenic antigen challenge model, chronic systemic exposure to BPA was sufficient to induce airway sensitization to innocuous chicken egg ovalbumin in the complete absence of adjuvants. Mechanistic studies are needed to test conclusively whether endocrine disruptors may play an upstream role in allergic sensitization via their ability to promote a para-inflammatory state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Higher Omega-3 Index Is Associated with Better Asthma Control and Lower Medication Dose: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010074 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, associated with systemic inflammation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have established anti-inflammatory effects, thus having potential as an adjunct therapy in asthma. This study aimed to compare erythrocyte n-3 PUFA in adults with (n [...] Read more.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, associated with systemic inflammation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have established anti-inflammatory effects, thus having potential as an adjunct therapy in asthma. This study aimed to compare erythrocyte n-3 PUFA in adults with (n = 255) and without (n = 137) asthma and determine the relationship between erythrocyte n-3 PUFA and clinical asthma outcomes. Subjects had blood collected, lung function measured and Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score calculated. Fatty acids were measured in erythrocyte membranes by gas chromatography, and the omega-3 index (O3I) was calculated (% eicosapentaenoic acid + % docosahexaenoic acid). O3I was similar in subjects with and without asthma (p = 0.089). A higher O3I was observed in subjects with controlled or partially controlled asthma (ACQ < 1.5) compared to subjects with uncontrolled asthma (ACQ ≥ 1.5) (6.0% (5.4–7.2) versus 5.6% (4.6–6.4) p = 0.033). Subjects with a high O3I (≥8%) had a lower maintenance dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) compared to those with a low O3I (<8%) (1000 μg (400–1000) versus 1000 μg (500–2000) p = 0.019). This study demonstrates that a higher O3I is associated with better asthma control and with lower ICS dose, suggesting that a higher erythrocyte n-3 PUFA level may have a role in asthma management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal Obesity in Mice Exacerbates the Allergic Inflammatory Response in the Airways of Male Offspring
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122902 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
It was previously demonstrated that non-allergen-sensitized rodents born to mothers exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD) spontaneously develop lower respiratory compliance and higher respiratory resistance. In the present study, we sought to determine if mice born to mothers consuming HFD would exhibit changes [...] Read more.
It was previously demonstrated that non-allergen-sensitized rodents born to mothers exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD) spontaneously develop lower respiratory compliance and higher respiratory resistance. In the present study, we sought to determine if mice born to mothers consuming HFD would exhibit changes in inflammatory response and lung remodeling when subjected to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization/challenge in adult life. Mice born to dams consuming either HFD or standard chow had increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α and TGF-β1 after challenge with OVA. IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels were further increased in the offspring of HFD-fed mothers. Mice born to obese dams also had exacerbated values of leukocyte infiltration in lung parenchyma, eosinophil and neutrophil counts in BAL, mucus overproduction and collagen deposition. The programming induced by maternal obesity was accompanied by increased expression of miR-155 in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and reduced miR-133b in trachea and lung tissue in adult life. Altogether, the present data support the unprecedented notion that the progeny of obese mice display exacerbated responses to sensitization/challenge with OVA, leading to the intensification of the morphological changes of lung remodeling. Such changes are likely to result from long-lasting changes in miR-155 and miR-133b expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Optimizing Nutrition Assessment to Create Better Outcomes in Lung Transplant Recipients: A Review of Current Practices
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122884 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
Lung transplantation offers patients with end-stage lung disease an opportunity for a better quality of life, but with limited organ availability it is paramount that selected patients have the best opportunity for successful outcomes. Nutrition plays a central role in post-surgical outcomes and, [...] Read more.
Lung transplantation offers patients with end-stage lung disease an opportunity for a better quality of life, but with limited organ availability it is paramount that selected patients have the best opportunity for successful outcomes. Nutrition plays a central role in post-surgical outcomes and, historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used as the de facto method of assessing a lung transplant candidate’s nutritional status. Here, we review the historical origins of BMI in lung transplantation, summarize the current BMI literature, and review studies of alternative/complementary body composition assessment tools, including lean psoas area, creatinine-height index, leptin, and dual x-ray absorptiometry. These body composition measures quantify lean body mass versus fat mass and may provide a more comprehensive analysis of a patient’s nutritional state than BMI alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Greater Efficacy of Black Ginseng (CJ EnerG) over Red Ginseng against Lethal Influenza A Virus Infection
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081879 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Black ginseng (BG, CJ EnerG), prepared via nine repeated cycles of steaming and drying of fresh ginseng, contains more accessible acid polysaccharides and smaller and less polar ginsenosides than red ginseng (RG) processed only once. Because RG exhibits the ability to increase host [...] Read more.
Black ginseng (BG, CJ EnerG), prepared via nine repeated cycles of steaming and drying of fresh ginseng, contains more accessible acid polysaccharides and smaller and less polar ginsenosides than red ginseng (RG) processed only once. Because RG exhibits the ability to increase host protection against viral respiratory infections, we investigated the antiviral effects of BG. Mice were orally administered either BG or RG extract at 10 mg/kg bw daily for two weeks. Mice were then infected with a A(H1N1) pdm09 (A/California/04/2009) virus and fed extracts for an additional week. Untreated, infected mice were assigned to either the negative control, without treatments, or the positive control, treated with Tamiflu. Infected mice were monitored for 14 days to determine the survival rate. Lung tissues were evaluated for virus titer and by histological analyses. Cytokine levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mice treated with BG displayed a 100% survival rate against infection, while mice treated with RG had a 50% survival rate. Further, mice treated with BG had fewer accumulated inflammatory cells in bronchioles following viral infection than did mice treated with RG. BG also enhanced the levels of GM-CSF and IL-10 during the early and late stages of infection, respectively, compared to RG. Thus, BG may be useful as an alternative antiviral adjuvant to modulate immune responses to influenza A virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutrients and Microbiota in Lung Diseases of Prematurity: The Placenta-Gut-Lung Triangle
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020469 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cardiorespiratory function is not only the foremost determinant of life after premature birth, but also a major factor of long-term outcomes. However, the path from placental disconnection to nutritional autonomy is enduring and challenging for the preterm infant and, at each step, will [...] Read more.
Cardiorespiratory function is not only the foremost determinant of life after premature birth, but also a major factor of long-term outcomes. However, the path from placental disconnection to nutritional autonomy is enduring and challenging for the preterm infant and, at each step, will have profound influences on respiratory physiology and disease. Fluid and energy intake, specific nutrients such as amino-acids, lipids and vitamins, and their ways of administration —parenteral or enteral—have direct implications on lung tissue composition and cellular functions, thus affect lung development and homeostasis and contributing to acute and chronic respiratory disorders. In addition, metabolomic signatures have recently emerged as biomarkers of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other neonatal diseases, suggesting a profound implication of specific metabolites such as amino-acids, acylcarnitine and fatty acids in lung injury and repair, inflammation and immune modulation. Recent advances have highlighted the profound influence of the microbiome on many short- and long-term outcomes in the preterm infant. Lung and intestinal microbiomes are deeply intricated, and nutrition plays a prominent role in their establishment and regulation. There is an emerging evidence that human milk prevents bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants, potentially through microbiome composition and/or inflammation modulation. Restoring antibiotic therapy-mediated microbiome disruption is another potentially beneficial action of human milk, which can be in part emulated by pre- and probiotics and supplements. This review will explore the many facets of the gut-lung axis and its pathophysiology in acute and chronic respiratory disorders of the prematurely born infant, and explore established and innovative nutritional approaches for prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Nutrition on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010169 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling, inflammation, and in situ thrombosis. Although there have been important advances in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of PAH, it remains a debilitating, limiting, and rapidly progressive disease. Vitamin D and iron [...] Read more.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling, inflammation, and in situ thrombosis. Although there have been important advances in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of PAH, it remains a debilitating, limiting, and rapidly progressive disease. Vitamin D and iron deficiency are worldwide health problems of pandemic proportions. Notably, these nutritional alterations are largely more prevalent in PAH patients than in the general population and there are several pieces of evidence suggesting that they may trigger or aggravate disease progression. There are also several case reports associating scurvy, due to severe vitamin C deficiency, with PAH. Flavonoids such as quercetin, isoflavonoids such as genistein, and other dietary polyphenols including resveratrol slow the progression of the disease in animal models of PAH. Finally, the role of the gut microbiota and its interplay with the diet, host immune system, and energy metabolism is emerging in multiple cardiovascular diseases. The alteration of the gut microbiota has also been reported in animal models of PAH. It is thus possible that in the near future interventions targeting the nutritional status and the gut dysbiosis will improve the outcome of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Perinatal Undernutrition, Metabolic Hormones, and Lung Development
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122870 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
Maternal and perinatal undernutrition affects the lung development of litters and it may produce long-lasting alterations in respiratory health. This can be demonstrated using animal models and epidemiological studies. During pregnancy, maternal diet controls lung development by direct and indirect mechanisms. For sure, [...] Read more.
Maternal and perinatal undernutrition affects the lung development of litters and it may produce long-lasting alterations in respiratory health. This can be demonstrated using animal models and epidemiological studies. During pregnancy, maternal diet controls lung development by direct and indirect mechanisms. For sure, food intake and caloric restriction directly influence the whole body maturation and the lung. In addition, the maternal food intake during pregnancy controls mother, placenta, and fetal endocrine systems that regulate nutrient uptake and distribution to the fetus and pulmonary tissue development. There are several hormones involved in metabolic regulations, which may play an essential role in lung development during pregnancy. This review focuses on the effect of metabolic hormones in lung development and in how undernutrition alters the hormonal environment during pregnancy to disrupt normal lung maturation. We explore the role of GLP-1, ghrelin, and leptin, and also retinoids and cholecalciferol as hormones synthetized from diet precursors. Finally, we also address how metabolic hormones altered during pregnancy may affect lung pathophysiology in the adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Role of Diet in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevention and Treatment
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061357 - 16 Jun 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a growing healthcare problem. Identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and treatment of COPD is urgent, and the scientific community has begun to pay close attention [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a growing healthcare problem. Identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and treatment of COPD is urgent, and the scientific community has begun to pay close attention to diet as an integral part of COPD management, from prevention to treatment. This review summarizes the evidence from observational and clinical studies regarding the impact of nutrients and dietary patterns on lung function and COPD development, progression, and outcomes, with highlights on potential mechanisms of action. Several dietary options can be considered in terms of COPD prevention and/or progression. Although definitive data are lacking, the available scientific evidence indicates that some foods and nutrients, especially those nutraceuticals endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and when consumed in combinations in the form of balanced dietary patterns, are associated with better pulmonary function, less lung function decline, and reduced risk of COPD. Knowledge of dietary influences on COPD may provide health professionals with an evidence-based lifestyle approach to better counsel patients toward improved pulmonary health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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