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Preventing the Adverse Effects of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 through Diet, Supplements and Lifestyle

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 97309

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA
Interests: vitamin D; ultraviolet exposure; ecological studies; chronic disease risk; infectious diseases; dietary risk factors; cancer

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Co-Guest Editor
Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Interests: cardiovascular diseases; inflammation; circadian rhythms; dietary supplements; nutraceuticals; aging; preventative medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is in the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic continues to have a tremendous impact on society through the direct and indirect effects on health and trying to stay healthy. The primary means being used to reduce the risk of COVID-19 include social distancing, lockdowns, testing and quarantine, wearing masks, cleaning surfaces and atmospheres in closed spaces, and vaccinations. Those who develop COVID-19 may be treated with various drugs, which are still under development. No singular approach can stop the pandemic by itself. The more approaches that are employed, the better the chances are to quell its devastating effects. However, some of the approaches being used, such as lockdowns, have significant adverse effects on people and the economy. In addition, for many underdeveloped countries, the measures employed in the developed countries may not be possible or appropriate to their situations.

Thus, it is worthwhile to consider approaches that modify pre-existing risk factors to reduce the risk of COVID-19 and its impacts. One approach receiving significant attention is raising vitamin D levels though supplementation or UVB exposure. Another is the consumption of other supplements, such as vitamin C and zinc. Regarding supplements, the dose, the timing with respect to symptoms or exposure, and the serum concentrations are all important. A third is to choose foods that strengthen the immune system and avoid foods that suppress the immune system, such as those containing added sugars. Since people who are obese or have any of a number of comorbid conditions have greater risk of developing COVID-19, preventing such diseases could reduce the risk of COVID-19.

An issue being investigated now is “What is the cause of adverse effects from COVID-19 months after the primary disease symptoms have passed?”. These long-haul effects may be due to damage of epithelial layers of organs by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which vitamin D can reduce, suggesting that vitamin D may be an important component of treatment perhaps long after the main symptoms have ceased.

This Special Issue seeks manuscripts that address natural approaches related to diet and supplements to reduce the risk of COVID-19 and its effects.

Dr. William B. Grant
Guest Editor

Dr. Ronan Lordan
Co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • prevention
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • treatment
  • UVB
  • vitamin C
  • vitamin D
  • zinc
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 225 KiB  
Editorial
Preventing the Adverse Effects of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 through Diet, Supplements, and Lifestyle
by Ronan Lordan and William B. Grant
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010115 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3473
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ongoing worldwide pandemic, has cost the lives of almost 5 [...] Full article

Research

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19 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Sahar Golabi, Maryam Adelipour, Sara Mobarak, Maghsud Piri, Maryam Seyedtabib, Reza Bagheri, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Fatemeh Maghsoudi and Mahshid Naghashpour
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103368 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5689
Abstract
Vitamin D and zinc are important components of nutritional immunity. This study compared the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and zinc in COVID-19 outpatients with those of potentially non-infected participants. The association of clinical symptoms with vitamin D and zinc status was [...] Read more.
Vitamin D and zinc are important components of nutritional immunity. This study compared the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and zinc in COVID-19 outpatients with those of potentially non-infected participants. The association of clinical symptoms with vitamin D and zinc status was also examined. A checklist and laboratory examination were applied to collect data in a cross-sectional study conducted on 53 infected outpatients with COVID-19 and 53 potentially non-infected participants. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D were not significantly lower in patients with moderate illness (19 ± 12 ng/mL) than patients with asymptomatic or mild illness (29 ± 18 ng/mL), with a trend noted for a lower serum concentration of 25(OH)D in moderate than asymptomatic or mild illness patients (p = 0.054). Infected patients (101 ± 18 µg/dL) showed a lower serum concentration of zinc than potentially non-infected participants (114 ± 13 µg/dL) (p = 0.01). Patients with normal (odds ratio (OR), 0.19; p ≤ 0.001) and insufficient (OR, 0.3; p = 0.007) vitamin D status at the second to seventh days of disease had decreased OR of general symptoms compared to patients with vitamin D deficiency. This study revealed the importance of 25(OH)D measurement to predict the progression of general and pulmonary symptoms and showed that infected patients had significantly lower zinc concentrations than potentially non-infected participants. Full article
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16 pages, 443 KiB  
Article
Consumption of Food Supplements during the Three COVID-19 Waves in Poland—Focus on Zinc and Vitamin D
by Anna Puścion-Jakubik, Joanna Bielecka, Monika Grabia, Anita Mielech, Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska, Konrad Mielcarek, Justyna Moskwa, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Jolanta Soroczyńska, Krystyna J. Gromkowska-Kępka, Patryk Nowakowski and Katarzyna Socha
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103361 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3634
Abstract
Food supplements (FS) are a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients with nutritional or other physiological effects. Due to their easy availability, widespread advertising, and sometimes low price, increased consumption of this group of preparations has been observed. Therefore, the aim [...] Read more.
Food supplements (FS) are a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients with nutritional or other physiological effects. Due to their easy availability, widespread advertising, and sometimes low price, increased consumption of this group of preparations has been observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and intake of FS during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, with particular reference to FS containing zinc and vitamin D. It was noted that both of the above ingredients were used significantly more often by people with higher education (59.0%), with a medical background or related working in the medical field (54.5%), and/or exercising at home (60.1%). Preparations containing vitamin D were used by 22.8% of the respondents in the first wave, 37.6% in the second wave, and 32.9% in the third wave. To sum up, we showed the highest consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements, and preparations containing zinc and vitamin D were taken significantly more often by people with higher medical and related education. This indicates a high awareness of health aspects and the need for preventive measures in these groups. Full article
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13 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Connecting Families to Food Resources amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Early Care and Education Providers in Two U.S. States
by Lacy Stephens, Caroline Rains and Sara E. Benjamin-Neelon
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093137 - 9 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Early care and education (ECE) settings are important avenues for reaching young children and their families with food and nutrition resources, including through the U.S. federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey of ECE providers in [...] Read more.
Early care and education (ECE) settings are important avenues for reaching young children and their families with food and nutrition resources, including through the U.S. federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey of ECE providers in two U.S. states in November 2020 to identify approaches used to connect families with food and nutrition resources amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of sites reporting no approaches and adjusted Poisson models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio of the mean number of approaches, comparing sites that participate in CACFP to those that did not. A total of 589 ECE sites provided responses. Of those, 43% (n = 255) participated in CACFP. CACFP participating sites were more likely to report using any approaches to connecting families to food resources and significantly more likely to report offering “grab and go” meals, providing meal delivery, distributing food boxes to families, and recommending community food resources than non-CACFP sites. This study suggests that CACFP sites may have greater capacity to connect families to food resources amid emergencies than non-CACFP participating sites. Full article
11 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19
by Tatiana L. Karonova, Alena T. Andreeva, Ksenia A. Golovatuk, Ekaterina S. Bykova, Anna V. Simanenkova, Maria A. Vashukova, William B. Grant and Evgeny V. Shlyakhto
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093021 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 7889
Abstract
We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum 25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21–93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and [...] Read more.
We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum 25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21–93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and 18 (14%) patients died. 25(OH)D level ranged from 3.0 to 97.0 ng/mL (median, 13.5 [25%; 75%, 9.6; 23.3] ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 90 patients, including 37 with severe deficiency. In patients with severe course of disease, 25(OH)D level was lower (median, 9.7 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 14.9] ng/mL), and vitamin D deficiency was more common than in patients with moderate course (median, 14.6 [25%; 75%, 10.6; 24.4] ng/mL, p = 0.003). In patients who died, 25(OH)D was 9.6 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 11.5] ng/mL, compared with 14.8 [25%; 75%, 10.1; 24.3] ng/mL in discharged patients (p = 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. The threshold for 25(OH)D level associated with increased risk of severe course was 11.7 ng/mL. Approximately the same 25(OH)D level, 10.9 ng/mL, was associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, most COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency; severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. Full article
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13 pages, 3852 KiB  
Article
Hesperidin Is a Potential Inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
by Fang-Ju Cheng, Thanh-Kieu Huynh, Chia-Shin Yang, Dai-Wei Hu, Yi-Cheng Shen, Chih-Yen Tu, Yang-Chang Wu, Chih-Hsin Tang, Wei-Chien Huang, Yeh Chen and Chien-Yi Ho
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082800 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 14840
Abstract
Hesperidin (HD) is a common flavanone glycoside isolated from citrus fruits and possesses great potential for cardiovascular protection. Hesperetin (HT) is an aglycone metabolite of HD with high bioavailability. Through the docking simulation, HD and HT have shown their potential to bind to [...] Read more.
Hesperidin (HD) is a common flavanone glycoside isolated from citrus fruits and possesses great potential for cardiovascular protection. Hesperetin (HT) is an aglycone metabolite of HD with high bioavailability. Through the docking simulation, HD and HT have shown their potential to bind to two cellular proteins: transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which are required for the cellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our results further found that HT and HD suppressed the infection of VeroE6 cells using lentiviral-based pseudo-particles with wild types and variants of SARS-CoV-2 with spike (S) proteins, by blocking the interaction between the S protein and cellular receptor ACE2 and reducing ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression. In summary, hesperidin is a potential TMPRSS2 inhibitor for the reduction of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
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12 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Impact of School Closures, Precipitated by COVID-19, on Weight and Weight-Related Risk Factors among Schoolteachers: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Jill R. Silverman and Branden Z. Wang
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082723 - 7 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3119
Abstract
The school closures, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, required teachers to convert their entire classroom curricula to online formats, taught from home. This shift to a more sedentary teaching environment, coupled with the stresses related to the pandemic, may correlate with weight gain. [...] Read more.
The school closures, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, required teachers to convert their entire classroom curricula to online formats, taught from home. This shift to a more sedentary teaching environment, coupled with the stresses related to the pandemic, may correlate with weight gain. In total, 52% of study participants reported weight gain, with a higher prevalence observed among kindergarten and elementary school teachers when compared to high school teachers (p < 0.05). Deviations in physical activity, emotional eating, and dietary patterns were assessed among 129 teachers (using the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire, and a short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire, respectively) to uncover possible associations with the observed weight gain. Increases in sedentariness (p < 0.005), emotional eating (p < 0.001), the consumption of potatoes, fries, breads, cheese, cake (p < 0.05), chips, candy, ice-cream, and soft drinks (p < 0.005) were all positively correlated with weight gain. Decreases in exercise frequency (p < 0.001), and the consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and beans (p < 0.005), were also positively correlated with weight gain. Weight gain, observed among teachers during school closures, was associated with changes in diet, emotional eating and physical activity. Full article
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11 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
Food Enrichment with Glycyrrhiza glabra Extract Suppresses ACE2 mRNA and Protein Expression in Rats—Possible Implications for COVID-19
by Daniela Jezova, Peter Karailiev, Lucia Karailievova, Agnesa Puhova and Harald Murck
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072321 - 6 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key entry point of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus known to induce Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have recently outlined a concept to reduce ACE2 expression by the administration of glycyrrhizin, a component [...] Read more.
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key entry point of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus known to induce Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have recently outlined a concept to reduce ACE2 expression by the administration of glycyrrhizin, a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, via its inhibitory activity on 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) and resulting activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We hypothesized that in organs such as the ileum, which co-express 11betaHSD2, MR and ACE2, the expression of ACE2 would be suppressed. We studied organ tissues from an experiment originally designed to address the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on stress response. Male Sprague Dawley rats were left undisturbed or exposed to chronic mild stress for five weeks. For the last two weeks, animals continued with a placebo diet or received a diet containing extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight/day. Quantitative PCR measurements showed a significant decrease in gene expression of ACE2 in the small intestine of rats fed with diet containing Glycyrrhiza glabra extract. This effect was independent of the stress condition and failed to be observed in non-target tissues, namely the heart and the brain cortex. In the small intestine we also confirmed the reduction of ACE2 at the protein level. Present findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may reduce an entry point of SARS-CoV-2. Whether this phenomenon, when confirmed in additional studies, is linked to the susceptibility of cells to the virus requires further studies. Full article
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14 pages, 1435 KiB  
Article
Effects of a 2-Week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Recovery of Symptoms in Patients with Mild to Moderate Covid-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Shaun Sabico, Mushira A. Enani, Eman Sheshah, Naji J. Aljohani, Dara A. Aldisi, Naif H. Alotaibi, Naemah Alshingetti, Suliman Y. Alomar, Abdullah M. Alnaami, Osama E. Amer, Syed D. Hussain and Nasser M. Al-Daghri
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072170 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 111 | Viewed by 27539
Abstract
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 severity. This multi-center randomized clinical trial aims to determine the effects of 5000 IU versus 1000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation in the recovery of symptoms and other clinical [...] Read more.
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 severity. This multi-center randomized clinical trial aims to determine the effects of 5000 IU versus 1000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation in the recovery of symptoms and other clinical parameters among mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status. Study Design and Setting: A total of 69 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 positive adults who were hospitalized for mild to moderate COVID-19 disease were allocated to receive once daily for 2 weeks either 5000 IU oral vitamin D3 (n = 36, 21 males; 15 females) or 1000 IU oral vitamin D3 (standard control) (n = 33, 13 males; 20 females). Anthropometrics were measured and blood samples were taken pre- and post-supplementation. Fasting blood glucose, lipids, serum 25(OH)D, and inflammatory markers were measured. COVID-19 symptoms were noted on admission and monitored until full recovery. Results: Vitamin D supplementation for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels in the 5000 IU group only (adjusted p = 0.003). Within-group comparisons also showed a significant decrease in BMI and IL-6 levels overtime in both groups (p-values < 0.05) but was not clinically significant in between-group comparisons. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that the 5000 IU group had a significantly shorter time to recovery (days) than the 1000 IU group in resolving cough, even after adjusting for age, sex, baseline BMI, and D-dimer (6.2 ± 0.8 versus 9.1 ± 0.8; p = 0.039), and ageusia (loss of taste) (11.4 ± 1.0 versus 16.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.035). Conclusion: A 5000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation for 2 weeks reduces the time to recovery for cough and gustatory sensory loss among patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status and mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms. The use of 5000 IU vitamin D3 as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients with suboptimal vitamin D status, even for a short duration, is recommended. Full article
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14 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Disease Severity and Death in Relation to Vitamin D Status among SARS-CoV-2-Positive UAE Residents
by Habiba AlSafar, William B. Grant, Rafiq Hijazi, Maimunah Uddin, Nawal Alkaabi, Guan Tay, Bassam Mahboub and Fatme Al Anouti
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051714 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 12897
Abstract
Insufficient blood levels of the neurohormone vitamin D are associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Despite the global rollout of vaccinations and promising preliminary results, the focus remains on additional preventive measures to manage COVID-19. Results conflict on vitamin D’s [...] Read more.
Insufficient blood levels of the neurohormone vitamin D are associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Despite the global rollout of vaccinations and promising preliminary results, the focus remains on additional preventive measures to manage COVID-19. Results conflict on vitamin D’s plausible role in preventing and treating COVID-19. We examined the relation between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity and mortality among the multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates. Our observational study used data for 522 participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at one of the main hospitals in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Only 464 of those patients were included for data analysis. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Serum samples immediately drawn at the first hospital visit were used to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations through automated electrochemiluminescence. Levels < 12 ng/mL were significantly associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection and of death. Age was the only other independent risk factor, whereas comorbidities and smoking did not contribute to the outcomes upon adjustment. Sex of patients was not an important predictor for severity or death. Our study is the first conducted in the UAE to measure 25(OH)D levels in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and confirm the association of levels < 12 ng/mL with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

17 pages, 1480 KiB  
Review
Does Oxidative Stress Management Help Alleviation of COVID-19 Symptoms in Patients Experiencing Diabetes?
by Alok K. Paul, Md K. Hossain, Tooba Mahboob, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Polrat Wilairatana, Rownak Jahan, Khoshnur Jannat, Tohmina A. Bondhon, Anamul Hasan, Maria de Lourdes Pereira and Mohammed Rahmatullah
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020321 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4764
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 virus causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other comorbidities such as diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of diabetic nephropathy, which is attributed to hyperglycemia. COVID-19 produces severe complications in people with diabetes mellitus. This article [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 virus causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other comorbidities such as diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of diabetic nephropathy, which is attributed to hyperglycemia. COVID-19 produces severe complications in people with diabetes mellitus. This article explains how SARS-CoV-2 causes more significant kidney damage in diabetic patients. Importantly, COVID-19 and diabetes share inflammatory pathways of disease progression. SARS-CoV-2 binding with ACE-2 causes depletion of ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) from blood vessels, and subsequently, angiotensin-II interacts with angiotensin receptor-1 from vascular membranes that produce NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate) oxidase, oxidative stress, and constriction of blood vessels. Since diabetes and COVID-19 can create oxidative stress, we hypothesize that COVID-19 with comorbidities such as diabetes can synergistically increase oxidative stress leading to end-stage renal failure and death. Antioxidants may therefore prevent renal damage-induced death by inhibiting oxidative damage and thus can help protect people from COVID-19 related comorbidities. A few clinical trials indicated how effective the antioxidant therapy is against improving COVID-19 symptoms, based on a limited number of patients who experienced COVID-19. In this review, we tried to understand how effective antioxidants (such as vitamin D and flavonoids) can act as food supplements or therapeutics against COVID-19 with diabetes as comorbidity based on recently available clinical, preclinical, or in silico studies. Full article
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25 pages, 1843 KiB  
Review
Changes in Dietary Patterns and Clinical Health Outcomes in Different Countries during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
by Roxana Filip, Liliana Anchidin-Norocel, Roxana Gheorghita, Wesley K. Savage and Mihai Dimian
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103612 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4774
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions (“lockdowns”) are implemented. Full article
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