Special Issue "Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Karl Michaëlsson
Website
Guest Editor
Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section Orthopaedic, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden
Interests: vitamin D; calcium; dairy; fragility fractures; physical activity; osteoporosis; epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is estimated that 25 million men and 140 million women globally will have a fracture each year. About 3.5 million new fragility fractures occur annually in Europe alone and fragility fractures can, in some high-incidence countries, encompass 10% of the total health care costs. Fragility fractures therefore impose a huge personal and economic toll, and high mortality rates are often an additional consequence. With a growing number of elderly individuals, the number of fragility fracture cases is expected to double worldwide over the next 40 years, presenting significant challenges to medical systems, health care budgets and the well-being of older populations.

Hip fractures are considered the most devastating type of fragility fracture associated with substantial pain and suffering, disability, increased mortality for the individual and high costs for the society. Worldwide 1.6 million hip fractures are estimated to occur each year at an average of 80 years of age. As for fragility fractures in general, Scandinavian countries have the highest rates. Thus, a Swedish man has a higher risk of having a hip fracture than a woman from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, or Finland, an observation that cannot readily be explained by known lifestyle or genetic determinants, climate, vitamin D status, longevity, or geographical differences in bone mineral density (BMD). The risk of hip fracture increases 44 fold in Swedish women from 55 to 85 years of age, so that the lifetime cumulative incidence of hip fracture is 25% in women and 12% in men. Hip fractures account for half of all costs imposed by fractures in the middle-aged and older populations and on average 1% total health care costs in Europe. The impact is even greater in Scandinavia given our high incidences.

To reduce the burden from fractures in society, it is important to explore preventive strategies that may impact risk and which are modifiable by intervention. According to twin studies, lifestyle for the occurrence of fragility fracture as well as bone loss prevention is becoming of greater importance with growing age. One such modifiable lifestyle factor is our diet. Much research relating to diet and bone health has historically been spent on calcium and vitamin D. However, many other nutrients and food components in our diets, as well as individual foods may influence bone health. We aim to provide a selection of different nutritional aspects for the prevention of fragility fractures in this special issue ‘Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition’ of Nutrients. Although not restricted to only these, some topics might be:

  • Calcium and vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of fragility fractures. Who needs it?
  • Dairy consumption for the prevention of fragility fractures
  • A healthy diet also suitable for the prevention of fragility fractures?
  • Advantages and limitations of Mendelian randomization studies to disentangle nutrients of causal importance for bone and prevention of fractures.
  • Vitamin A in relation to bone health.
  • Vitamin K in relation to bone turnover markers, bone health and fractures.
  • Magnesium intake and bone.
  • The effects of phytoestrogens on bone mineral density and fractures in postmenopausal women
  • Osteomicrobiology – a novel field of research connecting intestinal microbiota with skeletal health.

Prof. Dr. Karl Michaëlsson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fracture
  • Osteoporosis
  • Calcium
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin A and retinol
  • Healthy diet
  • Milk
  • Dairy
  • Microbiota

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Osteoporotic Effects of Combined Extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex and Achyranthes japonica in Osteoblast and Osteoclast Cells and Ovariectomized Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112716 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density and quality with high risk of bone fracture. Here, we investigated anti-osteoporotic effects of natural plants (Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) and Achyranthes japonica (AJ)) in osteoblast and osteoclast cells in vitro and ovariectomized mice in [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density and quality with high risk of bone fracture. Here, we investigated anti-osteoporotic effects of natural plants (Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) and Achyranthes japonica (AJ)) in osteoblast and osteoclast cells in vitro and ovariectomized mice in vivo. Combined LRC and AJ enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone-forming osteoblasts by the up-regulation of bone metabolic markers (Alpl, Runx2 and Bglap) in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. However, LRC and AJ inhibited osteoclast differentiation of monocytes isolated from mouse bone marrow. In vivo experiments showed that treatment of LRC+AJ extract prevented OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and osteoclastogenesis in an osteoporotic animal model. These results suggest that LRC+AJ extract may be a good therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporotic bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A New Calcium Oral Controlled-Release System Based on Zeolite for Prevention of Osteoporosis
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102467 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Osteoporosis, a systemic skeleton disease, can be prevented by increasing calcium levels in serum via administration of calcium salts. However, traditional calcium-based formulations have not appeared to be effective, hence the purpose of the present work has been to prepare and test in [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis, a systemic skeleton disease, can be prevented by increasing calcium levels in serum via administration of calcium salts. However, traditional calcium-based formulations have not appeared to be effective, hence the purpose of the present work has been to prepare and test in vitro/vivo a formulation able to gradually release calcium during transit over the GI tract, thus increasing bioavailability and reducing daily dose, and hence, side effects. Calcium controlled-release granules based on zeolite and Precirol® were prepared. In the best case, represented by granules sized 1.2 mm, containing 20% Precirol®, 19% zeolite, 60% calcium (granule), the release lasted ≈6 h. The release is controlled by diffusion of calcium ions through the aqueous channels forming within granules, once these come into contact with physiological fluids. Such a diffusion is hindered by the interaction of calcium ions with the negatively charged surface of the zeolite. Ovariectomy was used to make rats osteopenic. For in vivo studies, rats were divided into the following groups. Sham: not treated; ova: ovariectomized (ova); CaCl2 1.0 g: ova, treated with 1.0 g/die Ca2+; CaCl2 0.5 g: ova, treated with 0.5 g/die Ca2+; granule 1.0 g, or granule 0.5 g: ova, treated with granules equivalent to 1.0 g/die or 0.5 g/die Ca2+ in humans. Ca2+ amounts in femur bone and bone marrow, femur mechanical characteristics, and femur medullary canalicule diameter were measured and the same efficacy rank order was obtained: ova < CaCl2 0.5 g < CaCl2 1.0 g < granule 0.5 g ≈ granule 1.0 g ≈ sham. The results show promise of an effective prevention of osteoporosis, based on a controlled-rate administration of a calcium dose half that administered by the current therapy, with reduced side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Calcium and/or Vitamin D Supplementation for the Prevention of Fragility Fractures: Who Needs It?
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041011 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vitamin D and calcium have different biological functions, so the need for supplementation, and its safety and efficacy, need to be evaluated for each separately. Vitamin D deficiency is usually the result of low sunlight exposure (e.g., in frail older people, those who [...] Read more.
Vitamin D and calcium have different biological functions, so the need for supplementation, and its safety and efficacy, need to be evaluated for each separately. Vitamin D deficiency is usually the result of low sunlight exposure (e.g., in frail older people, those who are veiled, those with dark-skin living at higher latitudes) and is reversible with calciferol 400–800 IU/day. Calcium supplements produce a 1% increase in bone density in the first year of use, without further increases subsequently. Vitamin D supplements do not improve bone density in clinical trials except in analyses of subgroups with baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 nmol/L. Supplementation with calcium, vitamin D, or their combination does not prevent fractures in community-dwelling adults, but a large study in vitamin D-deficient nursing home residents did demonstrate fracture prevention. When treating osteoporosis, co-administration of calcium with anti-resorptive drugs has not been shown to impact on treatment efficacy. Correction of severe vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L) is necessary before use of potent anti-resorptive drugs to avoid hypocalcemia. Calcium supplements cause gastrointestinal side effects, particularly constipation, and increase the risk of kidney stones and, probably, heart attacks by about 20%. Low-dose vitamin D is safe, but doses >4000 IU/day have been associated with more falls and fractures. Current evidence does not support use of either calcium or vitamin D supplements in healthy community-dwelling adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Nutritional Support and Physical Modalities for People with Osteoporosis: Current Opinion
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2848; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122848 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a vital healthcare issue among elderly people. During the aging process, a gradual loss of bone mass results in osteopenia and osteoporosis. Heritable factors account for 60–80% of optimal bone mineralization, whereas modifiable factors such as nutrition, weight-bearing exercise, body mass, [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is a vital healthcare issue among elderly people. During the aging process, a gradual loss of bone mass results in osteopenia and osteoporosis. Heritable factors account for 60–80% of optimal bone mineralization, whereas modifiable factors such as nutrition, weight-bearing exercise, body mass, and hormonal milieu affect the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in adulthood. Osteoporosis substantially increases the risk of skeletal fractures and further morbidity and mortality. The effective prevention of fractures by reducing the loss of bone mass is the primary goal for physicians treating people with osteoporosis. Other than pharmacologic agents, lifestyle adjustment, nutritional support, fall prevention strategies, exercise, and physical modalities can be used to treat osteoporosis or prevent further osteoporotic fracture. Each of these factors, alone or in combination, can be of benefit to people with osteoporosis and should be implemented following a detailed discussion with patients. This review comprises a systematic survey of the current literature on osteoporosis and its nonpharmacologic and nonsurgical treatment. It provides clinicians and healthcare workers with evidence-based information on the assessment and management of osteoporosis. However, numerous issues regarding osteoporosis and its treatment remain unexplored and warrant future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop