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The Associations between Obesity, Dyslipidemia and Nutritional Intake

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2022) | Viewed by 6737

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: clinical nutrition; nutrition assessment; metabolism; evidence-based medicine; nutritional and metabolic diseases; lipid metabolism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece
Interests: epidemiology of chronic diseases; public health and prevention; childhood obesity; breast feeding; fermented food; food sustainability; plant-based diets; processed foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effects of excess weight on mortality and morbidity were recognized over 2000 years ago by Hippocrates when he stated that “sudden death is more common in those who are naturally fat than in the lean”. In the 21st century, obesity has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a disease that is associated with highly modifiable factors, including environment, diet, and overall lifestyle. In addition to overall obesity, visceral fat and sarcopenic obesity are factors that can predispose unhealthy metabolic effects. Such an effect is dyslipidemia, which increases cardiovascular disease risk, the primary cause of mortality worldwide.

The overall influence of obesity and the type of obesity on lipid profile is still being investigated, especially in relation with specific nutritional intake. Specific foods and nutrients as well as their combination have been readily investigated, and to date, evidence remains controversial. Food vectors that promote passive overconsumption, including energy-dense foods principally related to their fat and/or carbohydrate type and content, high-energy drinks and large portion sizes, have been linked to increasing obesity risk, despite their potential null—or opposite—effect on dyslipidemia.

The synergistic effect of quality, quantity and frequency of specific foods and/or nutrients may help resolve many discrepancies between nutritional intake and dyslipidemia that still exist to date, such as dietary cholesterol and serum levels. Furthermore, the type of food leading to specific obesity types may help resolve the myth concerning the “obesity paradox”.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish original research and in-depth reviews that report associations between various forms of obesity, including sarcopenic obesity and dyslipidemias in relation to specific nutritional intake. More specifically, this Special Issue aims to bring together a selection of well-designed research that will shed light on grey areas regarding food, nutrients and the interaction of these with weight status and lipid profile.

We welcome the submission of epidemiologic, intervention and in-depth review studies from a wide range of related nutrition areas, such as human interventions, nutritional epidemiology and public health, metabolic and chronic diseases, and lifestyle modification, in adults and children.

Dr. Michael Chourdakis
Dr. Emmanuella Magriplis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mediterranean diet
  • Nutritional intake
  • Prevention
  • CVD
  • Dietary pattern
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • High fiber
  • Obesity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 658 KiB  
Article
Association of Gastric Myoelectric Activity with Dietary Intakes, Substrate Utilization, and Energy Expenditure in Adults with Obesity
by Mahmoud M. A. Abulmeaty, Ghadeer S. Aljuraiban, Dara Aldisi, Batool Albaran, Zaid Aldossari, Thamer Alsager, Suhail Razak, Yara Almuhtadi, Eman El-Shorbagy, Mohamed Berika, Mohamed Al Zaben and Ali Almajwal
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194021 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Obesity can modulate gastric myoelectric activity (GMA); however, the relationship of GMA with nutrient intakes and substrate utilization in adults with obesity is lacking. We examined the association of dietary intakes, energy expenditure, and substrate utilization with the GMA. Participants (n = [...] Read more.
Obesity can modulate gastric myoelectric activity (GMA); however, the relationship of GMA with nutrient intakes and substrate utilization in adults with obesity is lacking. We examined the association of dietary intakes, energy expenditure, and substrate utilization with the GMA. Participants (n = 115, 18–60 y) were divided into healthy weight (HW, n = 24), overweight (OW, n = 29), obese (OB, n = 41) and morbidly obese (MO, n = 21). Two-day multi-pass 24 h recalls were conducted. The GMA was measured by multichannel electrogastrography (EGG) with water-load (WL) testing. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and percentages of substrate utilization were measured by indirect calorimetry. In the HW, protein intake was directly correlated with average dominant frequency (ADF) and with WL volume, while in obese participants and the MO subgroup, WL volume correlated with carbohydrate intake. In participants with obesity, ADF was positively correlated with fiber intake. In participants with obesity and the OB subgroup, RMR was positively correlated with water-load volume (r = 0.39 and 0.37, p < 0.05). The ADF showed negative correlations with percent of fat utilization and positive correlations with percent of CHO utilization in non-obese groups. However, protein utilization showed inverse correlation in all obese groups. In conclusion, these distinctive associations suggest that certain dietary compositions and dieting regimens impact GMA patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Associations between Obesity, Dyslipidemia and Nutritional Intake)
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17 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Associations of Dyslipidemia with Dietary Intakes, Body Weight Status and Sociodemographic Factors among Adults in the United Arab Emirates
by Habiba I. Ali, Fadima Elmi, Lily Stojanovska, Naser Ibrahim, Leila Cheikh Ismail and Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163405 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Research on dietary and other factors associated with dyslipidemia in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is limited. This study assessed the association of diet, body weight and other risk factors of dyslipidemia by conducting a cross-sectional survey among adults residing in three emirates [...] Read more.
Research on dietary and other factors associated with dyslipidemia in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is limited. This study assessed the association of diet, body weight and other risk factors of dyslipidemia by conducting a cross-sectional survey among adults residing in three emirates of the UAE. Validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and the WHO STEPS Instrument were used to assess dietary intakes, body weight and dyslipidemia-related diagnosis. Composite Mediterranean Diet Score was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD). Of the 610 participants, dyslipidemia was reported by 23.5% of the 319 participants who ever had blood cholesterol levels measured. Self-reported dyslipidemia was associated with increased age, higher BMI, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Most participants did not meet the recommendations for dietary fiber and calorie intake from saturated fats (61.3% and 81.2%, respectively). Participants with dyslipidemia reported a higher median daily intake of vegetables compared to those without dyslipidemia (p < 0.001), who also showed a significantly higher intake of refined grains and sugar-sweetened beverages (p = 0.008). Participants aged ≥50 years were more likely to have adhered to the MD compared to 18–30-year old participants (OR = 4.16; 95% CI 2.59–6.69). Non-Emiratis had higher odds of adherence to the MD compared to UAE nationals (OR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.04–2.06). Interventions targeting behavioral risk factors of dyslipidemia are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Associations between Obesity, Dyslipidemia and Nutritional Intake)
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6 pages, 1137 KiB  
Communication
The Effects of Chronic Consumption of Lipid-Rich and Delipidated Bovine Dairy Milk on Brown Adipose Tissue Volume in Wild-Type Mice
by Zachary J. D’Alonzo, John C. L. Mamo, Liam T. Graneri, Ryusuke Takechi and Virginie Lam
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4266; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124266 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation is associated with increased energy expenditure by inducing non-shivering thermogenesis. The ingestion of a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) supplement and a high calorie diet are reported gateways into BAT activation. However, little is known about the effect [...] Read more.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation is associated with increased energy expenditure by inducing non-shivering thermogenesis. The ingestion of a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) supplement and a high calorie diet are reported gateways into BAT activation. However, little is known about the effect of the MFGM and high calorie diets on BAT volume. To gain insight into this, mice were maintained on a high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet in conjunction with either full-cream (FC) or skim bovine dairy milk (BDM). After being maintained on their respective diets for 13 weeks, their body composition, including BAT volume, was measured using X-ray microtomography. A high calorie diet resulted in an increase in the BAT volume and mice consuming an HF diet in conjunction with FC BDM had a significantly greater BAT volume than all the other groups. Conversely, mice consuming an HF diet in addition to skim milk had a lower BAT volume compared to the HF control. The data presented suggest that the consumption of a high calorie diet in conjunction with FC BDM increases the BAT volume in wild-type mice. This study may provide valuable insight into future studies investigating BAT volume and BAT activity in relation to environmental factors, including diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Associations between Obesity, Dyslipidemia and Nutritional Intake)
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