Special Issue "Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jasminka Ilich-Ernst
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Successful Longevity, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA
Interests: Nutrition and bone and body composition; Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome; Nutrition in chronic stress and low-grade chronic inflammation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the result of increased life expectancy and subsequent increase in aging population, the prevalence of certain chronic conditions, including (but not limited to) osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers, might reach epidemic proportions. Furthermore, it is also important to note that low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) increases with age and persists in older individuals, even when other illnesses are not present. Dietary factors are major contributors to many chronic diseases and to LGCI, the latter being an underliying condition of many. Typical Western-type diet, characterized by high consumption of processed foods, refined sugars, and cereals, as well as higher intake of fat with resulting high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has been atributed to many of the modern-time ailments.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Nutritional Challenges in Women: From Mid- to Older Age”, welcomes the submission of either original research manuscripts or reviews of the scientific literature. Manuscripts should address the changes in nutrient requirements and intake in women during pre- through post-menopausal periods and beyond, in the context of the role of individual nutrients or specific foods in the development, prevention, and/or treatment of modern-time chronic conditions.

Topics should have a clear focus on women from mid- to older age and discuss the nutritional influences in the development, prevention, and/or management of chronic diseases.

Prof. Jasminka Ilich-Ernst
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Macro- and micronutrients
  • Bioactive compounds in food
  • Energy, alcohol, and caffeine consumption
  • Antioxidants
  • Western-type diet
  • Osteosarcopenic obesity and its components (osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity)
  • Cardiovascular disease (hypertension, hyperlipidemia)
  • Diabetes type II
  • Cancers (breast, lung, ovarian, skin, or others)
  • Low-grade chronic inflammation
  • Nutrition and chronic disease risk in underserved populations

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Lean Women on Metformin and Oral Contraceptives for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Demonstrate a Dehydrated Osteosarcopenic Phenotype: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092055 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
Scarce data exist on the body composition of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on treatment with metformin and oral contraceptives (OCs). Thirty-four lean (body mass index 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) women (17 with PCOS on metformin and OCs treatment for six [...] Read more.
Scarce data exist on the body composition of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on treatment with metformin and oral contraceptives (OCs). Thirty-four lean (body mass index 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) women (17 with PCOS on metformin and OCs treatment for six months and 17 controls) aged 18–40 years were assessed for body composition parameters (fat, muscle, glycogen, protein masses, bone masses, and body water compartments) and phase angles. PCOS patients demonstrated lower muscle, glycogen and protein masses (U = 60, p = 0.003), along with a lower bone mineral content and mass (U = 78, p = 0.021; U = 74, p = 0.014) than their healthy counterparts, while total and abdominal fat masses were similar between the two groups. PCOS patients also exhibited increased extracellular body water (U = 10, p < 0.001) and decreased intracellular water, compatible with low-grade inflammation and cellular dehydration. Key differences in body composition between women with PCOS and controls demonstrated an osteosarcopenic body composition phenotype in PCOS patients. A confirmation of these findings in larger studies may render osteosarcopenia management a targeted adjunct therapy in women with PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Role of Calcium and Low-Fat Dairy Foods in Weight-Loss Outcomes Revisited: Results from the Randomized Trial of Effects on Bone and Body Composition in Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051157 - 23 May 2019
Abstract
Several studies have investigated the possibility of dairy foods and calcium (Ca) mediating weight and body composition, but a consensus has not been reached. We aimed to investigate weight-loss-related outcomes during intervention with low-fat dairy foods or Ca + vitamin D supplements, both [...] Read more.
Several studies have investigated the possibility of dairy foods and calcium (Ca) mediating weight and body composition, but a consensus has not been reached. We aimed to investigate weight-loss-related outcomes during intervention with low-fat dairy foods or Ca + vitamin D supplements, both as complements to hypocaloric diets. Overweight/obese Caucasian, early-postmenopausal women (n = 135) were recruited for a 6 month energy-restricted weight loss study complemented with either low-fat dairy foods (D; 4–5 servings/day), or Ca + vitamin D supplements (S); both to amount a total of ~1500 mg/day and 600 IU/day of Ca and vitamin D, respectively, or placebo pills (C). Bone mineral density (BMD) and lean and fat tissue were measured by Lunar iDXA. Serum and urinary markers of bone turnover were analyzed. Diet and physical activity were assessed with 3-day records. Participants on average lost ~4%, ~3%, and ~2% of body weight, fat, and lean tissue, respectively. The significantly better outcomes were noticed in participants in the D group regarding body composition (fat loss/lean tissue preservation) and in participants in the S group regarding the BMD outcomes, compared to those in the C group. Therefore, increasing low-fat dairy foods to 4–5 servings/day and/or increasing Ca & vitamin D intake by supplements (in those who are at the borderline dietary intake) may be beneficial for weight loss/maintenance and may lead to more favorable bone and body composition outcomes in postmenopausal women during moderate weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Maintaining the Outcomes of a Successful Weight Gain Prevention Intervention in Mid-Age Women: Two Year Results from the 40-Something Randomized Control Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051100 - 17 May 2019
Abstract
Despite the life stage of menopause being identified as a high risk for weight gain, there are few obesity prevention interventions for this target group, and no evidence on maintenance of intervention effects after intervention support is withdrawn. In the 40-Something Randomized Controlled [...] Read more.
Despite the life stage of menopause being identified as a high risk for weight gain, there are few obesity prevention interventions for this target group, and no evidence on maintenance of intervention effects after intervention support is withdrawn. In the 40-Something Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) (ACTRN12611000064909), a five-consultation health professional (dietitian and exercise physiologist) obesity prevention intervention, using motivational interviewing principles (MI) over 12 months, achieved significantly greater weight loss than a self-directed intervention (SDI) (tailored written material) in 54 non-obese (body mass index (BMI): 18.5–29.9 kg/m2), premenopausal women (44–50 years). The aim of the current paper is to report on whether the intervention effects were maintained at two years. Anthropometric, biochemical and health behavior data were collected at baseline, 12 months (end of intervention) and 24 months (end of maintenance period). Forty participants (22 = MI, 18 = SDI) who completed all measures to 12 months were invited to participate in the monitoring phase and 30 (MI = 16, SDI = 14) consented. The primary outcome of weight at 24 months was assessed using intention to treat principles (n = 54), adjusting for baseline weight. The MI group had a significantly lower weight at 24 months (64.6 kg, 95% CI: 63.2, 66.6, p = 0.015) compared with the SDI group (67.3 kg, 95% CI: 65.7, 68.8), and the secondary outcomes of percentage body fat and waist circumference were also significantly lower in the MI group. The low-intensity, health professional weight control intervention utilizing MI principles was more efficacious in maintaining a significant weight loss compared to a self-directed intervention, and both were successful in preventing obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Associations between Weight Loss, Food Likes, Dietary Behaviors, and Chemosensory Function in Bariatric Surgery: A Case-Control Analysis in Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040804 - 09 Apr 2019
Abstract
We tested the hypothesis that successful weight loss post-bariatric surgery would be associated with healthier chemosensory function, food likes, and dietary behaviors than either unsuccessful weight loss or pre-surgery morbid obesity. In a case-control design, pre-surgical women with morbid obesity (n = [...] Read more.
We tested the hypothesis that successful weight loss post-bariatric surgery would be associated with healthier chemosensory function, food likes, and dietary behaviors than either unsuccessful weight loss or pre-surgery morbid obesity. In a case-control design, pre-surgical women with morbid obesity (n = 49) were compared with those 1-year post-surgery (24 Roux-en-Y Bypass, 24 Sleeve Gastrectomy) and defined by excess or percent weight loss as successful/unsuccessful. For self-reported smell/taste perception, more post-surgery than pre-surgery reported improved/distorted perception, especially if weight loss successful. Measured taste function (perceived quinine and NaCl intensity) was lower among weight loss unsuccessful versus pre-surgery patients, yet a genetic variation in taste probe (propylthiouracil bitterness) matched expected frequencies without significant pre/post-surgery difference. Regarding survey-reported liking, higher diet quality was seen in the weight loss successful (independent of surgery type) versus pre-surgical patients, with differences driven by lower sweet and refined carbohydrate liking. The post versus pre-surgical patients had greater restraint but less hunger and disinhibition. Patients reporting both higher diet quality and lower hunger showed greater % weight loss, independent of surgery type. Thus, successful weight loss 1-year post-bariatric surgery was associated with improved or distorted chemosensation and patterns of liking associated with healthier diets, especially if coupled with less hunger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Influence of Age, BMI, and WHtR on Body Mass Acceptance, Attitudes, and Motivation towards Body Mass Reduction in Overweight and Obese Caucasian Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030542 - 03 Mar 2019
Abstract
The emotional consequences of excessive body mass, associated with body image and acceptance, have become a global public health challenge as they may decrease the general well-being and hinder weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the [...] Read more.
The emotional consequences of excessive body mass, associated with body image and acceptance, have become a global public health challenge as they may decrease the general well-being and hinder weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on body mass acceptance, attitudes, and motivation toward body mass reduction in overweight and obese Caucasian women with excessive abdominal fat. The previously validated BodyMass–DRama (Body Mass–Dietary Restrictions: Acceptance, Motivation, Attitudes) questionnaire was applied in this study. The declared acceptance, attitudes and motivation towards body mass reduction were compared between subgroups based on age (20–40, 40–50, and 50–60 years), BMI (25.0–30.0, 30.0–35.0, and ≥35.0 kg/m2), and quartiles of WHtR. The age, BMI and WHtR were stated to be associated with declared acceptance, attitudes, and motivation towards body mass reduction. The different age groups indicated the following as the reasons for excessive body mass: young respondents—low physical activity and consumption of sweets; middle-aged ones—large/irregular meals; aging ones—large/irregular meals and low physical activity (p = 0.0161). While describing motivation toward body mass reduction, young respondents indicated the role of a physician or dietitian (p = 0.0012) or someone who can control them (p = 0.0044), as well as their expectation to be more successful at work after body mass reduction (p = 0.0045), while the aging ones indicated appreciation and plaudits from others (p = 0.0264) as a motivating factor. Respondents with the highest BMI declared having spending free time actively constricted (p = 0.0007); they declared more often than others of feeling exhausted (p = 0.0395) or tired all the time (p = 0.0445), but less often of feeling full of joy (p = 0.0457) or full of energy (p <0.0001). Respondents with moderate WHtR declared less often than others that they expect to enjoy socializing (p = 0.0376), but more often to be able to have a better vacation after body mass reduction (p = 0.0128), while those with the lowest WHtR expected to be more physically active (p = 0.0487). Women with the highest WHtR most commonly indicated external pressure from relatives or co-workers as a motivating factor for body mass reduction (p = 0.0435). Due to these differences between Caucasian women with excessive body mass, the approach of physicians and dietitians, as well as methods applied to motivate patients, need to be customized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenic Obesity in Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061302 - 08 Jun 2019
Abstract
Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is referred to as the combination of obesity with low skeletal muscle mass and function. However, its definition and diagnosis is debated. SO represents a sizable risk factor for the development of disability, possibly with a worse prognosis in women. [...] Read more.
Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is referred to as the combination of obesity with low skeletal muscle mass and function. However, its definition and diagnosis is debated. SO represents a sizable risk factor for the development of disability, possibly with a worse prognosis in women. The present narrative review summarizes the current evidence on pharmacological, nutrition and exercise strategies on the prevention and/or treatment of SO in middle-aged and older-aged women. A literature search was carried out in Medline and Google Scholar between 29th January and 14th March 2019. Only controlled intervention studies on mid-age and older women whose focus was on the prevention and/or treatment of sarcopenia associated with obesity were included. Resistance training (RT) appears effective in the prevention of all components of SO in women, resulting in significant improvements in muscular mass, strength, and functional capacity plus loss of fat mass, especially when coupled with hypocaloric diets containing at least 0.8 g/kg body weight protein. Correction of vitamin D deficit has a favorable effect on muscle mass. Treatment of SO already established is yet unsatisfactory, although intense and prolonged RT, diets with higher (1.2 g/kg body weight) protein content, and soy isoflavones all look promising. However, further confirmatory research and trials combining different approaches are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Osteosarcopenic Obesity: Current Knowledge, Revised Identification Criteria and Treatment Principles
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040747 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) syndrome describes the simultaneous deterioration of bone, muscle and excess fat, resulting in reduced functionality and systemic metabolic dysregulation. The key component contributing to this may be ectopic fat in the viscera, bone and muscle. OSO research to date is [...] Read more.
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) syndrome describes the simultaneous deterioration of bone, muscle and excess fat, resulting in reduced functionality and systemic metabolic dysregulation. The key component contributing to this may be ectopic fat in the viscera, bone and muscle. OSO research to date is summarized, and the revised criteria for its identification for research purposes are reviewed and proposed, including new criteria to assess visceral fat in males and females. Finally, nutritional and physical activity recommendations are consolidated into a treatment algorithm, which can be validated in future studies and which may also be applied to preventative management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessConcept Paper
Utilizing Dietary Nutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research: Expanding the Concept of Nutrient Ratios to Macronutrients
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020282 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We recently showed that using micronutrient ratios in nutritional research might provide more insights into how diet affects metabolism and health outcomes, based on the notion that nutrients, unlike drugs, are not consumed one at a time and do not target a single [...] Read more.
We recently showed that using micronutrient ratios in nutritional research might provide more insights into how diet affects metabolism and health outcomes, based on the notion that nutrients, unlike drugs, are not consumed one at a time and do not target a single metabolic pathway. In this paper, we present a concept of macronutrient ratios, including intra- and inter-macronutrient ratios. Macronutrient intakes from food only, from the What We Eat in America website (summarized National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data) were transposed into Microsoft Excel to generate ratios. Overall, the dietary ratios of macronutrients may be more revealing and useful in epidemiology and in basic nutritional research than focusing on individual protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes. While macronutrient ratios may be applied to all types of nutritional research, nutritional epidemiology, and, ultimately, dietary guidelines, the methodology required has not been established yet. In the meantime, intra- and inter-macronutrient ratios may serve as a measure of individual and total macronutrient quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Challenges in Women From Mid- to Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop