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Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2021) | Viewed by 42242

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cádiz, 11519 Cádiz, Spain
Interests: exercise physiology; exercise interventions; physical activity; fitness; physical and mental health; aging; brain health and OMICs
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Guest Editor
MOVE-IT Research group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, Sciences University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain
Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA) Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital University of Cádiz, Spain
Interests: Nutrition; food preferences, mediterranean diet, exercise; fitness; physical activity; obesity; dementia; sarcopenia, frailty; older adults; omics, telomeres and telomerase; active aging, helthy aging.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world’s population has been experiencing significant aging since the mid-twentieth century. It is estimated that, by 2025, there will be 1.2 billion people over 60 years of age, and by 2050, this number will reach 2 billion, with 80% of these living in developing countries. Therefore, all countries face important challenges to ensure their health and social systems are prepared to deal with this demographic change, which will have profound social and economic consequences and relevant implications in terms of protecting the rights and ensuring the well-being of aging individuals. Maintaining an adequate health status of the population as well as their ability to work and earn a living, independence, and self-sufficiency in daily life and leisure time will therefore become increasingly important over the coming decades.

Population aging increases the incidence of health-related problems and physiological decline, generating dependency. The hallmark of aging is that as time passes, the dependence on functional and organic reserves increases. In fact, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between physiological aging and disease states. Consequently, the difficulty in aging research is the identification of physiological and psychological changes that are attributable to an underlying aging process and those that are caused by age-related diseases. In line with this, it has been shown that some lifestyle factors such optimal nutrition, a high level of physical activity/exercise, and a low level of sedentary time aid in the prevention of the psychological and physiological decline associated with age-related diseases.

The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health” is to publish selected papers describing how lifestyle factors, including those related to nutrition and physical activity, influence the aging process and associated health status. Particularly, papers (reviews and randomized control trials or experimental studies) dealing with the roles of nutrition and physical activity in the aging processes and health status as well as the related molecular changes are welcome.

Dr. David Jiménez Pavón
Dr. Ana Carbonell-Baeza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • food preferences
  • Mediterranean diet
  • physical activity/exercise
  • physical fitness
  • obesity
  • frailty
  • sarcopenia
  • cognition
  • omics
  • healthy aging
  • aging

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

13 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
Novel Healthy Eating Index to Examine Daily Food Guides Adherence and Frailty in Older Taiwanese
by Kian-Yuan Lim, I-Chen Chen, Yun-Chun Chan, In-Fai Cheong, Yi-Yen Wang, Zi-Rong Jian, Shyh-Dye Lee, Chi-Chun Chou and Feili Lo Yang
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4210; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124210 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2490
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the adherence of Daily Food Guides (DFGs) among older Taiwanese, and the relationship of dietary quality and frailty. 154 functional independent older adults who were retirement home residents or community dwellers involved in congregate meal services were [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the adherence of Daily Food Guides (DFGs) among older Taiwanese, and the relationship of dietary quality and frailty. 154 functional independent older adults who were retirement home residents or community dwellers involved in congregate meal services were recruited. DFGs adherence was measured using a novel Taiwanese Healthy Index (T-HEI). Dietary quality was further assessed using Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Frailty was defined using modified Fried’s criteria. Of the total participants, 12.3% were considered non-frail individuals, while 77.3% were prefrail, and 10.4% were frail. Compared to non-frail participants, prefrail and frail individuals indicated significantly lower adherence to DFGs (ptrend = 0.025). Intake of dark or orange vegetables (ptrend = 0.010), whole grains (ptrend = 0.007), as well as nuts and seeds (ptrend = 0.029) by non-frail individuals were significantly higher than the levels by prefrail and frail individuals. Linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, and functional ability showed that T-HEI was inversely associated with frailty status (β = −0.16 ± 0, p = 0.047), but additional adjustment for nutritional status attenuated the association (β = −0.14 ± 0, p = 0.103). A similar relationship was observed for DASH but not MDS (DASH: β = −0.18 ± 0.01, p = 0.024; MDS: β = −0.06 ± 0.02, p = 0.465). After adjustment for confounders, the association was not observed. However, the distribution of whole grains component in both DASH and MDS was significantly higher in non-frail than prefrail and frail individuals, indicating the importance of whole grains intake in frailty prevention. In conclusion, higher adherence to DFGs and better dietary quality were associated with a lower prevalence of frailty. Higher nutrient-dense foods intake such as whole grains, dark or orange vegetables, nuts, and seeds mark a watershed in frailty prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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14 pages, 1135 KiB  
Article
Impact of Dietary Modifications on Plasma Sirtuins 1, 3 and 5 in Older Overweight Individuals Undergoing 12-Weeks of Circuit Training
by Paulina Wasserfurth, Josefine Nebl, Miriam Rebekka Rühling, Hadeel Shammas, Jolanthe Bednarczyk, Karsten Koehler, Tim Konstantin Boßlau, Karsten Krüger, Andreas Hahn and Anibh Martin Das
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113824 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous pathways such as mitochondrial energy metabolism in the human body. Lower levels of these enzymes were linked to diseases such as diabetes mellitus and were also described as a result of aging. Sirtuins [...] Read more.
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous pathways such as mitochondrial energy metabolism in the human body. Lower levels of these enzymes were linked to diseases such as diabetes mellitus and were also described as a result of aging. Sirtuins were previously shown to be under the control of exercise and diet, which are modifiable lifestyle factors. In this study, we analyzed SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT5 in blood from a subset of healthy elderly participants who took part in a 12-week randomized, controlled trial during which they performed, twice-weekly, resistance and aerobic training only (EX), the exercise routine combined with dietary counseling in accordance with the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (EXDC), the exercise routine combined with intake of 2 g/day oil from Calanus finmarchicus (EXCO), or received no treatment and served as the control group (CON). In all study groups performing exercise, a significant increase in activities of SIRT1 (EX: +0.15 U/mg (+0.56/−[−0.16]), EXDC: +0.25 U/mg (+0.52/−0.06), EXCO: +0.40 U/mg (+0.88/−[−0.12])) and SIRT3 (EX: +0.80 U/mg (+3.18/−0.05), EXDC: 0.95 U/mg (+3.88/−0.55), EXCO: 1.60 U/mg (+2.85/−0.70)) was detected. Group comparisons revealed that differences in SIRT1 activity in EXCO and EXDC differed significantly from CON (CON vs. EXCO, p = 0.003; CON vs. EXDC, p = 0.010). For SIRT3, increases in all three intervention groups were significantly different from CON (CON vs. EX, p = 0.007; CON vs. EXDC, p < 0.001, CON vs. EXCO, p = 0.004). In contrast, differences in SIRT5-activities were less pronounced. Altogether, the analyses showed that the activity of SIRT1 and SIRT3 increased in response to the exercise intervention and that this increase may potentially be enhanced by additional dietary modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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16 pages, 1321 KiB  
Article
The Association of Anti-Inflammatory Diet Ingredients and Lifestyle Exercise with Inflammaging
by Edyta Wawrzyniak-Gramacka, Natalia Hertmanowska, Anna Tylutka, Barbara Morawin, Eryk Wacka, Marzena Gutowicz and Agnieszka Zembron-Lacny
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113696 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4146
Abstract
One of the latest theories on ageing focuses on immune response, and considers the activation of subclinical and chronic inflammation. The study was designed to explain whether anti-inflammatory diet and lifestyle exercise affect an inflammatory profile in the Polish elderly population. Sixty individuals [...] Read more.
One of the latest theories on ageing focuses on immune response, and considers the activation of subclinical and chronic inflammation. The study was designed to explain whether anti-inflammatory diet and lifestyle exercise affect an inflammatory profile in the Polish elderly population. Sixty individuals (80.2 ± 7.9 years) were allocated to a low-grade inflammation (LGI n = 33) or high-grade inflammation (HGI n = 27) group, based on C-reactive protein concentration (<3 or ≥3 mg/L) as a conventional marker of systemic inflammation. Diet analysis focused on vitamins D, C, E, A, β-carotene, n-3 and n-6 PUFA using single 24-h dietary recall. LGI demonstrated a lower n-6/n-3 PUFA but higher vitamin D intake than HGI. Physical performance based on 6-min walk test (6MWT) classified the elderly as physically inactive, whereby LGI demonstrated a significantly higher gait speed (1.09 ± 0.26 m/s) than HGI (0.72 ± 0.28 m/s). Circulating interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, IL-13, TNFα and cfDNA demonstrated high concentrations in the elderly with low 6MWT, confirming an impairment of physical performance by persistent systemic inflammation. These findings reveal that increased intake of anti-inflammatory diet ingredients and physical activity sustained throughout life attenuate progression of inflammaging in the elderly and indicate potential therapeutic strategies to counteract pathophysiological effects of ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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15 pages, 1296 KiB  
Article
Effect of Individual Nutrition Therapy and Exercise Regime on Gait Speed, Physical Function, Strength and Balance, Body Composition, Energy and Protein, in Injured, Vulnerable Elderly: A Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial (INTERACTIVE)
by Chad Yixian Han, Maria Crotty, Susie Thomas, Ian D. Cameron, Craig Whitehead, Susan Kurrle, Shylie Mackintosh and Michelle Miller
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093182 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3719
Abstract
It is imperative that the surgical treatment of hip fractures is followed up with rehabilitation to enhance recovery and quality of life. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine if an individualised, combined exercise–nutrition intervention significantly improved health outcomes in older adults, after [...] Read more.
It is imperative that the surgical treatment of hip fractures is followed up with rehabilitation to enhance recovery and quality of life. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine if an individualised, combined exercise–nutrition intervention significantly improved health outcomes in older adults, after proximal femoral fracture. We commenced the community extended therapy while in hospital, within two weeks post-surgery. The primary outcome was gait speed and secondary outcomes included physical function, strength and balance, body composition, energy and protein intake. Eighty-six and 89 participants were randomized into six months individualised exercise and nutrition intervention and attention-control groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in gait speed between the groups at six and 12 months. There were no major differences between groups with respect to the secondary outcomes, except estimated energy and protein intake. This may be explained by the sample size achieved. Participants in the intervention group had greater increment in energy (235 kcal; 95% CI, 95 to 375; p = 0.01) and protein intake (9.1 g; 95% CI, 1.5 to 16.8; p = 0.02), compared with those in the control group at six months but not significant at 12 months. This study has demonstrated that providing early, combined exercise and nutrition therapy can improve dietary energy and protein intake in older adults with hip fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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10 pages, 1290 KiB  
Article
Healthy Eating Is Associated with Sarcopenia Risk in Physically Active Older Adults
by Konstantinos-Georgios Papaioannou, Andreas Nilsson, Lena Maria Nilsson and Fawzi Kadi
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082813 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3514
Abstract
Healthy Diet and physical activity may play important roles in the maintenance of muscle health during aging. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of adherence to healthy dietary patterns on sarcopenia risk in a sample of physically active [...] Read more.
Healthy Diet and physical activity may play important roles in the maintenance of muscle health during aging. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of adherence to healthy dietary patterns on sarcopenia risk in a sample of physically active older men and women, while considering adherence to guidelines on muscle strengthening activities (MSA) and protein intake. Based on a sample of 191 physically active men and women (65–70 years), dietary intake was assessed using a 90-items food-frequency-questionnaire (FFQ) and Healthy Diet Score (HDS) was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry and self-report. A sarcopenia risk score (SRS) was derived based on three indicators of muscle health: muscle mass was assessed using bioelectrical impedance and handgrip strength and 5 times sit-to-stand (5-STS) were determined by standardized procedures. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine differences in SRS and its components across sex-specific tertiles of HDS, with adjustments for covariates including total energy intake, protein intake and MSA. A significant main effect (p < 0.05) of HDS on SRS was observed, where those belonging to the highest HDS tertile had lower SRS compared to those in the lowest tertile. A corresponding significant effect was observed for 5-STS performance, with better performance in those with the highest HDS adherence compared to those with the lowest. The present study supports guidelines emphasizing diet quality beyond amounts of macro- and micronutrients in the prevention of age-related deterioration of muscle health. Importantly, the benefits from healthy dietary patterns are evident in older adults who already adhere to guidelines for health-enhancing physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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13 pages, 1929 KiB  
Article
Effects of a 12-Week Suspension versus Traditional Resistance Training Program on Body Composition, Bioimpedance Vector Patterns, and Handgrip Strength in Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Francesco Campa, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Elisabetta Marini, Silvia Stagi, Mario Mauro and Stefania Toselli
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072267 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4103
Abstract
This investigation aimed to compare the effects of suspension training versus traditional resistance exercise using a combination of bands and bodyweight on body composition, bioimpedance vector patterns, and handgrip strength in older men. Thirty-six older men (age 67.4 ± 5.1 years, BMI 27.1 [...] Read more.
This investigation aimed to compare the effects of suspension training versus traditional resistance exercise using a combination of bands and bodyweight on body composition, bioimpedance vector patterns, and handgrip strength in older men. Thirty-six older men (age 67.4 ± 5.1 years, BMI 27.1 ± 3.3 kg/m2) were randomly allocated into suspension training (n = 12), traditional training (n = 13), or non-exercise (n = 11) groups over a 12-week study period. Body composition was assessed using conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis and classic and specific bioelectric impedance vector analysis, and handgrip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Results showed a significant (p < 0.05) group by time interaction for fat mass, fat-free mass, total body water, skeletal muscle index, classic and specific bioelectrical resistance, classic bioelectrical reactance, phase angle, and dominant handgrip strength. Classic and specific vector displacements from baseline to post 12 weeks for the three groups were observed. Handgrip strength increased in the suspension training group (p < 0.01, ES: 1.50), remained stable in the traditional training group, and decreased in the control group (p < 0.01, ES: −0.86). Although bodyweight and elastic band training helps to prevent a decline in muscle mass and handgrip strength, suspension training proved more effective in counteracting the effects of aging in older men under the specific conditions studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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13 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
The Relationships between Sleep and Mental and Physical Health of Chinese Elderly: Exploring the Mediating Roles of Diet and Physical Activity
by Yiqing Zhao, Jianwen Song, Anna Brytek-Matera, Hengyue Zhang and Jinbo He
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041316 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5189
Abstract
Sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity are significant factors influencing physical and mental health. However, few studies have explored their underlying mechanisms, especially among the elderly population in East Asia, where people have food culture and lifestyles distinct from those living in [...] Read more.
Sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity are significant factors influencing physical and mental health. However, few studies have explored their underlying mechanisms, especially among the elderly population in East Asia, where people have food culture and lifestyles distinct from those living in Western countries. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the relationships among sleep quality, diet quality, physical activity, and physical and mental health in a Chinese elderly sample. Sleep quality, diet quality, physical activity, physical health, and mental health were investigated among 313 Chinese elderly (aged 51–92 years, M = 67.90, SD = 7.94). Mediation analysis was used to examine the empirical model based on previous theories and literature. Close positive relationships were observed between all factors investigated (r = 0.22~0.73, p < 0.001). The relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health were partially mediated by diet quality and physical activity. In clinical interventions, sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity can be targeted to improve physical and mental health among the older adult populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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23 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Sarcopenia, Diet, Physical Activity and Obesity in European Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The LifeAge Study
by Pablo Jorge Marcos-Pardo, Noelia González-Gálvez, Abraham López-Vivancos, Alejandro Espeso-García, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda, Gemma María Gea-García, Francisco Javier Orquín-Castrillón, Ana Carbonell-Baeza, José Daniel Jiménez-García, Daniel Velázquez-Díaz, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Emanuele Isidori, Chiara Fossati, Fabio Pigozzi, Lorenzo Rum, Catherine Norton, Audrey Tierney, Ilvis Äbelkalns, Agita Klempere-Sipjagina, Juris Porozovs, Heikki Hannola, Niko Niemisalo, Leo Hokka, David Jiménez-Pavón and Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbaladd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010008 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 6224
Abstract
The revised European consensus defined sarcopenia as a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder that is associated with an increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, physical disability and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia [...] Read more.
The revised European consensus defined sarcopenia as a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder that is associated with an increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, physical disability and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and analyse the influence of diet, physical activity (PA) and obesity index as risk factors of each criteria of sarcopenia. A total of 629 European middle-aged and older adults were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometrics were assessed. Self-reported PA and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were evaluated with the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet questionnaire (PREDIMED), respectively. The functional assessment included handgrip strength, lower body muscle strength, gait speed and agility/dynamic balance. Of the participants, 4.84% to 7.33% showed probable sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was confirmed in 1.16% to 2.93% of participants. Severe sarcopenia was shown by 0.86% to 1.49% of participants. Male; age group ≤65 years; lower body mass index (BMI); high levels of vigorous PA; and the consumption of more than one portion per day of red meat, hamburgers, sausages or cold cuts and/or preferential consumption of rabbit, chicken or turkey instead of beef, pork, hamburgers or sausages (OR = 0.126–0.454; all p < 0.013) resulted as protective factors, and more time of sedentary time (OR = 1.608–2.368; p = 0.032–0.041) resulted as a risk factor for some criteria of sarcopenia. In conclusion, age, diet, PA, and obesity can affect the risk of having low muscle strength, low muscle mass or low functional performance, factors connected with sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)

Review

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23 pages, 3768 KiB  
Review
Relative Efficacy of Weight Management, Exercise, and Combined Treatment for Muscle Mass and Physical Sarcopenia Indices in Adults with Overweight or Obesity and Osteoarthritis: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Shu-Fen Chu, Tsan-Hon Liou, Hung-Chou Chen, Shih-Wei Huang and Chun-De Liao
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061992 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5236
Abstract
Aging and osteoarthritis are associated with high risk of muscle mass loss, which leads to physical disability; this loss can be effectively alleviated by diet (DI) and exercise (ET) interventions. This study investigated the relative effects of different types of diet, exercise, and [...] Read more.
Aging and osteoarthritis are associated with high risk of muscle mass loss, which leads to physical disability; this loss can be effectively alleviated by diet (DI) and exercise (ET) interventions. This study investigated the relative effects of different types of diet, exercise, and combined treatment (DI+ET) on muscle mass and functional outcomes in individuals with obesity and lower-limb osteoarthritis. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy of DI, ET, and DI+ET in patients with obesity and lower-extremity osteoarthritis. The included RCTs were analyzed through network meta-analysis and risk-of-bias assessment. We finally included 34 RCTs with a median (range/total) Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6.5 (4–8/10). DI plus resistance ET, resistance ET alone, and aerobic ET alone were ranked as the most effective treatments for increasing muscle mass (standard mean difference (SMD) = 1.40), muscle strength (SMD = 1.93), and walking speed (SMD = 0.46). Our findings suggest that DI+ET is beneficial overall for muscle mass in overweight or obese adults with lower-limb osteoarthritis, especially those who are undergoing weight management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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Other

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10 pages, 467 KiB  
Brief Report
Detraining Effects on Muscle Quality in Older Men with Osteosarcopenia. Follow-Up of the Randomized Controlled Franconian Osteopenia and Sarcopenia Trial (FrOST)
by Mansour Ghasemikaram, Klaus Engelke, Matthias Kohl, Simon von Stengel and Wolfgang Kemmler
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051528 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the effect of detraining on muscle quality (MQ) in older men with osteosarcopenia. Forty-three community-dwelling older men (78 ± 4 years) were randomly allocated to a consistently supervised high-intensity resistance exercise training (HIRT) group (n = [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the effect of detraining on muscle quality (MQ) in older men with osteosarcopenia. Forty-three community-dwelling older men (78 ± 4 years) were randomly allocated to a consistently supervised high-intensity resistance exercise training (HIRT) group (n = 21) or a control group (CG, n = 22). The HIRT scheduled a periodized single set protocol twice weekly. After the intervention, the men were subjected to six months of detraining. Muscle quality (MQ), defined as maximum isokinetic hip/leg extensor strength per unit of mid-thigh intra-fascia volume, was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or per unit of thigh muscle mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputations was applied. We observed significant exercise effects for MQ (p = 0.001). During detraining, the HIRT group lost about one-third of the intervention-induced gain and displayed significantly (p = 0.001) higher MQ reductions compared to the CG. Nevertheless, after training and detraining, the overall intervention effect on MQ remained significant (p ≤ 0.004). In summary, six months of absence from HIRT induce a significant deleterious effect on MQ in older osteosarcopenic men. We conclude that intermitted training programs with training breaks of six months and longer should be replaced by largely continuous exercise programs, at least when addressing MQ parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
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