Special Issue "Nutrients and Atherosclerosis"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Natalie C. Ward
Website
Guest Editor
School of Biomedical Sciences and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University Western Australia, Perth 6102, Australia
Interests: cardiovascular disease; metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; vascular function; atherosclerosis; nutrition and dietary components; dietary polyphenols; dietary nitrate; gut microbiome
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Epidemiological evidence has provided a wealth of information on the benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Despite this, the exact mechanisms for these protective effects remain largely unknown. Fruits and vegetables are rich in a range of bioactive components, including polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and other important molecules. Following ingestion, a number of these molecules can undergo extensive metabolism, such that their metabolites are more bioactive. Furthermore, it is important to note that individual dietary components may act differently when not included as part of a whole food matrix.

This Special Issue will include original research and scientific perspectives on the function and role of nutrients in atherosclerosis, either as individual components or as part of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

Dr. Natalie C. Ward
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atherosclerosis
  • nutrition
  • nutrition interventions
  • chronic disease
  • microbiome

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Dietary Fiber, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051155 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 19
Abstract
Observational studies have shown that dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary fiber is a non-digestible form of carbohydrates, due to the lack of the digestive enzyme in humans required to digest fiber. Dietary fibers and lignin are [...] Read more.
Observational studies have shown that dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary fiber is a non-digestible form of carbohydrates, due to the lack of the digestive enzyme in humans required to digest fiber. Dietary fibers and lignin are intrinsic to plants and are classified according to their water solubility properties as either soluble or insoluble fibers. Water-soluble fibers include pectin, gums, mucilage, fructans, and some resistant starches. They are present in some fruits, vegetables, oats, and barley. Soluble fibers have been shown to lower blood cholesterol by several mechanisms. On the other hand, water-insoluble fibers mainly include lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; whole-grain foods, bran, nuts, and seeds are rich in these fibers. Water-insoluble fibers have rapid gastric emptying, and as such may decrease the intestinal transit time and increase fecal bulk, thus promoting digestive regularity. In addition to dietary fiber, isolated and extracted fibers are known as functional fiber and have been shown to induce beneficial health effects when added to food during processing. The recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for total fiber intake for men and women aged 19–50 are 38 gram/day and 25 gram/day, respectively. It is worth noting that the RDA recommendations are for healthy people and do not apply to individuals with some chronic diseases. Studies have shown that most Americans do not consume the recommended intake of fiber. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding dietary fiber, sources of food containing fiber, atherosclerosis, and heart disease risk reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
Open AccessArticle
Muscle Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gene Expression Are Altered by Diet-Induced Increase in Muscle Essential Fatty Acid (α-linolenic acid) Concentration in Sheep Used as a Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040723 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of dietary manipulations on muscle fatty acid composition, the activities and relative mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes and the relationship between muscle enzyme activity or mRNA expression and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) concentration in sheep. Eighty-four lambs blocked [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of dietary manipulations on muscle fatty acid composition, the activities and relative mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes and the relationship between muscle enzyme activity or mRNA expression and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) concentration in sheep. Eighty-four lambs blocked on liveweight were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments, lucerne pasture (Lucerne), annual ryegrass pasture (Ryegrass), feedlot pellets (Feedlot) or annual ryegrass plus feedlot pellets (RyeFeedlot). After six weeks of feeding, lambs were slaughtered and within 30 min post-mortem, samples collected from the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle for RNA isolation and measurement of antioxidant enzyme activities. At 24 h post-mortem, LL samples were collected for determination of fatty acid concentrations. Feedlot treatment decreased ALA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) concentrations compared with other treatments and increased linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) compared with Lucerne and Ryegrass (p < 0.001). The activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPX1, p < 0.001) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD2, p < 0.001) enzymes in the muscle increased with Lucerne compared to other treatments. Lucerne increased muscle gpx1 mRNA expression by 1.74-fold (p = 0.01) and 1.68-fold (p = 0.05) compared with Feedlot and other diets, respectively. The GPX1 (r2 = 0.319, p = 0.002) and SOD2 (r2 = 0.244, p = 0.009) enzyme activities were positively related to ALA. There was a positive linear relationship between muscle gpx1 (r2 = 0.102, p = 0.017) or sod2 (r2 = 0.049, p = 0.09) mRNA expressions and ALA concentration. This study demonstrates that diet can affect concentrations of ALA and other fatty acids as well as change activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in muscle. Increased antioxidant activity may, in turn, have beneficial effects on the performance, health and wellbeing of animals and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Grape Pomace Polyphenolic Extract (Taurisolo®) in Reducing TMAO Serum Levels in Humans: Preliminary Results from a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010139 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 16
Abstract
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is considered a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies demonstrated that polyphenols are able to inhibit the growth of TMA-producing bacterial strains, and resveratrol (RSV) reduced TMAO levels in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the TMAO-reducing [...] Read more.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is considered a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies demonstrated that polyphenols are able to inhibit the growth of TMA-producing bacterial strains, and resveratrol (RSV) reduced TMAO levels in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the TMAO-reducing effect of a novel nutraceutical formulation containing grape pomace extract in humans (Taurisolo®). The Taurisolo® polyphenol content was evaluated by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, and RSV was monitored as an indicative marker. After in vitro GI digestion, intestinal bioaccessibility of RSV was 92.3%. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial was carried out to evaluate the TMAO-reducing effect of Taurisolo®. In acute, the maximum levels of RSV were detected both in serum and whole blood 60 min after the administration of Taurisolo®; in chronic, a significant increase of RSV was detected in serum after the 4-week treatment. After 4 weeks, the levels of TMAO were significantly decreased in the treatment group compared to placebo (63.6% vs. 0.54%, respectively, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, our data show that Taurisolo® may represent a novel and useful natural remedy to reduce prognostic markers for incident cardiovascular events. Undoubtedly, further in vitro and in vivo studies need to be performed in order to elucidate possible mechanisms of action and corroborate our preliminary results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Pattern Consumption Differently Affects the Efficiency of Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Vivo
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121885 - 03 Dec 2018
Abstract
It has been well established that moderate alcohol consumption inversely correlates with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, whereas binge alcohol drinking increases cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo the impact of different drinking patterns on reverse cholesterol [...] Read more.
It has been well established that moderate alcohol consumption inversely correlates with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, whereas binge alcohol drinking increases cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo the impact of different drinking patterns on reverse cholesterol transport (RCT); the atheroprotective process leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from the body. RCT was measured with a standardized, radioisotope-based technique in three groups of atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knock out mice: Placebo group, receiving water, which would mimic the abstainers; moderate group, receiving 0.8 g/kg alcohol/day for 28 days, which would mimic a moderate intake; binge group, receiving 0.8 g/kg alcohol/day for 5 days/week, followed by the administration of 2.8 g/kg alcohol/day for 2 days/week, which would mimic a heavy intake in a short period. Mice in the binge drinking group displayed an increase in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and non-HDL-c (all p < 0.0001 vs. placebo), and a significantly reduced elimination of fecal cholesterol. The moderate consumption did not lead to any changes in circulating lipids, but slightly improved cholesterol mobilization along the RCT pathway. Overall, our data confirm the importance of considering not only the total amount, but also the different consumption patterns to define the impact of alcohol on cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Honey and Its Role in Relieving Multiple Facets of Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010167 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Honey, a natural sweetener has been used universally as a complete food and in complementary medicine since early antiquity. Honey contains over 180 substances, including sugars mainly fructose and glucose, water and a plethora of minor constituents such as vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. [...] Read more.
Honey, a natural sweetener has been used universally as a complete food and in complementary medicine since early antiquity. Honey contains over 180 substances, including sugars mainly fructose and glucose, water and a plethora of minor constituents such as vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. The chemical composition of honey varies depending on floral origin, environment and geographical conditions. The sugar components dominate honey composition and they are accountable for sensory and physicochemical properties in food industry. Although present in small quantities, non-sugar components are the major contributors to the health benefits of honey. Our review summarizes and discusses composition of honey, its protective effects and possible action modes on risk factors of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Composition and Cardiovascular Risk: A Mediator or a Bystander?
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121912 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has long been debated. The established notion of the deleterious effects of fat is recently under question, with numerous studies demonstrating the benefits of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets in terms of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, [...] Read more.
The role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has long been debated. The established notion of the deleterious effects of fat is recently under question, with numerous studies demonstrating the benefits of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets in terms of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic derangement. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), are the types of fat that favor metabolic markers and are key components of the Mediterranean Diet, which is considered an ideal dietary pattern with great cardioprotective effects. Except for macronutrients, however, micronutrients like polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamins act on molecular pathways that affect oxidative stress, endothelial function, and lipid and glucose homeostasis. In relation to these metabolic markers, the human gut microbiome is constantly revealed, with its composition being altered by even small dietary changes and different microbial populations being associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, thus becoming the target for potential new treatment interventions. This review aims to present the most recent data concerning different dietary patterns at both the macro- and micronutrient level and their association with atherosclerosis, obesity, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
Open AccessReview
Spices and Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111724 - 10 Nov 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation in the vessel wall, is the main feature of cardiovascular disease. Although the amounts of fruits and vegetables present in [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation in the vessel wall, is the main feature of cardiovascular disease. Although the amounts of fruits and vegetables present in the diets vary by country, diets, worldwide, contain large amounts of spices; this may have positive or negative effects on the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, we focused on the potential protective effects of specific nutrients from spices, such as pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, cinnamon and chili, in atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms, epidemiological analysis, and clinical studies focusing on a variety of spices are covered in this review. Based on the integrated information, we aimed to raise specific recommendations for people with different dietary styles for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through dietary habit adjustments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Bioactive Nutrients on the Atherosclerotic Process: A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111630 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
The protective effects of a dietary intervention as a useful tool in the prevention of atherosclerosis disease has gained greater attention in recent years. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of diet in reducing expensive treatments or possible undesirable side effects. The [...] Read more.
The protective effects of a dietary intervention as a useful tool in the prevention of atherosclerosis disease has gained greater attention in recent years. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of diet in reducing expensive treatments or possible undesirable side effects. The main aim of this review is to examine the effects of specific nutrients on the development and progression of atherosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cardioprotective effect of different nutrients. In this sense, results have shown stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques or downregulation of biomarkers related to inflammation through nutrients such as Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, hydroxytyrosol of extra virgin olive oil, lycopen, phytosterols of plants, or flavonols of fruits and vegetables, among others. The accumulated evidence on the anti-inflammatory effects related to these nutrients is summarized in the present review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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Open AccessReview
Cardiovascular Health Benefits of Specific Vegetable Types: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050595 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 21
Abstract
Adequate vegetable consumption is one of the cornerstones of a healthy diet. The recommendation to increase vegetable intake is part of most dietary guidelines. Despite widespread and long-running public health messages to increase vegetable intake, similar to other countries worldwide, less than 1 [...] Read more.
Adequate vegetable consumption is one of the cornerstones of a healthy diet. The recommendation to increase vegetable intake is part of most dietary guidelines. Despite widespread and long-running public health messages to increase vegetable intake, similar to other countries worldwide, less than 1 in 10 adult Australians manage to meet target advice. Dietary guidelines are predominantly based on studies linking diets high in vegetables with lower risk of chronic diseases. Identifying vegetables with the strongest health benefits and incorporating these into dietary recommendations may enhance public health initiatives around vegetable intake. These enhanced public health initiatives would be targeted at reducing the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Specific vegetable types contain high levels of particular nutrients and phytochemicals linked with cardiovascular health benefits. However, it is not clear if increasing intake of these specific vegetable types will result in larger benefits on risk of chronic diseases. This review presents an overview of the evidence for the relationships of specific types of vegetables, including leafy green, cruciferous, allium, yellow-orange-red and legumes, with subclinical and clinical CVD outcomes in observational epidemiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
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