Special Issue "Nanomedicine-Based Strategies for Improving Nutrient Bioavailability and Health Effects"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Gabriella Calviello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito, 1 – 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: lipoprotein; cancer; dyslipidemia; inflammation; neurodegenerative diseases; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acids; sarcopenia
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Simona Serini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito, 1 – 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: lipoprotein; cancer; dyslipidemia; inflammation; neurodegenerative diseases; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acids; sarcopenia
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over recent years, we have witnessed the growing impact of nanotechnology on biomedical science. Particularly, a number of different nanomedicine-based innovative approaches have been applied to bioactive nutrients and natural products to make them optimal candidates as new potential drugs for the prevention and treatment of a number of diseases (inflammatory, neurodegenerative, neoplastic, cardiovascular diseases, etc.). A large array of advanced delivery systems have been so far proposed with the aim to enhance absorbance, solubility, stability and bioavailability of these compounds. These innovative strategies have also been generally studied to specifically deliver nutrients to target tissues, in an attempt to decrease their possible toxicity, either systemic or towards other specific body districts, as well as to reduce the doses required to obtain healthy effects. In any case, the final aim has been always that to potentiate the bioactivity of these compounds, thus making their application possible in the clinic setting. Combinatory nanomedicine-based strategies have been also used for advanced delivery of nutrients in combination with other nutrients or conventional/ innovative drugs, in an attempt to potentiate their respective activities and increase their preventive/therapeutic effects. In particular, the simultaneous presence of nutrients and already approved antineoplastic therapeutic molecules in this kind of delivery systems appears particularly promising in the field of innovative cancer therapy.

This field of research is attracting great interest, and an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies is being published on this subject. As Guest Editors of the Special Issue “Nanomedicine-Based Strategies for Improving Nutrient Bioavailability and Health Effects”, we invite you to submit proposals for manuscripts (original articles and reviews of the literature) addressing this topic under continuous evolution.

Prof. Gabriella Calviello
Dr. Simona Serini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cancer
  • inflammation
  • nanomedicine
  • neurodegenerative
  • diseases
  • nutrition
  • natural products
  • cardiovascular diseases

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Irritant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of DHA Encapsulated in Resveratrol-Based Solid Lipid Nanoparticles in Human Keratinocytes
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061400 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
We recently found that the dietary long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-ω-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), showed enhanced antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cells if encapsulated in resveratrol-based solid lipid nanoparticles (RV-SLNs). In the present study, we investigated whether the DHA enclosed [...] Read more.
We recently found that the dietary long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-ω-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), showed enhanced antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cells if encapsulated in resveratrol-based solid lipid nanoparticles (RV-SLNs). In the present study, we investigated whether the DHA enclosed in RV-SLNs (DHA-RV-SLNs) could have the potential of attenuating irritation and inflammation caused by environmental factors at the skin level. To this aim, we used two keratinocyte lines (HaCaT and NCTC 2544 cells) and exposed them to the cytotoxic action of the surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as an in vitro model of irritation, or to the pro-inflammatory activity of the cytokine TNF-α. We found that DHA enclosed in RV-SLNs significantly enhanced its ability to contrast the cytotoxic effect of SDS and to inhibit the SDS- and TNF-α-induced production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and 1 MCP-1, in the two keratinocyte cell lines, as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, it more efficiently reduced the upsurge of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels obtained in the presence of a pro-oxidant (H2O2). Overall, our findings suggest the possibility that a sustained dietary supplementation with DHA-RV-SLNs could efficiently protect skin from the pro-irritant and pro-inflammatory activity of environmental attacks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles Containing Cherry Extract from Prunus avium L. to Improve the Resistance of Endothelial Cells to Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111598 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Cherries are known for their nutraceutical properties, in particular for their antioxidant ability due to their polyphenol content, which causes a reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, once ingested these molecules are degraded in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract before reaching the [...] Read more.
Cherries are known for their nutraceutical properties, in particular for their antioxidant ability due to their polyphenol content, which causes a reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, once ingested these molecules are degraded in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract before reaching the blood, which is the action site. The object of the present work is to evaluate the ability of cherry extract (CE), encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) based on different chitosan (Ch) derivatives, to promote a protective effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) involved in vascular dysfunction against oxidative stress. CE-loaded NPs based on quaternary ammonium chitosan (NP1) and an S-protected thiolated derivative thereof (NP2) were prepared. The mean particle size (NP1 344.9 ± 17.8, NP2 339.9 ± 68.2 nm), the polydispersity index, the encapsulation efficiency (NP1 78.4 ± 4.5, NP2 79.8 ± 0.6%), and the zeta potential (NP1 14.8 ± 0.3, NP2 15.8 ± 0.5 mV) did not appear to be significantly different. Both NP types improved the CE apparent permeation parameters with respect to the control. Conversely, CE-loaded NP2 protected HUVECs from oxidative stress and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production more than CE-loaded NP1 and free CE. In addition to promoting HUVEC resistance, NP2 could be a useful tool to overcome the problem of cherry seasonality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Human Microbiota Response to Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized with Mushroom Extract
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050607 - 14 May 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The ability to orally administer silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in enteric capsules implies a direct interaction with the colon microbiota. The in vitro effect provides a portrayal of the functional properties under in vivo conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe a [...] Read more.
The ability to orally administer silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in enteric capsules implies a direct interaction with the colon microbiota. The in vitro effect provides a portrayal of the functional properties under in vivo conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe a green AgNP synthesis process, using aqueous extract from Lactarius piperatus mushroom, and to characterize the nanomaterial. We determined its antimicrobial and antioxidant effects in vitro in the microbiota of healthy individuals via the GIS1 system—a colon transit simulator. Per the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results, the antimicrobial properties of the AgNPs affected the initial share of different enteric species by decreasing the Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus populations and favoring the Bifidobacterium group. The association between AgNPs and wild mushroom L. piperatus extract had a synergistic antibacterial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms while the mushroom extract reduced biofilm formation. Administration of AgNP maintained its constant antioxidant status, and it was correlated with a reduction in ammonium compounds. The physicochemical characterization of these NPs complemented their biochemical characterization. The maximum ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) absorbance was observed at 440 nm, while the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum reached a peak at 3296 cm–1, which was correlated with the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC). The major phenolic compound was homogentisic acid. The size (49 ± 16 nm in diameter) and spherical shape of the NPs were correlated with their biological effects in vitro. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nanoemulsion and Nanoliposome Based Strategies for Improving Anthocyanin Stability and Bioavailability
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051052 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Anthocyanins, a flavonoid class of water-soluble pigments, are reported to possess several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. However, anthocyanins are highly susceptible to degradation in high pH, light, heat, and oxygen during processing and storage. Conventional microencapsulation techniques fail to [...] Read more.
Background: Anthocyanins, a flavonoid class of water-soluble pigments, are reported to possess several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. However, anthocyanins are highly susceptible to degradation in high pH, light, heat, and oxygen during processing and storage. Conventional microencapsulation techniques fail to provide stability to anthocyanins under physiological environments mainly because of their large particle size as well as low zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. Methods: Nanotechnology provides novel strategies for preparing nanoformulations to enhance the physicochemical stability of anthocyanins. Nanoemulsion and nanoliposome are the two most commonly used nanosystems in pharmaceutical and food-related fields. In this review, an overview of various nanoemulsion and nanoliposome systems reported recently for enhancing stability, bioavailability, and bioactivity of anthocyanins is presented. Results: Anthocyanin nanoemulsions with different oil, water, surfactant, and cosurfactant ratios were prepared from extracts of mangosteen peel, purple sweet potato, cranberry, red cabbage, blueberry, jaboticaba peel, and acai berry and evaluated for their antioxidant activity, enhancement of physicochemical stability, topical skin application, and urinary tract infection. Likewise, unilamellar and multilamellar nanoliposomes were prepared using different types and levels of lecithin without or with cholesterol from anthocyanin standards and extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa, mulberry, elderberry, black carrot, and pistachio green hull for the evaluation of physicochemical and oxidative stability, in vitro bioaccessibility, and melanogenic activity, as well as protective effects against diabetes mellitus and cataract. Conclusion: This review provides an insight into the current nanotechnology updates on enhancement of anthocyanin stability and biological activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Use of Lipid Nanocarriers to Improve Oral Delivery of Vitamins
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010068 - 01 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The chemical environment and enzymes in the gastrointestinal (GI) membrane limit the oral absorption of some vitamins. The GI epithelium also contributes to the poor permeability of numerous antioxidant agents. Thus, lipophilic vitamins do not readily dissolve in the GI tract, and therefore [...] Read more.
The chemical environment and enzymes in the gastrointestinal (GI) membrane limit the oral absorption of some vitamins. The GI epithelium also contributes to the poor permeability of numerous antioxidant agents. Thus, lipophilic vitamins do not readily dissolve in the GI tract, and therefore they have low bioavailability. Nanomedicine has the potential to improve the delivery efficiency of oral vitamins. In particular, the use of lipid nanocarriers for certain vitamins that are administered orally can provide improved solubility, chemical stability, epithelium permeability and bioavailability, half-life, nidus targeting, and fewer adverse effects. These lipid nanocarriers include self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs), nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The use of nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of lipid nanosystems allows for control of the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles and improved GI permeation via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the development of lipid nanocarriers for vitamin delivery. In addition, the same lipid nanocarriers used for vitamins may also be effective as carriers of vitamin derivatives, and therefore enhance their oral bioavailability. One example is the incorporation of d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) as the emulsifier in lipid nanocarriers to increase the solubility and inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux. We also survey the concepts and discuss the mechanisms of nanomedical techniques that are used to develop vitamin-loaded nanocarriers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Protective Roles of Thymoquinone Nanoformulations: Potential Nanonutraceuticals in Human Diseases
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101369 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The focus on nanotechnology for improved bioavailability and drug delivery is of increasing importance for control of different human diseases. Therefore, numerous nanoformulations have been developed for the oral bioavailability of different drugs. This review introduces applications of nanomedicine to enhance the biological [...] Read more.
The focus on nanotechnology for improved bioavailability and drug delivery is of increasing importance for control of different human diseases. Therefore, numerous nanoformulations have been developed for the oral bioavailability of different drugs. This review introduces applications of nanomedicine to enhance the biological activities of thymoquinone (TQ) to control different diseases in several in vivo studies as a preliminary investigation for human disease treatment with nano-TQ. Nano-TQ effectively augments the anticancer roles of doxorubicin by upregulation of P53 and downregulation of Bcl2 and potentiates paclitaxel’s apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Moreover, nano-TQ protects against diabetes, inflammation, CNS, and hepatotoxicity, mainly by enhancement of organs’ antioxidant status. We summarize the pros and cons of several FDA approved nanoparticle-based therapeutics and discuss the roadblocks in clinical translation, along with potential nano-TQ strategies to overcome these roadblocks. From this review, we can conclude that nano-TQ may be considered as a promising nutraceutical for human health. Full article
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