Special Issue "Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 January 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Catherine J. Andersen
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT, USA
Interests: lipid metabolism; lipoproteins; inflammation; immunity; obesity; functional foods; human nutrition; lipoprotein metabolism; HDL; cholesterol; immune function

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lipid metabolism plays an essential role in modulating inflammation within the context of acute and chronic diseases. Dietary and endogenous lipids possess pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, whereas the lipoprotein profiles and composition impact atherogenic and immunomodulatory pathways. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies and nutritional interventions that target lipid metabolism are promising approaches to mitigate inflammation and optimize immune function in obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic metabolic and inflammatory disorders, autoimmunity, and pathogen defense. This Special Issue invites comprehensive reviews, clinical trials, epidemiological analyses, and studies employing cell and animal models that further elucidate the relationship between lipid metabolism, inflammation, and immune function in human health.

Dr. Catherine J. Andersen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism
  • Dietary lipids
  • HDL function
  • Inflammation
  • Immune function
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic dysfunction and disease
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Autoimmunity
  • Pathogen defense

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Levels Are Associated with Early Systemic Inflammation in Extremely Preterm Infants
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071996 - 05 Jul 2020
Abstract
Fetal and early postnatal inflammation have been associated with increased morbidity in extremely preterm infants. This study aimed to demonstrate if postpartum levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were associated with early inflammation. In a cohort of 90 extremely preterm [...] Read more.
Fetal and early postnatal inflammation have been associated with increased morbidity in extremely preterm infants. This study aimed to demonstrate if postpartum levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were associated with early inflammation. In a cohort of 90 extremely preterm infants, DHA and AA in cord blood, on the first postnatal day and on postnatal day 7 were examined in relation to early systemic inflammation, defined as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6) within 72 h from birth, with or without positive blood culture. Median serum level of DHA was 0.5 mol% (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.2–0.9, P = 0.006) lower than the first postnatal day in infants with early systemic inflammation, compared to infants without signs of inflammation, whereas levels of AA were not statistically different between infants with and without signs of inflammation. In cord blood, lower serum levels of both DHA (correlation coefficient −0.40; P = 0.010) and AA (correlation coefficient −0.54; p < 0.001) correlated with higher levels of IL-6. Levels of DHA or AA did not differ between infants with and without histological signs of chorioamnionitis or fetal inflammation. In conclusion, serum levels of DHA at birth were associated with the inflammatory response during the early postnatal period in extremely preterm infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Chenopodium Quinoa and Salvia Hispanica Provide Immunonutritional Agonists to Ameliorate Hepatocarcinoma Severity under a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071946 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Complex interactions between immunonutritional agonist and high fat intake (HFD), the immune system and finally gut microbiota are important determinants of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) severity. The ability of immunonutritional agonists to modulate major aspects such as liver innate immunity and inflammation and alterations in [...] Read more.
Complex interactions between immunonutritional agonist and high fat intake (HFD), the immune system and finally gut microbiota are important determinants of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) severity. The ability of immunonutritional agonists to modulate major aspects such as liver innate immunity and inflammation and alterations in major lipids profile as well as gut microbiota during HCC development is poorly understood. 1H NMR has been employed to assess imbalances in saturated fatty acids, MUFA and PUFA, which were associated to variations in iron homeostasis. These effects were dependent on the botanical nature (Chenopodium quinoa vs. Salvia hispanica L.) of the compounds. The results showed that immunonutritional agonists’ promoted resistance to hepatocarcinogenesis under pro-tumorigenic inflammation reflected, at a different extent, in increased proportions of F4/80+ cells in injured livers as well as positive trends of accumulated immune mediators (CD68/CD206 ratio) in intestinal tissue. Administration of all immunonutritional agonists caused similar variations of fecal microbiota, towards a lower obesity-inducing potential than animals only fed a HFD. Modulation of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes contents restored the induction of microbial metabolites to improve epithelial barrier function, showing an association with liver saturated fatty acids and the MUFA and PUFA fractions. Collectively, these data provide novel findings supporting beneficial immunometabolic effects targeting hepatocarcinogenesis, influencing innate immunity within the gut-liver axis, and providing novel insights into their immunomodulatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Reactive Dicarbonyl Scavenging Effectively Reduces MPO-Mediated Oxidation of HDL and Restores PON1 Activity
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071937 (registering DOI) - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Atheroprotective functions of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are related to the activity of HDL-associated enzymes such as paraoxonase 1 (PON1). We examined the impact of inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-mediated HDL oxidation by PON1 on HDL malondialdehyde (MDA) content and HDL function. In the presence [...] Read more.
Atheroprotective functions of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are related to the activity of HDL-associated enzymes such as paraoxonase 1 (PON1). We examined the impact of inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-mediated HDL oxidation by PON1 on HDL malondialdehyde (MDA) content and HDL function. In the presence of PON1, crosslinking of apoAI in response to MPO-mediated oxidation of HDL was abolished, and MDA-HDL adduct levels were decreased. PON1 prevented the impaired cholesterol efflux capacity of MPO-oxidized HDL from Apoe−/− macrophages. Direct modification of HDL with MDA increased apoAI crosslinking and reduced the cholesterol efflux capacity. MDA modification of HDL reduced its anti-inflammatory function compared to native HDL. MDA-HDL also had impaired ability to increase PON1 activity. Importantly, HDL from subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH-HDL) versus controls had increased MDA-apoAI adducts, and PON1 activity was also impaired in FH. Consistently, FH-HDL induced a pro-inflammatory response in Apoe−/− macrophages and had an impaired ability to promote cholesterol efflux. Interestingly, reactive dicarbonyl scavengers, including 2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) and pentyl-pyridoxamine (PPM), effectively abolished MPO-mediated apoAI crosslinking, MDA adduct formation, and improved cholesterol efflux capacity. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice with reactive dicarbonyl scavengers reduced MDA-HDL adduct formation and increased HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, supporting the therapeutic potential of reactive carbonyl scavenging for improving HDL function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Free Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Gene Expression and Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Ex Vivo Blood Mononuclear Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010146 - 04 Jan 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess free fatty acids’ (FAs) ex vivo anti-/proinflammatory capabilities and their influence on inflammatory gene expression and H2O2 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess free fatty acids’ (FAs) ex vivo anti-/proinflammatory capabilities and their influence on inflammatory gene expression and H2O2 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed in 26 participants with metabolic syndrome. Isolated PBMCs were incubated ex vivo for 2 h with several free fatty acids—palmitic, oleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic at 50 μM, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination. H2O2 production and IL6, NFκB, TLR2, TNFα, and COX-2 gene expressions were determined. Palmitic, γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acids showed minor effects on inflammatory gene expression, whereas oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids reduced proinflammatory gene expression in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids treatment enhanced LPS-stimulated H2O2 production by PBMCs, while palmitic, oleic, γ-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids did not exert significant effects. Oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids induced anti-inflammatory responses in PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids enhanced the oxidative status of LPS-stimulated PBMCs. In conclusion, PBMC ex vivo assays are useful to assess the anti-/proinflammatory and redox-modulatory effects of fatty acids or other food bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Bioactive Fatty Acids as Modulators of Immune Function: Implications on Human Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122974 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Diet is major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can influence the immune status of the individual and contribute to persistent low-grade inflammation. In recent years, there has been an increased appreciation of the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in improving [...] Read more.
Diet is major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can influence the immune status of the individual and contribute to persistent low-grade inflammation. In recent years, there has been an increased appreciation of the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in improving immune function and reduction of systemic inflammation via the modulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on immune cells. Extensive research on the use of bioactive lipids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and their metabolites have illustrated the importance of these pro-resolving lipid mediators in modulating signaling through PRRs. While their mechanism of action, bioavailability in the blood, and their efficacy for clinical use forms an active area of research, they are found widely administered as marine animal-based supplements like fish oil and krill oil to promote health. The focus of this review will be to discuss the effect of these bioactive fatty acids and their metabolites on immune cells and the resulting inflammatory response, with a brief discussion about modern methods for their analysis using mass spectrometry-based methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function)
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