Dietary Regimen and Supplement for Alzheimer's Patients—from Prevention to Treatment

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 November 2024 | Viewed by 2707

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: natural compounds; antioxidants; neurodegenerative disorders; aging; diabetes

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Guest Editor
Department of Human Sciences and Quality of Life Promotion, San Raffaele University, Via di Val Cannuta 247, Rome, Italy
Interests: nutrition; cardiovascular disease; neurodegenerative disorders; antioxidants

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Guest Editor
Section of Diabetology, UniCamillus, Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences, 00131 Rome, Italy
Interests: diabetes; dietary supplementation; vitamin D; omega-3

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most relevant neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. It is an age-related disease and, with the increasing lifespan of the global population, the number of subjects affected is projected to double by 2030. AD is pathologically related to the formation of two kinds of lesions: the amyloid plaque, composed by the association of the neurotoxic peptide Aβ1-42, derived from the cleavage of the APP precursor; and the neurofibrillary tangles, composed mainly by the accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Nowadays, it is not possible to identify a specific causative agent and, thus, AD is considered a multifactorial disease. Among all factors that contribute to the onset of AD, life habits surely have a dramatic impact. Adherence to a healthy diet has been reported to be a protective strategy against neurodegeneration. In particular, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of developing AD. However, since AD has previously been reported as a multifactorial disease, it should be more appropriate to personalize nutrition depending on the risk factors related to each subject to counteract the development of this neurodegenerative disorder more efficiently.

Dr. Francesca Pacifici
Prof. Dr. Donatella Pastore
Dr. Marco Infante
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural compounds
  • dietary supplementation
  • antioxidants
  • sirtuin
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • autophagy
  • gut microbiota
  • omega-3 fatty acids
  • BDNF

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Diet Pattern Analysis in Alzheimer’s Disease Implicates Gender Differences in Folate–B12–Homocysteine Axis on Cognitive Outcomes
by Chi-Ping Ting, Mi-Chia Ma, Hsin-I Chang, Chi-Wei Huang, Man-Chun Chou and Chiung-Chih Chang
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050733 - 4 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Background & Aims: Low plasma B12 and folate levels or hyperhomocysteinemia are related to cognitive impairment. This study explores the relationships among diet pattern, blood folate–B12–homocysteine levels, and cognition measurement in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) while exploring whether a gender effect may exist. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background & Aims: Low plasma B12 and folate levels or hyperhomocysteinemia are related to cognitive impairment. This study explores the relationships among diet pattern, blood folate–B12–homocysteine levels, and cognition measurement in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) while exploring whether a gender effect may exist. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 592 AD patients (246 males, 346 females) and the demographic data, blood biochemical profiles, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for quantitative assessment of dietary frequency were collected. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to explore the associations among dietary patterns, blood profiles, and cognition. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model, stratified by gender, was constructed to analyze the weighting of possible confounders. Results: Higher MMSE scores were related to higher frequencies of coffee/tea and higher educational levels, body mass index, and younger age. The SEM model revealed a direct influence of dietary frequencies (skimmed milk, thin pork, coffee/tea) and blood profiles (homocysteine, B12, and folate) on cognitive outcomes. At the same time, the influence of dietary pattern on cognition was not mediated by folate–B12–homocysteine levels. In males, a direct influence on the MMSE is attributed to B12, while in females, homocysteine is considered a more critical factor. Conclusions: Dietary patterns and blood profiles are both associated with cognitive domains in AD, and there are gender differences in the associations of dietary patterns and the levels of B12 and homocysteine. To enhance the quality of dietary care and nutritional status for individuals with dementia, our study results still require future validations with multi-center and longitudinal studies. Full article
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15 pages, 3657 KiB  
Article
Biotransformation of American Ginseng Stems and Leaves by an Endophytic Fungus Umbelopsis sp. and Its Effect on Alzheimer’s Disease Control
by Qiqi Chen, Jingying Wang, Yuhang Gao, Zixin Wang, Xiujun Gao and Peisheng Yan
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234878 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Background: Common ginsenosides can be transformed into rare ginsenosides through microbial fermentation, and some rare ginsenosides can prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed to transform common ginsenosides into rare ginsenosides through solid-state fermentation of American ginseng stems and leaves (AGSL) by an [...] Read more.
Background: Common ginsenosides can be transformed into rare ginsenosides through microbial fermentation, and some rare ginsenosides can prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed to transform common ginsenosides into rare ginsenosides through solid-state fermentation of American ginseng stems and leaves (AGSL) by an endophytic fungus and to explore whether fermented saponin extracts prevent AD. Methods: The powders of AGSL were fermented in a solid state by endophytic fungus. Total saponins were extracted from fermentation products using the methanol extraction method. The types of saponins were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The Aβ42 concentration and β-secretase activity were measured by ELISA for the prevention of AD. Results: After AGSL was fermented by an endophytic fungus NSJG, the total saponin concentration of the fermented extract G-SL was higher than the unfermented CK-SL. Rare ginsenoside Rh1 was newly produced and the yield of compound K (561.79%), Rh2 (77.48%), and F2 (40.89%) was increased in G-SL. G-SL had a higher inhibition rate on Aβ42 concentration (42.75%) and β-secretase activity (42.22%) than CK-SL, possibly because the rare ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2, F2, and compound K included in it have a strong inhibitory effect on AD. Conclusion: The fermented saponin extracts of AGSL show more inhibition effects on AD and may be promising therapeutic drugs or nutrients for AD. Full article
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