Special Issue "Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Fernando Azpiroz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chief Department of Digestive Diseases at the University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
Tel. +34934894402
Interests: Functional gut disorders; Origin of gastrointestinal symptoms
Prof. Paul Enck
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director of Research, Dept. of Internal Medicine VI: Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Osianderstr. 5, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Interests: Functional digestive disorders; The role of the microbiota and probiotics; Psychophysiology of visceral pain; Stress and stress-related disorders; Placebo effect and mechanisms

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrition is a key to gut health and also to general health. Nutrition and its elements (food constituents, diets, perceptions of food, and dietary and eating behavior), therefore, require exploration as to whether, how and to what degree they affect gut functions in health, and how these functions and their changes relate to functional and other disorders of digestion. This Special Issue will summarize current knowledge with respect to peripheral and central processing of food (homeostatic and hedonic sensations, transport of food within the GI tract, the role of the gut microbiota, brain processing of eating and digestion, the role of age and sex) and the specific role of dietary factors manipulating gut functions in health and disease: carbohydrates/fat/protein, fibres/pre- and probiotics, fermented foods, food intolerances and specific diets for gut dysfunction.

Prof. Fernando Azpiroz
Prof. Paul Enck
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Fermented Milk Product with B. lactis CNCM I-2494 and Lactic Acid Bacteria Improves Gastrointestinal Comfort in Response to a Challenge Diet Rich in Fermentable Residues in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020320 (registering DOI) - 25 Jan 2020
Abstract
Background: Healthy plant-based diets rich in fermentable residues may induce gas-related symptoms. Our aim was to determine the potential of a fermented milk product with probiotics in improving digestive comfort with such diets. Methods: In an open design, a 3-day high-residue diet was [...] Read more.
Background: Healthy plant-based diets rich in fermentable residues may induce gas-related symptoms. Our aim was to determine the potential of a fermented milk product with probiotics in improving digestive comfort with such diets. Methods: In an open design, a 3-day high-residue diet was administered to healthy subjects (n = 74 included, n = 63 completed) before and following 28 days consumption of a fermented milk product (FMP) containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria. Main outcomes: digestive sensations, number of daytime anal gas evacuations, and gas volume evacuated during 4 h after a probe meal. Results: As compared to the habitual diet, the high-residue diet induced gas-related symptoms (flatulence score 4.9 vs. 1.2; p ≤ 0.0001), increased the daily number of anal gas evacuations (20.7 vs. 8.7; p < 0.0001), and impaired digestive well-being (1.0 vs. 3.4; p < 0.05). FMP consumption reduced flatulence sensation (by −1.7 [−1.9; −1.6]; p < 0.0001), reduced the number of daily evacuations (by −5.8 [−6.5; −5.1]; p < 0.0001), and improved digestive well-being (by +0.6 [+0.4; +0.7]; p < 0.05). FMP consumption did not affect the gas volume evacuated after a probe meal. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, consumption of a FMP containing B. lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria improves the tolerance of a flatulogenic diet by subjective and objective criteria (sensations and number of anal gas evacuations, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Dietary Management of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Narrative Review of the Existing and Emerging Evidence
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092162 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
Even though irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been known for more than 150 years, it still remains one of the research challenges of the 21st century. According to the current diagnostic Rome IV criteria, IBS is characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation [...] Read more.
Even though irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been known for more than 150 years, it still remains one of the research challenges of the 21st century. According to the current diagnostic Rome IV criteria, IBS is characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation and/or a change in bowel habit, in the absence of detectable organic causes. Symptoms interfere with the daily life of patients, reduce health-related quality of life and lower the work productivity. Despite the high prevalence of approximately 10%, its pathophysiology is only partly understood and seems multifactorial. However, many patients report symptoms to be meal-related and certain ingested foods may generate an exaggerated gastrointestinal response. Patients tend to avoid and even exclude certain food products to relieve their symptoms, which could affect nutritional quality. We performed a narrative paper review of the existing and emerging evidence regarding dietary management of IBS patients, with the aim to enhance our understanding of how to move towards an individualized dietary approach for IBS patients in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Fermented Foods: Definitions and Characteristics, Impact on the Gut Microbiota and Effects on Gastrointestinal Health and Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081806 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Fermented foods are defined as foods or beverages produced through controlled microbial growth, and the conversion of food components through enzymatic action. In recent years, fermented foods have undergone a surge in popularity, mainly due to their proposed health benefits. The aim of [...] Read more.
Fermented foods are defined as foods or beverages produced through controlled microbial growth, and the conversion of food components through enzymatic action. In recent years, fermented foods have undergone a surge in popularity, mainly due to their proposed health benefits. The aim of this review is to define and characterise common fermented foods (kefir, kombucha, sauerkraut, tempeh, natto, miso, kimchi, sourdough bread), their mechanisms of action (including impact on the microbiota), and the evidence for effects on gastrointestinal health and disease in humans. Putative mechanisms for the impact of fermented foods on health include the potential probiotic effect of their constituent microorganisms, the fermentation-derived production of bioactive peptides, biogenic amines, and conversion of phenolic compounds to biologically active compounds, as well as the reduction of anti-nutrients. Fermented foods that have been tested in at least one randomised controlled trial (RCT) for their gastrointestinal effects were kefir, sauerkraut, natto, and sourdough bread. Despite extensive in vitro studies, there are no RCTs investigating the impact of kombucha, miso, kimchi or tempeh in gastrointestinal health. The most widely investigated fermented food is kefir, with evidence from at least one RCT suggesting beneficial effects in both lactose malabsorption and Helicobacter pylori eradication. In summary, there is very limited clinical evidence for the effectiveness of most fermented foods in gastrointestinal health and disease. Given the convincing in vitro findings, clinical high-quality trials investigating the health benefits of fermented foods are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Food Intolerances
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071684 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Food intolerances are estimated to affect up to 20% of the population but complete understanding of diagnosis and management is complicated, given presentation and non-immunological mechanisms associated vary greatly. This review aims to provide a scientific update on common food intolerances resulting in [...] Read more.
Food intolerances are estimated to affect up to 20% of the population but complete understanding of diagnosis and management is complicated, given presentation and non-immunological mechanisms associated vary greatly. This review aims to provide a scientific update on common food intolerances resulting in gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. FODMAP sensitivity has strong evidence supporting its mechanisms of increased osmotic activity and fermentation with the resulting distention leading to symptoms in those with visceral hypersensitivity. For many of the other food intolerances reviewed including non-coeliac gluten/wheat sensitivity, food additives and bioactive food chemicals, the findings show that there is a shortage of reproducible well-designed double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, making understanding of the mechanisms, diagnosis and management difficult. Enzyme deficiencies have been proposed to result in other food sensitivities including low amine oxidase activity resulting in histamine intolerance and sucrase-isomaltase deficiency resulting in reduced tolerance to sugars and starch. Lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers for all food intolerances result in an inability to target specific foods in the individual. As such, a trial-and-error approach is used, whereby suspected food constituents are reduced for a short-period and then re-challenged to assess response. Future studies should aim to identify biomarkers to predict response to dietary therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Gastrointestinal Sensing of Meal-Related Signals in Humans, and Dysregulations in Eating-Related Disorders
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061298 - 08 Jun 2019
Abstract
The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in sensing the arrival of a meal, including its volume as well as nutrient and non-nutrient contents. The presence of the meal in the stomach generates a mechanical distension signal, and, as gastric emptying [...] Read more.
The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in sensing the arrival of a meal, including its volume as well as nutrient and non-nutrient contents. The presence of the meal in the stomach generates a mechanical distension signal, and, as gastric emptying progresses, nutrients increasingly interact with receptors on enteroendocrine cells, triggering the release of gut hormones, with lipid and protein being particularly potent. Collectively, these signals are transmitted to the brain to regulate appetite and energy intake, or in a feedback loop relayed back to the upper GI tract to further adjust GI functions, including gastric emptying. The research in this area to date has provided important insights into how sensing of intraluminal meal-related stimuli acutely regulates appetite and energy intake in humans. However, disturbances in the detection of these stimuli have been described in a number of eating-related disorders. This paper will review the GI sensing of meal-related stimuli and the relationship with appetite and energy intake, and examine changes in GI responses to luminal stimuli in obesity, functional dyspepsia and anorexia of ageing, as examples of eating-related disorders. A much better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these dysregulations is still required to assist in the development of effective management and treatment strategies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Intraluminal Impact of Food: New Insights from MRI
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051147 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Understanding how the gut responds to food has always been limited by the available investigatory techniques. Previous methods involving intubation and aspiration are largely limited to liquid-only meals. The aim of this review is to describe how MRI has allowed analysis of the [...] Read more.
Understanding how the gut responds to food has always been limited by the available investigatory techniques. Previous methods involving intubation and aspiration are largely limited to liquid-only meals. The aim of this review is to describe how MRI has allowed analysis of the processing of complex multiphase meals. This has demonstrated the role of physical factors such as viscosity, fat and fibre content in controlling gastric secretion and motility. It has also allowed the description of changes induced in small bowel water content and the role of osmotic effects of poorly absorbed carbohydrates such as fructose, sorbitol and mannitol. Intestinal secretions can be shown to be stimulated by a range of fruit and vegetables and the effect of this on colonic water content can also be measured. This has been used to demonstrate the mode of action of commonly used laxatives including bran and psyllium. The wealth of data which can be obtained together with its non-invasive nature and safety makes the technique ideal for the serial evaluation of the impact of different nutrients and drugs in both health and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
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