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Open AccessArticle

Short-Term Hemodynamic Effects of Modern Wheat Products Substitution in Diet with Ancient Wheat Products: A Cross-Over, Randomized Clinical Trial

1
Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, Bologna 40138, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL), University of Bologna, Bologna 40138, Italy
3
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, Rimini 47921, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111666
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
Recent evidence suggests that bioactive compounds isolated from cereals and legumes could exert some metabolic and vascular effects in humans. Due to the recent identification of a non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP2) in wheat with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, we aimed to comparatively test the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of ancient wheat foodstuffs (made of organic KAMUT® khorasan wheat) or modern wheat ones, made of a mixture of organic modern commercial durum (T. durum) varieties and soft wheat (T. aestivum), with different nsLTP2 content. Thus, we carried out a randomized, cross-over clinical trial on 63 non-diabetic healthy volunteers (aged 40–70 years) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130–139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 85–90 mmHg (pre-hypertensive/borderline high pressure subjects). Each treatment period lasted four weeks. After ancient wheat foodstuffs intake, subjects experienced a significant improvement in triglycerides (−9.8% vs. baseline and −14.5% versus modern wheat), fasting plasma glucose (−4.3% versus baseline and −31.6% versus modern wheat), diurnal SBP (−3.1% vs. baseline and –30.2% vs. modern wheat) and nocturnal SBP (−3.2% vs. baseline and −36.8% vs. modern wheat), and pulse volume change (+4.2% vs. baseline and +2.3% vs. modern wheat) (p < 0.05 vs. baseline and versus modern wheat foodstuffs intake). Therefore, our findings show that substituting modern wheat products in diet with ancient wheat ones, might exert a mild improvement in 24-h SBP and endothelial reactivity in pre-hypertensive healthy subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive peptide; blood pressure; endothelial reactivity; randomized clinical trial; ancient wheat; non-specific lipid-transfer protein type 2 bioactive peptide; blood pressure; endothelial reactivity; randomized clinical trial; ancient wheat; non-specific lipid-transfer protein type 2
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Cicero, A.F.G.; Fogacci, F.; Veronesi, M.; Grandi, E.; Dinelli, G.; Hrelia, S.; Borghi, C. Short-Term Hemodynamic Effects of Modern Wheat Products Substitution in Diet with Ancient Wheat Products: A Cross-Over, Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1666.

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