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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111666

Short-Term Hemodynamic Effects of Modern Wheat Products Substitution in Diet with Ancient Wheat Products: A Cross-Over, Randomized Clinical Trial

1
Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, Bologna 40138, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL), University of Bologna, Bologna 40138, Italy
3
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, Rimini 47921, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that bioactive compounds isolated from cereals and legumes could exert some metabolic and vascular effects in humans. Due to the recent identification of a non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP2) in wheat with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, we aimed to comparatively test the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of ancient wheat foodstuffs (made of organic KAMUT® khorasan wheat) or modern wheat ones, made of a mixture of organic modern commercial durum (T. durum) varieties and soft wheat (T. aestivum), with different nsLTP2 content. Thus, we carried out a randomized, cross-over clinical trial on 63 non-diabetic healthy volunteers (aged 40–70 years) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130–139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 85–90 mmHg (pre-hypertensive/borderline high pressure subjects). Each treatment period lasted four weeks. After ancient wheat foodstuffs intake, subjects experienced a significant improvement in triglycerides (−9.8% vs. baseline and −14.5% versus modern wheat), fasting plasma glucose (−4.3% versus baseline and −31.6% versus modern wheat), diurnal SBP (−3.1% vs. baseline and –30.2% vs. modern wheat) and nocturnal SBP (−3.2% vs. baseline and −36.8% vs. modern wheat), and pulse volume change (+4.2% vs. baseline and +2.3% vs. modern wheat) (p < 0.05 vs. baseline and versus modern wheat foodstuffs intake). Therefore, our findings show that substituting modern wheat products in diet with ancient wheat ones, might exert a mild improvement in 24-h SBP and endothelial reactivity in pre-hypertensive healthy subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive peptide; blood pressure; endothelial reactivity; randomized clinical trial; ancient wheat; non-specific lipid-transfer protein type 2 bioactive peptide; blood pressure; endothelial reactivity; randomized clinical trial; ancient wheat; non-specific lipid-transfer protein type 2
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Cicero, A.F.G.; Fogacci, F.; Veronesi, M.; Grandi, E.; Dinelli, G.; Hrelia, S.; Borghi, C. Short-Term Hemodynamic Effects of Modern Wheat Products Substitution in Diet with Ancient Wheat Products: A Cross-Over, Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1666.

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