Next Article in Journal
Impact of Meeting Different Guidelines for Protein Intake on Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Physically Active Older Women
Next Article in Special Issue
Flavonoids, Potential Bioactive Compounds, and Non-Shivering Thermogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
A High Salt Diet Modulates the Gut Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids Production in a Salt-Sensitive Hypertension Rat Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge
Open AccessArticle

Main Human Urinary Metabolites after Genipap (Genipa americana L.) Juice Intake

1
Federal University of Pará & Centre for Valorization of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia Guamá, Avenida Perimetral da Ciência, km 01, Guamá 66075-750, Brazil
2
Naturex SA, 250 rue Pierre Bayle, BP81218, 84911 Avignon CEDEX 9, France
3
Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Avenue Agropolis, TA50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier CEDEX 5, France
4
Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, INRA, C2VN, CRIBIOM, 5-9, Boulevard Maurice Bourdet, CS 80501, 13205 Marseille CEDEX 01, France
5
UMR Qualisud, Université d’Avignon, 301 rue Baruch de Spinoza, BP21239, 84916 Avignon CEDEX 9, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091155
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
Genipap (Genipa americana L.) is a native fruit from Amazonia that contains bioactive compounds with a wide range of bioactivities. However, the response to genipap juice ingestion in the human exposome has never been studied. To identify biomarkers of genipap exposure, the untargeted metabolomics approach in human urine was applied. Urine samples from 16 healthy male volunteers, before and after drinking genipap juice, were analyzed by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry. XCMS package was used for data processing in the R environment and t-tests were applied on log-transformed and Pareto-scaled data to select the significant metabolites. The principal component analysis (PCA) score plots showed a clear distinction between experimental groups. Thirty-three metabolites were putatively annotated and the most discriminant were mainly related to the metabolic pathways of iridoids and phenolic derivatives. For the first time, the bioavailability of genipap iridoids after human consumption is reported. Dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, (1R,6R)-6-hydroxy-2-succinylcyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate, hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, genipic acid, 12-demethylated-8-hydroxygenipinic acid, 3(7)-dehydrogenipinic acid, genipic acid glucuronide, nonate, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate may be considered biomarkers of genipap consumption. Human exposure to genipap reveals the production of derivative forms of bioactive compounds such as genipic and genipinic acid. These findings suggest that genipap consumption triggers effects on metabolic signatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker prediction; exposure; high-resolution mass spectrometry; iridoid; phenolic derivatives biomarker prediction; exposure; high-resolution mass spectrometry; iridoid; phenolic derivatives
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dickson, L.; Tenon, M.; Svilar, L.; Fança-Berthon, P.; Lugan, R.; Martin, J.-C.; Vaillant, F.; Rogez, H. Main Human Urinary Metabolites after Genipap (Genipa americana L.) Juice Intake. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1155.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop