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Open AccessArticle

Preventive Effects and Mechanisms of Garlic on Dyslipidemia and Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis

1
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
2
Kenkoukazoku Co., Kagoshima 892-0848, Japan
3
Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
4
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061225
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) contains prebiotic components, fructans, antibacterial compounds, and organosulfur compounds. The complex ingredients of garlic seem to impart a paradoxical result on the gut microbiome. In this study, we used a mouse model to clarify the effects of whole garlic on the gut microbiome. C57BL/6N male mice were fed with or without whole garlic in normal diet (ND) or in high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Supplementation with whole garlic attenuated HFD-enhanced ratio of serum GPT/GOT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), levels of T-Cho (total cholesterol) and LDLs (low-density lipoproteins), and index of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), but had no significant effect in the levels of serum HDL-c (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), TG (total triacylglycerol), and glucose. Moreover, garlic supplementation meliorated the HFD-reduced ratio of villus height/crypt depth, cecum weight, and the concentration of cecal organic acids. Finally, gut microbiota characterization by high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that whole garlic supplementation increased the α-diversity of the gut microbiome, especially increasing the relative abundance of f_Lachnospiraceae and reducing the relative abundance of g_Prevotella. Taken together, our data demonstrated that whole garlic supplementation could meliorate the HFD-induced dyslipidemia and disturbance of gut microbiome. View Full-Text
Keywords: garlic; fructan; gut microbiome; 16s RRNA genes; high-fat diet garlic; fructan; gut microbiome; 16s RRNA genes; high-fat diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, K.; Xie, K.; Liu, Z.; Nakasone, Y.; Sakao, K.; Hossain, M.A.; Hou, D.-X. Preventive Effects and Mechanisms of Garlic on Dyslipidemia and Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1225.

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