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Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050591

Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge

1
Tourette’s Syndrome and Movement Disorders Centre, I.R.C.C.S. Galeazzi Hospital, 20161 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, I.R.C.C.S. Ca’ Granda Foundation, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
4
Department of Neuroscience, Rita Levi Montalcini, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy
5
Neurobiology of Learning Unit, Division of Neuroscience, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy
6
Scientific Direction, I.R.C.C.S. Galeazzi Hospital, 20161 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 13 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Abstract

Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (ACh), the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine. Different animal foods, fruits, edible plants, roots, and botanicals were reported to contain NTs. These substances can either be naturally present, as part of essential metabolic processes and ecological interactions, or derive from controlled/uncontrolled food technology processes. Ripening time, methods of preservation and cooking, and microbial activity further contributes to NTs. Moreover, gut microbiota are considerable sources of NTs. However, the significance of dietary NTs intake needs to be further investigated as there are no significant data on their bioavailability, neuronal/non neuronal effects, or clinical implications. Evidence-based interventions studies should be encouraged. View Full-Text
Keywords: functional foods; neurotransmitters; diet, food, and nutrition; acetylcholine; glutamate; gamma-aminobutyric acid; dopamine; serotonin; histamine; gut microbiota functional foods; neurotransmitters; diet, food, and nutrition; acetylcholine; glutamate; gamma-aminobutyric acid; dopamine; serotonin; histamine; gut microbiota
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Briguglio, M.; Dell’Osso, B.; Panzica, G.; Malgaroli, A.; Banfi, G.; Zanaboni Dina, C.; Galentino, R.; Porta, M. Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge. Nutrients 2018, 10, 591.

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