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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020370

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects on Cancer, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis: A Review of Pre-Clinical and Human Trials with Current Perspectives

Department of Medicine, Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition; UW Medicine Diabetes Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
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Abstract

Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are straining our healthcare system, necessitating the development of novel strategies for weight loss. Lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and caloric restriction, have proven effective against obesity in the short term, yet obesity persists because of the high predilection for weight regain. Therefore, alternative approaches to achieve long term sustainable weight loss are urgently needed. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid found naturally in ruminant animal food products, has been identified as a potential anti-obesogenic agent, with substantial efficacy in mice, and modest efficacy in obese human populations. Originally described as an anti-carcinogenic fatty acid, in addition to its anti-obesogenic effects, CLA has now been shown to possess anti-atherosclerotic properties. This review summarizes the pre-clinical and human studies conducted using CLA to date, which collectively suggest that CLA has efficacy against cancer, obesity, and atherosclerosis. In addition, the potential mechanisms for the many integrative physiological effects of CLA supplementation will be discussed in detail, including an introduction to the gut microbiota as a potential mediator of CLA effects on obesity and atherosclerosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); cancer; obesity; diabetes; atherosclerosis; gut microbiota conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); cancer; obesity; diabetes; atherosclerosis; gut microbiota
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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den Hartigh, L.J. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects on Cancer, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis: A Review of Pre-Clinical and Human Trials with Current Perspectives. Nutrients 2019, 11, 370.

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