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Open AccessArticle

Procyanidin—Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro

1
UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d’Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, F-84000 Avignon, France
2
Micalis, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, F-78000 Jouy-en-Josas, France
3
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 0454 MEDIS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
4
Ifremer, UMR 241 EIO, F-98702 Tahiti, French Polynesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030664
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Human Health)
B-type oligomeric procyanidins in apples constitute an important source of polyphenols in the human diet. Their role in health is not known, although it is suggested that they generate beneficial bioactive compounds upon metabolization by the gut microbiota. During apple processing, procyanidins interact with cell-wall polysaccharides and form stable complexes. These interactions need to be taken into consideration in order to better assess the biological effects of fruit constituents. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of these interactions on the microbial metabolization of cell walls and procyanidins, and to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the resulting metabolome, in addition to analyzing the taxonomical changes which the microbiota undergo. In vitro fermentation of three model apple matrices with microbiota from 4 healthy donors showed that the binding of procyanidins to cell-wall polysaccharides, whether covalently or non-covalently, substantially reduced procyanidin degradation. Although cell wall-unbound procyanidins negatively affected carbohydrate fermentation, they generated more hydroxyphenylvaleric acid than bound procyanidins, and increased the abundance of Adlercreutzia and Gordonibacter genera. The best results in terms of production of anti-inflammatory bioactive metabolites were observed from the apple matrix with no bonds between procyanidins and cell wall polysaccharides, although the matrix with non-covalent bonds was not far behind. View Full-Text
Keywords: in vitro batch fermentation; polyphenols; dietary fiber; 16S metabarcoding; metabotype in vitro batch fermentation; polyphenols; dietary fiber; 16S metabarcoding; metabotype
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MDPI and ACS Style

Le Bourvellec, C.; Bagano Vilas Boas, P.; Lepercq, P.; Comtet-Marre, S.; Auffret, P.; Ruiz, P.; Bott, R.; Renard, C.M.G.C.; Dufour, C.; Chatel, J.-M.; Mosoni, P. Procyanidin—Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro. Nutrients 2019, 11, 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030664

AMA Style

Le Bourvellec C, Bagano Vilas Boas P, Lepercq P, Comtet-Marre S, Auffret P, Ruiz P, Bott R, Renard CMGC, Dufour C, Chatel J-M, Mosoni P. Procyanidin—Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro. Nutrients. 2019; 11(3):664. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bagano Vilas Boas, Priscilla; Lepercq, Pascale; Comtet-Marre, Sophie; Auffret, Pauline; Ruiz, Philippe; Bott, Romain; Renard, Catherine M.G.C.; Dufour, Claire; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Mosoni, Pascale. 2019. "Procyanidin—Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro" Nutrients 11, no. 3: 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030664

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