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Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ecklonia cava Extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages and a Periodontitis Rat Model

1
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
2
Plant Resources Research Institute, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 01369, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051143
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Ecklonia cava, an edible marine brown alga (Laminariaceae), is a rich source of phlorotannins. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Ecklonia cava ethanol extract (ECE, dieckol 10.6%, w/w) on Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells and in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 were decreased by more than half on treatment with 100 μg/mL ECE. Downregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 gene expression confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of ECE. ECE treatment upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by 6.3-fold and increased HO-1/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling decreased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation. ECE administration (400 mg/kg) significantly reduced gingival index, restricted tooth mobility, and prevented alveolar bone loss (p < 0.05). These beneficial effects were due to decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, IL-1β production, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in gingival tissues. The ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin, a biomarker of periodontitis and osteolysis, was significantly decreased by ECE administration (p < 0.05). Thus, ECE has potential therapeutic effects for the alleviation of periodontal disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: alveolar bone loss; Ecklonia cava extract; heme oxygenase-1; ligature-induced periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis alveolar bone loss; Ecklonia cava extract; heme oxygenase-1; ligature-induced periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, S.; Choi, S.-I.; Kim, G.-H.; Imm, J.-Y. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ecklonia cava Extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages and a Periodontitis Rat Model. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1143.

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