Special Issue "Cholesterol and Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonis Zampelas
Website
Guest Editor
Professor in Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: Nutrition; Cardiovascular Nutrition; Nutrition and Metabolism; Prevention and Chronic Diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cholesterol is a sterol synthesized by animal cells. Its main functions are to maintain the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes and to serve as a precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is also a component of the diet and is present in food of animal origin. Although a high dietary cholesterol intake was considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, recent evidence suggests that it does not increase significantly Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the circulation. In view of these recent findings and the fact that cholesterol plays a vital role in major functions in the body, the present issue of Nutrients focuses on the functions of cholesterol and the effects of dietary cholesterol in various metabolic processes.

Prof. Antonis Zampelas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Nutrition and Metabolism
  • Chronic Diseases
  • Prevention

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
New Insights into Cholesterol Functions: A Friend or an Enemy?
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071645 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
Cholesterol is a sterol synthesized by animal cells and is also a component of the diet, being present in food of animal origin [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Diurnal Variation of Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis, Cholesterol Absorption, and Bile Acid Synthesis: A Systematic Review and the Bispebjerg Study of Diurnal Variations
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071439 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Human studies have shown diurnal rhythms of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis, but a better understanding of the role of the circadian system in cholesterol homeostasis is needed for the development of targeted interventions to improve metabolic health. Therefore, we performed a systematic [...] Read more.
Human studies have shown diurnal rhythms of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis, but a better understanding of the role of the circadian system in cholesterol homeostasis is needed for the development of targeted interventions to improve metabolic health. Therefore, we performed a systematic literature search on the diurnal rhythms of cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and of bile acid synthesis markers. We also examined the diurnal rhythms of the cholesterol synthesis markers lathosterol and desmosterol, and of the cholesterol absorption markers cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol in serum samples from the Bispebjerg study. These samples were collected every three hours over a 24-h period in healthy males (n = 24) who consumed low-fat meals. The systematic search identified sixteen papers that had examined the diurnal rhythms of the cholesterol synthesis markers lathosterol (n = 3), mevalonate (n = 9), squalene (n = 2), or the bile acid synthesis marker 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) (n = 4). Results showed that lathosterol, mevalonate, and squalene had a diurnal rhythm with nocturnal peaks, while C4 had a diurnal rhythm with daytime peaks. Furthermore, cosinor analyses of the serum samples showed a significant diurnal rhythm for lathosterol (cosinor p < 0.001), but not for desmosterol, campesterol, sitosterol, and cholestanol (cosinor p > 0.05). In conclusion, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis have a diurnal rhythm, though no evidence for a diurnal rhythm of cholesterol absorption was found under highly standardised conditions. More work is needed to further explore the influence of external factors on the diurnal rhythms regulating cholesterol homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessCommunication
Modulation of Bone and Marrow Niche by Cholesterol
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061394 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bone is a complex tissue composing of mineralized bone, bone cells, hematopoietic cells, marrow adipocytes, and supportive stromal cells. The homeostasis of bone and marrow niche is dynamically regulated by nutrients. The positive correlation between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis risk suggests a close [...] Read more.
Bone is a complex tissue composing of mineralized bone, bone cells, hematopoietic cells, marrow adipocytes, and supportive stromal cells. The homeostasis of bone and marrow niche is dynamically regulated by nutrients. The positive correlation between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis risk suggests a close relationship between hyperlipidemia and/or hypercholesterolemia and the bone metabolism. Cholesterol and its metabolites influence the bone homeostasis through modulating the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The effects of cholesterol on hematopoietic stem cells, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation, are also well-documented and further relate to atherosclerotic lesions. Correlation between circulating cholesterol and bone marrow adipocytes remains elusive, which seems opposite to its effects on osteoblasts. Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that cholesterol deteriorates or benefits bone metabolism depending on the types, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress of how cholesterol regulates bone metabolism and bone marrow microenvironment, including the hematopoiesis and marrow adiposity. Elucidation of these association and factors is of great importance in developing therapeutic options for bone related diseases under hypercholesterolemic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Frequency and Quantity of Egg Intake Is Not Associated with Dyslipidemia: The Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051105 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Gaps remain on the safety of egg intake on cardiovascular health, setting the study’s aim to investigate the association between quantity and frequency of egg consumption, with established dyslipidemia. Methods: Study participants (N = 3558, 40.3% males) included individuals from the [...] Read more.
Background: Gaps remain on the safety of egg intake on cardiovascular health, setting the study’s aim to investigate the association between quantity and frequency of egg consumption, with established dyslipidemia. Methods: Study participants (N = 3558, 40.3% males) included individuals from the Hellenic National and Nutrition Health Survey (HNNHS), of national representation. Quantity and frequency of egg consumption was determined. Minimally adjusted, multivariable logistic and linear analysis were used to assess egg consumption and dyslipidemia. Results: The more frequent egg consumption compared to no or rare egg consumption significantly decreased the odds of dyslipidemia in the minimally adjusted (Odds Ratio (OR) for frequency: 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.752, 0.904; OR for quantified frequency: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.796, 0.963) and the fully adjusted models (OR for frequency: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.718, 0.887; OR for quantified frequency: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.759, 0.945). Level of serum cholesterol and LDL-c were significantly lower with higher frequency and quantified frequency of egg consumption in all models. Conclusion: Eggs do not increase the risk of dyslipidemia and can be consumed as part of a healthy diet that is high in fiber and low in saturated fat, without excessive energy intake, by all individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ketoanalogues on Chronic Kidney Disease Deterioration: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050957 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The effects of ketoanalogues (KA) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) deterioration have not yet been fully confirmed. To strengthen the evidence of the role of KA in CKD, PubMed and Embase were searched for studies published through February 2019. Effect sizes from ten [...] Read more.
The effects of ketoanalogues (KA) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) deterioration have not yet been fully confirmed. To strengthen the evidence of the role of KA in CKD, PubMed and Embase were searched for studies published through February 2019. Effect sizes from ten randomized control trials (RCTs) and two non-RCTs comprising a total of 951 patients were pooled and analyzed. A restricted protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues (RPKA) was found to significantly delay the progression of CKD (p = 0.008), particularly in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 18 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p < 0.0001). No significant change in eGFR was found when comparing a very-low-protein diet and a low-protein diet (p = 0.10). In addition, compared with the placebo, RPKA did not cause malnutrition (albumin: p = 0.56; cholesterol: p = 0.50). Moreover, RPKA significantly decreased phosphorous levels (p = 0.001), increased calcium levels (p = 0.04), and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (p = 0.05) in patients with eGFR < 18 mL/min/1.73 m2. In conclusion, RPKA could slow down the progression of CKD in patients with eGFR > 18 mL/min/1.73 m2 without causing malnutrition and reverse CKD-MBD in patients with eGFR < 18 mL/min/1.73 m2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Salt and Assessment of Dietary Salt and Fat Intake among University of Sharjah Students
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050941 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of deaths in the United Arab Emirates and reducing dietary salt intake is recommended to improve the population’s health. Methods: a cross-sectional survey was given to 401 students from the University of Sharjah to investigate knowledge, [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of deaths in the United Arab Emirates and reducing dietary salt intake is recommended to improve the population’s health. Methods: a cross-sectional survey was given to 401 students from the University of Sharjah to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to dietary salt intake and a 24-h dietary recall among a subsample of 122 students, to assess the dietary intake of total fat, cholesterol, saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium. Results: findings indicated low salt-related knowledge scores among students (17 out of 30), high prevalence of overweight (28%), obesity (14%), hypertension stage 1 (31%), and hypertension stage 2 (20%). The results also revealed a high percentage of students exceeding the recommended intake of total fat (48%), saturated fat (90%), trans fat (64%), and sodium (89%), and all students not meeting potassium recommendations. Conclusions: culture-specific awareness campaigns on salt and fat intake and their association with health are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of High Fiber Cereal Intake on Satiety and Gastrointestinal Symptoms during Ramadan
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040939 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
(1) Background: Fasting during Ramadan involves large changes in daily eating patterns which strongly impacts the daily biorhythm and challenges the regular function of the digestive tract. The aim of this study was to assess satiety, bowel habits, body composition, blood glycaemia, and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Fasting during Ramadan involves large changes in daily eating patterns which strongly impacts the daily biorhythm and challenges the regular function of the digestive tract. The aim of this study was to assess satiety, bowel habits, body composition, blood glycaemia, and blood lipidemia after the consumption of high fiber cereal at dawn (Sohor) during the month of Ramadan; (2) Methods: A two-arm randomized, controlled, single-blinded, parallel-design study was conducted in Ramadan month. Participants were randomized to consume either 90 g of high fiber cereal (11 g fiber/90 g) at Sohor for 20 consecutive days (intervention group, n = 45) or to maintain their habitual diet intake (control group; n = 36); (3) Results: The intervention group reported higher satiety rating scores, improved bowel habits and reduced bloating frequency after the 20-day intervention. Significantly higher intake of carbohydrates and dietary fiber were observed in the intervention group. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly lower among the intervention group compared to the control group (p-value = 0.043, and p-value = 0.033, respectively) at the end of the intervention. No significant differences in body weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, body mass index, blood glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed between the two groups; (4) Conclusions: Consuming high fiber cereal had a positive effect on health and well-being during the month of Ramadan with better satiety, improved bowel functions, and improved blood lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Lipoprotein Subclass Profile after Progressive Energy Deficits Induced by Calorie Restriction or Exercise
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111814 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Weight loss, induced by chronic energy deficit, improves the blood lipid profile. However, the effects of an acute negative energy balance and the comparative efficacy of diet and exercise are not well-established. We determined the effects of progressive, acute energy deficits (20% or [...] Read more.
Weight loss, induced by chronic energy deficit, improves the blood lipid profile. However, the effects of an acute negative energy balance and the comparative efficacy of diet and exercise are not well-established. We determined the effects of progressive, acute energy deficits (20% or 40% of daily energy requirements) induced by a single day of calorie restriction (n = 19) or aerobic exercise (n = 13) in healthy subjects (age: 26 ± 9 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2). Fasting plasma concentrations of very low-, intermediate-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL, respectively) particles and their subclasses were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Total plasma triglyceride and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations decreased after calorie restriction and exercise (all p ≤ 0.025); the pattern of change was linear with an increasing energy deficit (all p < 0.03), with no evidence of plateauing. The number of circulating large and medium VLDL particles decreased after diet and exercise (all p < 0.015), with no change in small VLDL particles. The concentrations of IDL, LDL, and HDL particles, their relative distributions, and the particle sizes were not altered. Our data indicate that an acute negative energy balance induced by calorie restriction and aerobic exercise reduces triglyceride concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, by decreasing circulating large and medium VLDL particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Consumption Heated Oils with or without Dietary Cholesterol on the Development of Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101527 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 4Correction
Abstract
Heating oils and fats for a considerable length of time results in chemical reactions, leading to the aggravation of a free radical processes, which ultimately contributes to atherosclerosis. Our study focused on elucidating the effect of feeding heated oils with or without dietary [...] Read more.
Heating oils and fats for a considerable length of time results in chemical reactions, leading to the aggravation of a free radical processes, which ultimately contributes to atherosclerosis. Our study focused on elucidating the effect of feeding heated oils with or without dietary cholesterol on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. We heated palm olein and corn oil at 180 °C for 18 h and 9 h per day, respectively, for two consecutive days. Next, 20 male rabbits were divided into four groups and fed the following diet for 12 weeks: (i) heated palm olein (HPO); (ii) HPO with cholesterol (HPOC); (iii) heated corn oil (HCO); and (iv) HCO with cholesterol (HCOC). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the HCO group compared to the HCOC group. Atherosclerotic lesion scores for both fatty plaques and fatty streaks were significantly higher in the HCO and HCOC groups as compared to the HPO and HPOC groups. Additionally, fibrous plaque scores were also higher in the HCO and HCOC groups as compared to the HPO and HPOC groups. These results suggest that heated palm oil confers protection against the onset of atherosclerosis compared to heated polyunsaturated oils in a rabbit model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Relationship Between HDL Functional Characteristics and Cardiovascular Health and Potential Impact of Dietary Patterns: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061231 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death around the world. Overall diet quality and dietary behaviors are core contributors to metabolic health. While therapeutic targets have traditionally focused on levels of lipoprotein cholesterol when evaluating cardiovascular risk, current perspectives on high-density lipoprotein [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death around the world. Overall diet quality and dietary behaviors are core contributors to metabolic health. While therapeutic targets have traditionally focused on levels of lipoprotein cholesterol when evaluating cardiovascular risk, current perspectives on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have shifted to evaluating the functionality of this lipoprotein particle. Effects of diet on cardiovascular health are mediated through multiple pathways, but the impact on HDL composition and function deserves greater attention. Potential areas of investigation involve changes in particle characteristics, distribution, microRNA cargo, and other functional changes such as improvements to cholesterol efflux capacity. Various dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and may prevent cardiovascular events. These healthful dietary patterns tend to be rich in plant-based foods, with cardiovascular benefits likely resulting from synergistic effects of the individual dietary components. The purpose of this review is to summarize current perspectives on selected functions of HDL particles and how various dietary patterns affect cardiovascular health biomarkers, with a focus on HDL functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
Why Is Very High Cholesterol Content Beneficial for the Eye Lens but Negative for Other Organs?
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051083 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The plasma membranes of the human lens fiber cell are overloaded with cholesterol that not only saturates the phospholipid bilayer of these membranes but also leads to the formation of pure cholesterol bilayer domains. Cholesterol level increases with age, and for older persons, [...] Read more.
The plasma membranes of the human lens fiber cell are overloaded with cholesterol that not only saturates the phospholipid bilayer of these membranes but also leads to the formation of pure cholesterol bilayer domains. Cholesterol level increases with age, and for older persons, it exceeds the cholesterol solubility threshold, leading to the formation of cholesterol crystals. All these changes occur in the normal lens without too much compromise to lens transparency. If the cholesterol content in the cell membranes of other organs increases to extent where cholesterol crystals forma, a pathological condition begins. In arterial cells, minute cholesterol crystals activate inflammasomes, induce inflammation, and cause atherosclerosis development. In this review, we will indicate possible factors that distinguish between beneficial and negative cholesterol action, limiting cholesterol actions to those performed through cholesterol in cell membranes and by cholesterol crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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