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Recent Advances in Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 October 2024 | Viewed by 8378

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Interests: nutrigenetics; nutrigenomics; nutrigenomics technologies; genetic toxicology; DNA damage and repair; environmental mutagenesis; environmental carcinogenesis; mechanisms of anticancer drug action; gene–diet interactions—particularly in prostate and colorectal cancer; inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammation-related disorders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Interests: nutrigenetics; nutrigenomics; biomarkers; food preferences; genetic testing; cardiometabolic disease; athletic performance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are important scientific fields which make major contributions to human health and performance by optimising the appropriate intake of various nutrients and food bioactives. Nutrigenetics associates specific genes with the requirement for specific nutrients, and is now more commonly called personalised or precision nutrition.

Personalised nutrition has been recognised as an evolving field, and there are various companies of differing validity that offer tests that form the basis of this personalisation. Various science laboratories are utilising "omics sciences", including transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and the comprehensive analysis of microbial communities such as the gut microbiome in order to understand the mechanisms by which certain food products and/or diets confer a health benefit. They also support potential health claims that may be made on the basis of this information.

This Special Issue welcomes submissions of original research articles or review articles involving human subjects where various “omics” technologies are used to determine the effects of individual differences in response to nutrition on various health or performance outcomes.

Prof. Dr. Lynnette Ferguson
Prof. Dr. Ahmed El-Sohemy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrigenetics
  • nutrigenomics
  • personalized nutrition
  • precision nutrition
  • omics sciences
  • microbiome
  • metabolism
  • nutritional genomics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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0 pages, 5527 KiB  
Article
Examining the Effects of Nutrient Supplementation on Metabolic Pathways via Mitochondrial Ferredoxin in Aging Ovaries
by Chia-Chun Wu, Chia-Jung Li, Li-Te Lin, Zhi-Hong Wen, Jiin-Tsuey Cheng and Kuan-Hao Tsui
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101470 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 1374
Abstract
As women age, oocytes are susceptible to a myriad of dysfunctions, including mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired DNA repair mechanisms, epigenetic alterations, and metabolic disturbances, culminating in reduced fertility rates among older individuals. Ferredoxin (FDX) represents a highly conserved iron–sulfur (Fe–S) protein essential for electron [...] Read more.
As women age, oocytes are susceptible to a myriad of dysfunctions, including mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired DNA repair mechanisms, epigenetic alterations, and metabolic disturbances, culminating in reduced fertility rates among older individuals. Ferredoxin (FDX) represents a highly conserved iron–sulfur (Fe–S) protein essential for electron transport across multiple metabolic pathways. Mammalian mitochondria house two distinct ferredoxins, FDX1 and FDX2, which share structural similarities and yet perform unique functions. In our investigation into the regulatory mechanisms governing ovarian aging, we employed a comprehensive multi-omics analysis approach, integrating spatial transcriptomics, single-cell RNA sequencing, human ovarian pathology, and clinical biopsy data. Previous studies have highlighted intricate interactions involving excessive lipid peroxide accumulation, redox-induced metal ion buildup, and alterations in cellular energy metabolism observed in aging cells. Through a multi-omics analysis, we observed a notable decline in the expression of the critical gene FDX1 as ovarian age progressed. This observation prompted speculation regarding FDX1’s potential as a promising biomarker for ovarian aging. Following this, we initiated a clinical trial involving 70 patients with aging ovaries. These patients were administered oral nutritional supplements consisting of DHEA, ubiquinol CoQ10, and Cleo-20 T3 for a period of two months to evaluate alterations in energy metabolism regulated by FDX1. Our results demonstrated a significant elevation in FDX1 levels among participants receiving nutritional supplementation. We hypothesize that these nutrients potentiate mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) activity or electron transport chain (ETC) efficiency, thereby augmenting FDX1 expression, an essential electron carrier in metabolic pathways, while concurrently mitigating lipid peroxide accumulation and cellular apoptosis. In summary, our findings underscore the potential of nutritional intervention to enhance in vitro fertilization outcomes in senescent cells by bolstering electron transport proteins, thus optimizing energy metabolism and improving oocyte quality in aging women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics)
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12 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Deciphering the Interplay between Genetic Risk Scores and Lifestyle Factors on Individual Obesity Predisposition
by Danyel Chermon and Ruth Birk
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091296 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Obesity’s variability is significantly influenced by the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to integrate the combined impact of genetic risk score (GRSBMI) with physical activity (PA), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), wine intake, and eating habits score (EHS) on obesity [...] Read more.
Obesity’s variability is significantly influenced by the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to integrate the combined impact of genetic risk score (GRSBMI) with physical activity (PA), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), wine intake, and eating habits score (EHS) on obesity predisposition risk. Adults’ (n = 5824) data were analyzed for common obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and lifestyle habits. The weighted GRSBMI was constructed and categorized into quartiles (Qs), and the adjusted multivariate logistic regression models examined the association of GRSBMI with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and lifestyle factors. GRSBMI was significantly associated with obesity risk. Each GRSBMI unit was associated with an increase of 3.06 BMI units (p ≤ 0.0001). PA markedly reduced obesity risk across GRSBMI Qs. Inactive participants’ (≥90 min/week) mean BMI was higher in GRSBMI Q3–Q4 compared to Q1 (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Scoring EHS ≥ median, SSBs (≥1 cup/day), and non-wine drinking were associated with higher BMI within all GRSBMI Qs compared to EHS < median, non-SSBs, and non-wine drinkers. Mean BMI was higher in GRSBMI Q4 compared to other quartiles (p < 0.0001) in non-wine drinkers and compared to Q1 for SSB’s consumers (p = 0.07). A higher GRSBMI augmented the impact of lifestyle factors on obesity. The interplay between GRSBMI and modifiable lifestyle factors provides a tailored personalized prevention and treatment for obesity management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics)
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18 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
Role of Dietary Factors on DNA Methylation Levels of TNF-Alpha Gene and Proteome Profiles in Obese Men
by Chayanisa Boonrong, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai Shantavasinkul, Piyamitr Sritara and Jintana Sirivarasai
Nutrients 2024, 16(6), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16060877 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Integrated omics-based platforms from epigenomics and proteomics technologies are used to identify several important mechanisms in obesity etiology, food components, dietary intake, regulation of biological pathways, and potential new intervention targets. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze whether dietary factors involved in the [...] Read more.
Integrated omics-based platforms from epigenomics and proteomics technologies are used to identify several important mechanisms in obesity etiology, food components, dietary intake, regulation of biological pathways, and potential new intervention targets. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze whether dietary factors involved in the methylation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are implicated in differential protein expression in people with normal weight and obesity. Methods: The participants were classified into the non-obese (N = 100) and obese (N = 133) groups. DNA methylation levels of the TNF-alpha gene and proteomics were analyzed using the pyrosequencing method and LC-MS-MS, respectively. Results: Comparison between geometric means of DNA methylation of TNF-α showed lower levels in subjects with obesity than in those without obesity (p < 0.05). There were associations between dietary factors and some metabolic syndrome components and TNF-α DNA methylation levels. Proteomic analysis showed important signaling pathways related to obesity, with 95 significantly downregulated proteins and 181 upregulated proteins in the non-obese group compared with the obese group. Conclusion: This study shows an association between the dietary factors involved in the methylation of TNF-α and differential protein expression related to obesity. However, a large sample size in future studies is required to confirm our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics)
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10 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
The Polymorphism rs17300539 in the Adiponectin Promoter Gene Is Related to Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Adiponectin Levels in Caucasian Patients with Obesity
by Daniel de Luis Roman, Olatz Izaola Jauregui and David Primo Martin
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245028 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Background and Aims: The present study was designed to investigate SNP rs17300539 in the ADIPOQ gene and its relationships with obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and serum circulating adiponectin. Methods: The present design involved a Caucasian population of 329 subjects with obesity. [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: The present study was designed to investigate SNP rs17300539 in the ADIPOQ gene and its relationships with obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and serum circulating adiponectin. Methods: The present design involved a Caucasian population of 329 subjects with obesity. Anthropometric and adiposity parameters, blood pressure, biochemical parameters, and the percentage of patients with metabolic syndrome were recorded. The ADIPOQ gene variant (rs17300539) genotype was evaluated. Results: The percentage of patients with different genotypes of the rs17300539 polymorphism in this sample was 86.0% (n = 283) (GG), 11.2% (n = 37) (GA), and 2.7% (n = 9) (AA). The allele frequency was G (0.76) and A (0.24). Applying the dominant genetic model (GG vs. GA + AA), we reported differences between genotype GG and genotype GA + AA for serum adiponectin levels (Delta: 7.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL; p = 0.03), triglycerides (Delta: 41.1 ± 3.4 mg/dL; p = 0.01), fastingcirculating insulin (Delta: 4.9 ± 1.1 mUI/L; p = 0.02), and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR (Delta: 1.4 ± 0.1 units; p = 0.02). The remaining biochemical parameters were not related to the genotype of obese patients. The percentages of individuals with MS (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.3–3.88; p = 0.01), hypertriglyceridaemia (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.43–5.01; p = 0.01), and hyperglycaemia (OR = 3.31, 95% CI = 1.26–8.69; p = 0.02) were higher in GG subjects than patients with A allele. Logistic regression analysis reported an important risk of the presence of metabolic syndrome in GG subjects (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.21–4.11; p = 0.02) after adjusting for adiponectin, dietary energy intakes, gender, weight, and age. Conclusions: The GG genotype of rs17300539 is associated with hypertriglyceridaemia, insulin resistance, low adiponectin levels, and a high risk of metabolic syndrome and its components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics)

Review

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35 pages, 2399 KiB  
Review
Osteoarthritis in the Elderly Population: Preclinical Evidence of Nutrigenomic Activities of Flavonoids
by Flores Naselli, Daniele Bellavia, Viviana Costa, Angela De Luca, Lavinia Raimondi, Gianluca Giavaresi and Fabio Caradonna
Nutrients 2024, 16(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16010112 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is age-related and progressive. It causes the destruction of articular cartilage and underlying bone, often aggravated by inflammatory processes and oxidative stresses. This pathology impairs the quality of life of the elderly, causing pain, reduced [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is age-related and progressive. It causes the destruction of articular cartilage and underlying bone, often aggravated by inflammatory processes and oxidative stresses. This pathology impairs the quality of life of the elderly, causing pain, reduced mobility, and functional disabilities, especially in obese patients. Phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may be used for long-term treatment of OA, either in combination with current anti-inflammatories and painkillers, or as an alternative to other products such as glucosamine and chondroitin, which improve cartilage structure and elasticity. The current systematic review provides a comprehensive understanding of the use of flavonoids. It highlights chondrocyte, cartilage, and subchondral bone activities, with a particular focus on their nutrigenomic effects. The molecular mechanisms of these molecules demonstrate how they can be used for the prevention and treatment of OA in the elderly population. However, clinical trials are still needed for effective use in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics)
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