Special Issue "Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Stefanos Tyrovolas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Parc Sanitari Sant Juan de Deu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBRESAM, University of Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: nutrition; successful and healthy aging; frailty; chronic diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Population is ageing at an unprecedented speed globally. As concept, ageing is considered a continuous process starting from birth and is accompanied by various physiological changes and a number of chronic diseases that affect health and quality of life. Ageing as a continuous process is depending on life course exposures to health risks, lifestyle and nutrition, socioeconomic background, and other factors.

There is considerable interest among scientists regarding the direct and indirect effect of nutrition in optimal ageing. Nutrition has a beneficial effect in a variety of chronic disease that impact the process of ageing. Given the importance of this issue, the journal Nutrients is planning a Special Issue on “Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan” with the aim of providing a source for accurate, up-to-date scientific information on this topic.

We invite you and your co-workers to consider submission of your original research findings or a review article on the topic. Manuscripts should focus on the direct impact of specific food components, dietary patterns, energy intake, macro-, micro- nutrients, alcohol intake, food insecurity as well as malnourishment and appetite to the ageing process (healthy, active, successful ageing, frailty and other similar indices) across lifespan. In a similar way, we also welcome manuscripts that focus on the indirect effect of nutrition to the ageing process throughout the pathway of chronic disease (i.e., obesity, diabetes, depression and mental diseases).

Dr. Stefanos Tyrovolas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ageing
  • Nutrition
  • Lifespan
  • Chronic Diseases

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Medication-Dietary Supplement Combined Use and Associated Factors
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102466 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Introduction: The use of medication has increased in recent years in the US while the use of dietary supplements has remained stable but high. Interactions between these two kinds of products may have important consequences, especially in the case of widely used medications [...] Read more.
Introduction: The use of medication has increased in recent years in the US while the use of dietary supplements has remained stable but high. Interactions between these two kinds of products may have important consequences, especially in the case of widely used medications such as antihypertensives and antibiotics. The aim of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of potentially serious drug–dietary supplement interactions among tetracyclines, thiazides, and angiotensin II receptor blocker users by means of the NHANES 2013–2014 dataset. Methods: Data from 2013–2014 NHANES were obtained. Potential interactions analysed were tetracyclines with calcium, magnesium, and zinc, thiazides with vitamin D, and angiotensin II receptors blockers with potassium. Prevalence was calculated for each potential interaction. Logistic regression was used to assess associated factors. Results: 864 prescriptions issued to 820 patients were analysed. Overall prevalence of potential interaction was 49%. Older age and higher educational level were strongly associated with being at risk of a potential interaction. Factors such as age, race, civil status, citizenship, country of birth, BMI, and physical activity did not show notable associations. Conclusions: Healthcare professionals should be aware of other medical products when they prescribe or dispense a medication or a dietary supplement, especially to the older population and people with a higher educational level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Maternal Obesity on Breast Milk Fatty Acids and Its Association with Infant Growth and Cognition—The PREOBE Follow-Up
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092154 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
This study analyzed how maternal obesity affected fatty acids (FAs) in breast milk and their association with infant growth and cognition to raise awareness about the programming effect of maternal health and to promote a healthy prenatal weight. Mother–child pairs (n = [...] Read more.
This study analyzed how maternal obesity affected fatty acids (FAs) in breast milk and their association with infant growth and cognition to raise awareness about the programming effect of maternal health and to promote a healthy prenatal weight. Mother–child pairs (n = 78) were grouped per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): normal-weight (BMI = 18.5–24.99), overweight (BMI = 25–29.99) and obese (BMI > 30). Colostrum and mature milk FAs were determined. Infant anthropometry at 6, 18 and 36 months of age and cognition at 18 were analyzed. Mature milk exhibited lower arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), among others, than colostrum. Breast milk of non-normal weight mothers presented increased saturated FAs and n6:n3 ratio and decreased α-linolenic acid (ALA), DHA and monounsaturated FAs. Infant BMI-for-age at 6 months of age was inversely associated with colostrum n6 (e.g., AA) and n3 (e.g., DHA) FAs and positively associated with n6:n3 ratio. Depending on the maternal weight, infant cognition was positively influenced by breast milk linoleic acid, n6 PUFAs, ALA, DHA and n3 LC-PUFAs, and negatively affected by n6:n3 ratio. In conclusion, this study shows that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI can influence breast milk FAs and infant growth and cognition, endorsing the importance of a healthy weight in future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Potential Moderators Associated with All-Cause Mortality in a Representative Sample of Spanish Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081794 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
This study sought to determine the association between levels of fruit and vegetable consumption and time to death, and to explore potential moderators. We analyzed a nationally-representative sample of 1699 older adults aged 65+ who were followed up for a period of 6 [...] Read more.
This study sought to determine the association between levels of fruit and vegetable consumption and time to death, and to explore potential moderators. We analyzed a nationally-representative sample of 1699 older adults aged 65+ who were followed up for a period of 6 years. Participants were classified into low (≤3 servings day), medium (4), or high (≥5) consumption using tertiles. Unadjusted and adjusted cox proportional hazard regression models (by age, gender, cohabiting, education, multimorbidity, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and obesity) were calculated. The majority of participants (65.7%) did not meet the recommendation of five servings per day. High fruit and vegetable intake increased by 27% the probability of surviving among older adults with two chronic conditions, compared to those who consumed ≤3 servings per day (HR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.21–0.69). However, this beneficial effect was not found for people with none, one chronic condition or three or more, indicating that this protective effect might not be sufficient for more severe cases of multimorbidity. Given a common co-occurrence of two non-communicable diseases in the elderly and the low frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in this population, interventions to promote consuming five or more servings per day could have a significant positive impact on reducing mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Nutritional Status and Musculoskeletal Health in a Geriatric Post-Fall Care Plan Setting
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071551 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
Understanding how changes in nutritional status influence musculoskeletal recovery after falling remains unclear. We explored associations between changes in nutritional status and musculoskeletal health in 106 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years, who attended the Falls and Fractures Clinic at Sunshine Hospital in [...] Read more.
Understanding how changes in nutritional status influence musculoskeletal recovery after falling remains unclear. We explored associations between changes in nutritional status and musculoskeletal health in 106 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years, who attended the Falls and Fractures Clinic at Sunshine Hospital in St Albans, Australia after falling. At baseline and after 6 months, individuals were assessed for Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®), grip strength, gait speed, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and bone turnover marker levels. Associations were examined using multiple linear regression, adjusted for baseline covariates and post-fall care plans. Over 6 months, the prevalence of malnutrition or risk thereof decreased from 29% to 15% using MNA <24/30. Specifically, 20 individuals (19%) improved, 7 (7%) deteriorated, and 73 (69%) maintained nutritional status, including 65 (61%) who remained well-nourished and 8 (8%) who remained malnourished/at risk. A 1-point increase in MNA score over 6 months was associated with an increase of 0.20 points (95% confidence interval 0.10, 0.31, p < 0.001) in SPPB score. Improvement in nutritional status was associated with improvement in physical performance, providing a basis for interventional studies to ascertain causality and evaluate nutritional models of care for post-fall functional recovery in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
High Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in Institutionalized Elderly Individuals is Associated with Summer in a Region with High Ultraviolet Radiation Levels
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071516 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Vitamin D may play a significant role in regulating the rate of aging. The objective of the study was to assess vitamin D status and its associated factors in institutionalized elderly individuals. A total of 153 elderly individuals living in Nursing Homes (NH) [...] Read more.
Vitamin D may play a significant role in regulating the rate of aging. The objective of the study was to assess vitamin D status and its associated factors in institutionalized elderly individuals. A total of 153 elderly individuals living in Nursing Homes (NH) were recruited into the study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was used as the biomarker of vitamin D status, and it was considered as the dependent variable in the model. The independent variables were the type of NH, age-adjusted time of institutionalization, age, sex, skin color, body mass index, waist and calf circumference, physical activity practice, mobility, dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, vitamin D supplementation, use of antiepileptics, and season of the year. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than or equal to 29 ng/mL were classified as insufficient vitamin D status. The prevalences of inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium were 95.4% and 79.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 71.2%, and the mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 23.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.8–26.1). Serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with the season of summer (p = 0.046). There were no associations with other independent variables (all p > 0.05). The present results showed that a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was significantly associated with summer in institutionalized elderly individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessCommunication
Considerations for the Development of Innovative Foods to Improve Nutrition in Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061275 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
The population of older adults is growing globally. This increase has led to an accumulation of chronic illnesses, so-called age-related diseases. Diet and nutrition are considered the main drivers of the global burden of diseases, and this situation applies especially to this population [...] Read more.
The population of older adults is growing globally. This increase has led to an accumulation of chronic illnesses, so-called age-related diseases. Diet and nutrition are considered the main drivers of the global burden of diseases, and this situation applies especially to this population segment. It relates directly to the development of coronary heart disease, hypertension, some types of cancer, and type 2 diabetes, among other diseases, while age-associated changes in body composition (bone and muscle mass, fat, sarcopenia) constitute risk factors for functional limitations affecting health status and the quality of life. Older adults present eating and swallowing problems, dry mouth, taste loss, and anorexia among other problems causing “anorexia of aging” that affects their nutritional status. The strategies to overcome these situations are described in this study. The impact of oral food processing on nutrition is discussed, as well as approaches to improve food acceptance through the design of innovative foods. These foods should supply a growing demand as this group represents an increasing segment of the consumer market globally, whose needs must be fulfilled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns and Their Association with Anxiety Symptoms among Older Adults: The ATTICA Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061250 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
By 2050, the global population aged 60 years and over is expected to reach nearly 2.1 billion and affective disorders might be also expected to increase. Although nutrition has been related with affective disorders, there is a lack of studies assessing the relation [...] Read more.
By 2050, the global population aged 60 years and over is expected to reach nearly 2.1 billion and affective disorders might be also expected to increase. Although nutrition has been related with affective disorders, there is a lack of studies assessing the relation between dietary habits and anxiety among European and Mediterranean older populations. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary habits, energy intake, and anxiety symptoms using data from 1128 Greek older adults (>50 years) without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or any other chronic disease who participated in the ATTICA study. Various socio demographic lifestyle, bio-clinical (e.g., blood pressure), and psychological (e.g., depression) characteristics were used, and dietary habits as well as energy intake were calculated using standard procedures. Older people with anxiety were more likely to be sedentary, to be smokers, and to show symptoms of depression. The saturated fat and added sugars (SFAS) dietary pattern was associated with higher anxiety levels (non-standardized b (95% CI): 5.82 (0.03 to 11.61)). No association between energy intake tertiles and anxiety levels pictured in the later regression model. Moreover, female gender, family status, and depression were positively related to anxiety. Therefore, promoting healthy dietary habits could reduce anxiety symptoms of the older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
Open AccessArticle
Food Insecurity Is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in South Africa: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040749 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
There are no studies on the association between food insecurity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thus, cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization’s Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in South Africa (2007–2008) were [...] Read more.
There are no studies on the association between food insecurity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thus, cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization’s Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in South Africa (2007–2008) were analyzed to assess this association. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer’s Association criteria. Past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 3,672 individuals aged ≥50 years [mean (SD) age 61.4 (18.3); 56% females]. The prevalence of MCI was 8.5%, while 11.0% and 20.8% experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with 2.82 (95%CI = 1.65–4.84) and 2.51 (95%CI = 1.63–3.87) times higher odds for MCI compared with no food insecurity, respectively. The OR for those aged ≥65 years with severe food insecurity was particularly high (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 2.20–6.81). In conclusion, food insecurity was strongly associated with MCI among South African older adults. Future longitudinal research is required to assess whether addressing food insecurity may reduce risk of MCI and subsequent dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of an Infant Formula Supplemented with AA and DHA on Fatty Acid Levels of Infants with Different FADS Genotypes: The COGNIS Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030602 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes influence the arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid concentrations (crucial in early life). Infants with specific genotypes may require different amounts of these fatty acids (FAs) to maintain an adequate status. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes influence the arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid concentrations (crucial in early life). Infants with specific genotypes may require different amounts of these fatty acids (FAs) to maintain an adequate status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with AA and DHA on FAs of infants with different FADS genotypes. In total, 176 infants from the COGNIS study were randomly allocated to the Standard Formula (SF; n = 61) or the Experimental Formula (EF; n = 70) group, the latter supplemented with AA and DHA. Breastfed infants were added as a reference group (BF; n = 45). FAs and FADS polymorphisms were analyzed from cheek cells collected at 3 months of age. FADS minor allele carriership in formula fed infants, especially those supplemented, was associated with a declined desaturase activity and lower AA and DHA levels. Breastfed infants were not affected, possibly to the high content of AA and DHA in breast milk. The supplementation increased AA and DHA levels, but mostly in major allele carriers. In conclusion, infant FADS genotype could contribute to narrow the gap of AA and DHA concentrations between breastfed and formula fed infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Whey and Soy Protein Isolates on Cognitive Function in Older Australians with Low Vitamin B12: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010019 - 21 Dec 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Whey protein isolate (WPI) is high in vitamin B12 and folate. These and other related markers (holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid and homocysteine) have been linked with cognitive health. This study explored the efficacy of WPI for improving cognitive function via delivery of vitamin [...] Read more.
Whey protein isolate (WPI) is high in vitamin B12 and folate. These and other related markers (holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid and homocysteine) have been linked with cognitive health. This study explored the efficacy of WPI for improving cognitive function via delivery of vitamin B12. Moderately vitamin B12-deficient participants aged between 45 and 75 years (n = 56) were recruited into this randomised controlled crossover trial. Participants (55% female) consumed 50 g whey (WPI; active) or soy protein isolate (SPI; control) for eight weeks. Following a 16-week washout phase, they consumed the alternative supplement. Consumption of WPI significantly improved active B12 and folate status but did not result in direct improvements in cognitive function. However, there was evidence of improvement in reaction time (p = 0.02) and reasoning speed (p = 0.04) in the SPI condition for females. Additional analyses showed that changes in active B12, HcY and folate measures during WPI treatment correlated with improvements in cognitive function (all p < 0.05). Results indicate that WPI itself did not result in improved cognitive function but some evidence of benefit of SPI for females was found. However, consistent with previous research, we present further evidence of a role for active B12, HcY and folate in supporting cognitive improvement in adults with low B vitamin status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Lifestyle Behaviour and Healthy Ageing in Five Latin American and the Caribbean Countries—A 10/66 Population-Based Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111593 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Latin American and the Caribbean countries exhibit high life expectancy and projections show that they will experience the fastest growth of older people in the following years. As people live longer, it is important to maximise the opportunity to age healthily. We aimed [...] Read more.
Latin American and the Caribbean countries exhibit high life expectancy and projections show that they will experience the fastest growth of older people in the following years. As people live longer, it is important to maximise the opportunity to age healthily. We aimed to examine the associations of lifestyle behaviours with healthy ageing in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico and Puerto Rico, part of the 10/66 study. Residents 65 years old and over (n = 10,900) were interviewed between 2003 and 2010. In the baseline survey, we measured four healthy behaviours: Physical activity, non-smoking, moderate drinking and fruits or vegetables consumption. Healthy ageing was conceptualised within the functional ability framework over a median of 4 years follow-up. Logistic models were calculated per country and then pooled together with fixed-effects meta-analysis. People engaging in physical activity and consuming fruits or vegetables had increased odds of healthy ageing in the follow-up (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 2.20–3.03; OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06–1.44, respectively). Compared with participants engaging in none or one healthy behaviour, the ORs of participants engaging in two, three or four healthy behaviours increased in a linear way (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.40–1.84; OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.94–2.69; OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.54–3.92, respectively). Our findings highlight the importance of awareness of a healthy lifestyle behaviour among older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial NADPH-Coupled Redox Systems in the Regulation of Aging
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030504 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2789
Abstract
The reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) protects against redox stress by providing reducing equivalents to antioxidants such as glutathione and thioredoxin. NADPH levels decline with aging in several tissues, but whether this is a major driving force for the aging [...] Read more.
The reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) protects against redox stress by providing reducing equivalents to antioxidants such as glutathione and thioredoxin. NADPH levels decline with aging in several tissues, but whether this is a major driving force for the aging process has not been well established. Global or neural overexpression of several cytoplasmic enzymes that synthesize NADPH have been shown to extend lifespan in model organisms such as Drosophila suggesting a positive relationship between cytoplasmic NADPH levels and longevity. Mitochondrial NADPH plays an important role in the protection against redox stress and cell death and mitochondrial NADPH-utilizing thioredoxin reductase 2 levels correlate with species longevity in cells from rodents and primates. Mitochondrial NADPH shuttles allow for some NADPH flux between the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Since a decline of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is linked with aging and because NADP+ is exclusively synthesized from NAD+ by cytoplasmic and mitochondrial NAD+ kinases, a decline in the cytoplasmic or mitochondrial NADPH pool may also contribute to the aging process. Therefore pro-longevity therapies should aim to maintain the levels of both NAD+ and NADPH in aging tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
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