molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Natural Additives in Food"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Lillian Barros
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: identification, separation and recovery of functional molecules from different natural products, as well as their implementation as ingredients and bioactive compounds in food, with an ultimate goal to extract high added-value molecules and re-use them in the food chain (from agriculture to the consumer)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro de Investigação de Montanha CIMO, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, P-5300253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: food chemistry; natural products; functional foods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The controversy and ambiguity related with chemical additives, allied to sporadic scares, have paved the way for natural additives to gain interest and funding. Today, most consumers prefer foods added with natural additives, rather than artificial ones, which is seen by the food industry as an opportunity to find new and more efficient natural-based solutions, while fighting to reduce the overall use of additives, producing minimally processed goods. The benefits of natural additives are endless, their synergy and effectiveness are a great leap over artificial additives that carry out, in most cases, only one effect over the food.

The plant and fungi kingdoms are great sources of bioactive compounds, that can be used to develop natural food ingredients. These natural compounds can be added as extracts, taking advantage of the synergistic effects between compounds, or as individual molecules, after purification, thus adding the most bioactive ones to the foodstuff. Although quite promising, natural additives still face some drawbacks and limitations. Therefore, an important research topic is the discovery of new alternative sources of natural additives fulfilling the different classes: preservatives (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-brownings), nutritional additives, coloring agents, flavoring agents, texturizing agents and miscellaneous agents.

This Special Issue “Natural Additives in Food” invites researchers to contribute with original research or review articles related to natural ingredients for food applications, including natural compounds obtained from plants, mushrooms, marine and bee products, extraction procedures, chemical identification, stabilization techniques, and food incorporation.

Dr. Lillian Barros
Prof. Dr. Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bio-based compounds
  • Extraction procedures
  • Chemical characterization
  • Food incorporation
  • Stabilization techniques
  • Functional foods

Published Papers (18 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Pickling Process on Allium cepa and Citrus limon Metabolome as Determined via Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050928 - 07 Mar 2019
Abstract
Brine, the historically known food additive salt solution, has been widely used as a pickling media to preserve flavor or enhance food aroma, appearance, or other qualities. The influence of pickling, using brine, on the aroma compounds and the primary and secondary metabolite [...] Read more.
Brine, the historically known food additive salt solution, has been widely used as a pickling media to preserve flavor or enhance food aroma, appearance, or other qualities. The influence of pickling, using brine, on the aroma compounds and the primary and secondary metabolite profile in onion bulb Allium cepa red cv. and lemon fruit Citrus limon was evaluated using multiplex metabolomics technologies. In lemon, pickling negatively affected its key odor compound “citral”, whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons limonene and γ-terpinene increased in the pickled product. Meanwhile, in onion sulphur rearrangement products appeared upon storage, i.e., 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane. Profiling of the polar secondary metabolites in lemon fruit via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to MS annotated 37 metabolites including 18 flavonoids, nine coumarins, five limonoids, and two organic acids. With regard to pickling impact, notable and clear separation among specimens was observed with an orthogonal projections to least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot for the lemon fruit model showing an enrichment of limonoids and organic acids and that for fresh onion bulb showing an abundance of flavonols and saponins. In general, the pickling process appeared to negatively impact the abundance of secondary metabolites in both onion and lemon, suggesting a decrease in their food health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Bark Extract of the Amazonian Tree Endopleura uchi (Humiriaceae) Extends Lifespan and Enhances Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050915 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec (Humiriaceae), known as uxi or uxi-amarelo in Brazil, is an endemic tree of the Amazon forest. In traditional medicine, its stem bark is used to treat a variety of health disorders, including cancer, diabetes, arthritis, uterine inflammation, and gynecological [...] Read more.
Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec (Humiriaceae), known as uxi or uxi-amarelo in Brazil, is an endemic tree of the Amazon forest. In traditional medicine, its stem bark is used to treat a variety of health disorders, including cancer, diabetes, arthritis, uterine inflammation, and gynecological infections. According to HPLC analysis, the main constituent of the bark extract is the polyphenol bergenin. In the current study, we demonstrate by in vitro and in vivo experiments the antioxidant potential of a water extract from the stem bark of E. uchi. When tested in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the extract enhanced stress resistance via the DAF-16/FOXO pathway. Additionally, the extract promoted an increase in the lifespan of the worms independent from caloric restriction. It also attenuated the age-related muscle function decline and formation of polyQ40 plaques, as a model for Huntington’s disease. Thus, these data support anti-aging and anti-oxidant properties of E. uchi, which has not yet been described. More studies are needed to assess the real benefits of E. uchi bark for human health and its toxicological profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Temperature, Solvent and pH on the Selective Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Tiger Nuts by-Products: Triple-TOF-LC-MS-MS Characterization
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040797 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of temperature, solvent (hydroethanolic mixtures) and pH on the recovery of individual phenolic compounds from “horchata” by-products. These parameters were optimized by response surface methodology and triple-TOF-LC-MS-MS was selected as the analytical tool [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of temperature, solvent (hydroethanolic mixtures) and pH on the recovery of individual phenolic compounds from “horchata” by-products. These parameters were optimized by response surface methodology and triple-TOF-LC-MS-MS was selected as the analytical tool to identify and quantify the individual compounds. The optimum extraction conditions were 50% ethanol, 35 °C and pH 2.5, which resulted in values of 222.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g dry matter and 1948.1 µM trolox equivalent (TE)/g of dry matter for total phenolic content (TPC) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), respectively. The extraction of phenolic compounds by the conventional solvent method with agitation was influenced by temperature (p = 0.0073), and more strongly, by the content of ethanol in the extraction solution (p = 0.0007) while the pH did not show a great impact (p = 0.7961). On the other hand, the extraction of phenolic acids was affected by temperature (p = 0.0003) and by ethanol amount (p < 0.0001) but not by the pH values (p = 0.53). In addition, the percentage of ethanol influenced notably the extraction of both 4-vinylphenol (p = 0.0002) and the hydroxycinnamic acids (p = 0.0039). Finally, the main individual phenolic extracted with hydroethanolic mixtures was 4-vinylphenol (303.3 μg/kg DW) followed by spinacetin3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-glucoside (86.2 μg/kg DW) and sinensetin (77.8 μg/kg DW). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Extraction Process to Obtain a Colorant Ingredient from Leaves of Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040686 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Heat-Assisted Extraction (HAE) was used for the optimized production of an extract rich in anthocyanin compounds from Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens leaves. The optimization was performed using the response surface methodology employing a central composite experimental design with five-levels for each of the [...] Read more.
Heat-Assisted Extraction (HAE) was used for the optimized production of an extract rich in anthocyanin compounds from Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens leaves. The optimization was performed using the response surface methodology employing a central composite experimental design with five-levels for each of the assessed variables. The independent variables studied were the extraction time (t, 20–120 min), temperature (T, 25–85 °C), and solvent (S, 0–100% of ethanol, v/v). Anthocyanin compounds were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and the extraction yields were used as response variables. Theoretical models were developed for the obtained experimental data, then the models were validated by a selected number of statistical tests, and finally, those models were used in the prediction and optimization steps. The optimal HAE conditions for the extraction of anthocyanin compounds were: t = 65.37 ± 3.62 min, T = 85.00 ± 1.17 °C and S = 62.50 ± 4.24%, and originated 114.74 ± 0.58 TA mg/g of extract. This study highlighted the red rubin basil leaves as a promising natural matrix to extract pigmented compounds, using green solvents and reduced extraction times. The extract rich in anthocyanins also showed antimicrobial and anti-proliferative properties against four human tumor cell lines, without any toxicity on a primary porcine liver cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Ultrasound as a Rapid and Low-Cost Extraction Procedure to Obtain Anthocyanin-Based Colorants from Prunus spinosa L. Fruit Epicarp: Comparative Study with Conventional Heat-Based Extraction
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030573 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
An ultrasound rapid and low-cost procedure for anthocyanin-based colorants from Prunus spinosa L. fruit epicarp was developed, and the advantages were compared with conventional heat-based extraction. To obtain the conditions that maximize anthocyanins’ extraction, a response surface methodology was applied using the variables [...] Read more.
An ultrasound rapid and low-cost procedure for anthocyanin-based colorants from Prunus spinosa L. fruit epicarp was developed, and the advantages were compared with conventional heat-based extraction. To obtain the conditions that maximize anthocyanins’ extraction, a response surface methodology was applied using the variables of time, temperature, and ethanol content, in the case of heat extraction, whereas for ultrasound assisted extraction, temperature was replaced by ultrasound power. Two anthocyanin compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS—namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside. The responses used were the extraction yield and the content of the identified anthocyanins. Ultrasound extraction was the most effective method at 5.00 ± 0.15 min, 400.00 ± 32.00 W, and 47.98% ± 2.88% of ethanol obtaining 68.60% ± 2.06% of extracted residue, with an anthocyanin content of 18.17 mg/g (extract-basis) and 11.76 mg/g (epicarp-basis). Overall, a viable green process was achieved that could be used to support pilot-scale studies for industrial production of anthocyanin-based colorants from P. spinosa fruit epicarp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Olive Leaf Addition Increases Olive Oil Nutraceutical Properties
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030545 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of the present research was to study the effects of olive leaf addition (0 and 3%) on the major antioxidants and the antioxidant activity of Neb Jmel and Oueslati olive oils. Olives and leaves of the two Tunisian varieties were harvested [...] Read more.
The aim of the present research was to study the effects of olive leaf addition (0 and 3%) on the major antioxidants and the antioxidant activity of Neb Jmel and Oueslati olive oils. Olives and leaves of the two Tunisian varieties were harvested during the 2016/2017 crop season. Both leaves and oils were characterised for their concentrations in phenolics, tocopherols and antioxidant power. Other parameters such as free acidity, peroxide value, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations were also taken into consideration. Compared to Oueslati, the Neb Jmel oil showed a lower free acidity (50%) and peroxide value (5.6-fold), and higher chlorophyll (1.6-fold), total phenolics (1.3-fold), flavonoid (3-fold) and oleuropein derivative (1.5-fold) concentrations, in addition to an increased antioxidant activity (1.6-fold). Leaf addition promoted a significant increment in total chlorophyll, α-tocopherol and phenolics in both varieties, above all in Oueslati oil, due to a higher abundance of bioactive constituents in the corresponding leaves. In particular, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations reached values twice higher than in Neb Jmel leaves, and flavonoids and oleouperin derivatives were three-fold higher. This prevented the oxidation and the formation of peroxides, reducing the peroxide value of the fortified oil to the half. The results provide evidence on the performance of the Tunisian Neb Jmel and Oueslati varieties, showing that their oils present a chemical profile corresponding to the extra virgin olive oil category and that, after leaf addition, their nutritional value was improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Betanin, a Natural Food Additive: Stability, Bioavailability, Antioxidant and Preservative Ability Assessments
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030458 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Betanin is the only betalain approved for use in food and pharmaceutical products as a natural red colorant. However, the antioxidant power and health-promoting properties of this pigment have been disregarded, perhaps due to the difficulty in obtaining a stable chemical compound, which [...] Read more.
Betanin is the only betalain approved for use in food and pharmaceutical products as a natural red colorant. However, the antioxidant power and health-promoting properties of this pigment have been disregarded, perhaps due to the difficulty in obtaining a stable chemical compound, which impairs its absorption and metabolism evaluation. Herein, betanin was purified by semi-preparative HPLC-LC/MS and identified by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS as the pseudomolecular ion m/z 551.16. Betanin showed significant stability up to −30 °C and mild stability at chilling temperature. The stability and antioxidant ability of this compound were assessed during a human digestion simulation and ex vivo colon fermentation. Half of the betanin amount was recovered in the small intestine digestive fluid and no traces were found after colon fermentation. Betanin high antioxidant ability was retained even after simulated small intestine digestion. Betanin, besides displaying an inherent colorant capacity, was equally effective as a natural antioxidant displaying peroxy-radical scavenger ability in pork meat. Betanin should be considered a multi-functional molecule able to confer an attractive color to frozen or refrigerated foods, but with the capacity to avoid lipid oxidation, thereby preserving food quality. Long-term supplementation by beetroot, a rich source of betanin, should be stimulated to protect organisms against oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Oxygen-Containing Sulfur Flavor Molecules on the Stability of β-Carotene under UVA Irradiation
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020318 - 16 Jan 2019
Abstract
The influence of 11 kinds of oxygen-containing sulfur flavor molecules was examined on β-carotene stability under UVA irradiation in ethanol system. Both the effects of sulfides on dynamic degradation of β-carotene and the relation between structure and effect were investigated. The oxidation products [...] Read more.
The influence of 11 kinds of oxygen-containing sulfur flavor molecules was examined on β-carotene stability under UVA irradiation in ethanol system. Both the effects of sulfides on dynamic degradation of β-carotene and the relation between structure and effect were investigated. The oxidation products of β-carotene accelerated by sulfides under UVA irradiation were also identified. The results indicated that the disulfides had more obvious accelerative effects on the photodegradation of β-carotene than mono sulfides. The degradation of β-carotene after methyl (2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide (MMFDS), methyl furfuryl disulfide (MFDS) and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide (BMFDS) exposure followed first-order kinetics. Furan-containing sulfides such as MMFDS and BMFDS showed more pronounced accelerative effects than their corresponding isomers. The oxidation products were identified as 13-cis-β-carotene, 9,13-di-cis-β-carotene and all-trans-5,6-epoxy-β-carotene. These results suggest that both the sulfur atom numbers and the furan group in oxygen-containing sulfides play a critical role in the photooxidation of β-carotene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Melanogenic Properties of Essential Oil from Peel of Pomelo cv. Guan Xi
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020242 - 10 Jan 2019
Abstract
Here, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-melanogenic effects of pomelo peel essential oil (PPEO) from pomelo cv. Guan Xi. The volatile chemical composition of PPEO was analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The most abundant component of PPEO was limonene (55.92%), followed by [...] Read more.
Here, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-melanogenic effects of pomelo peel essential oil (PPEO) from pomelo cv. Guan Xi. The volatile chemical composition of PPEO was analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The most abundant component of PPEO was limonene (55.92%), followed by β-myrcene (31.17%), and β-pinene (3.16%). PPEO showed strong anti-oxidant activities against 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) and superoxide anion free radicals. Based on the B16 melanoma cell system, the effects of PPEO on the viability and morphology of B16 cells and the production of melanin were evaluated. The results revealed that PPEO at concentrations below 50 μg/mL could decrease the melanin content without affecting cell viability and morphology. Intracellular tyrosinase (TYR) activity and Western blot analysis showed that PPEO could down-regulate the expression level of TYR in B16 cells and dose-dependently inhibit TYR activity (by a maximum of 64.54%). In conclusion, PPEO has good anti-oxidant and anti-melanogenic activity, and thus can be widely used as a natural antioxidant in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparative Reduction of Egg Yolk Cholesterol Using Anionic Chelating Agents
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3204; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123204 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Egg yolk is used as an emulsifying agent. Nevertheless, its high concentration of cholesterol is linked to chronic degenerative diseases that cause cardiovascular disease. In this study, three methods for reducing the level of cholesterol in egg yolks were studied. The first method [...] Read more.
Egg yolk is used as an emulsifying agent. Nevertheless, its high concentration of cholesterol is linked to chronic degenerative diseases that cause cardiovascular disease. In this study, three methods for reducing the level of cholesterol in egg yolks were studied. The first method consisted of physical separation of the granules contained in the yolk (NaG). The second method applied was the use of anionic chelating biopolymers, such as arabic gum solution (AG) and mesquite gum solution (MG), and the third method was extraction with a solvent (SA). For this purpose, the cholesterol present in egg yolks, the microstructure, particle size, zeta potential, and its emulsifying capacity were determined. The amount of cholesterol removed was 97.24% using 1% mesquite gum (MG1%), and 93.26% using 1% Arabic gum (AG1%). The zeta potential was determined, and the isoelectric point (ζ = 0) of egg yolk was identified as pH 4.6. While, at this pH, the zeta potential of mesquite gum was −14.8 mV, the zeta potential for the arabic gum was −16 mV. The emulsifying capacity of MG1% was 62.95%, while the emulsifying capacity of AG1% was 63.57%. The complex obtained can be used in the development of functional foods reduced in cholesterol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Enzyme Modified Soymilk on Rennet Induced Gelation of Skim Milk
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3084; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123084 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, soymilk was hydrolyzed to different degrees with flavourzyme, and then soymilk and enzyme modified soymilk at various levels were added to skim milk respectively, to generate a mixed gel using rennet. Rheological properties, scanning electron microscopy imaging, and physical and [...] Read more.
In this study, soymilk was hydrolyzed to different degrees with flavourzyme, and then soymilk and enzyme modified soymilk at various levels were added to skim milk respectively, to generate a mixed gel using rennet. Rheological properties, scanning electron microscopy imaging, and physical and chemical indexes were examined to reveal the effect of enzyme modified soymilk on rennet induced gelation of skim milk. Results showed that soymilk inhibited the aggregation of skim milk, led to a decrease in storage modulus (G’), significantly increased moisture content and curd yield, and the resulting network was coarse. Enzyme modified soymilk with a molecular weight below 20 kDa led to a more uniform curd distribution, which counteracted the reduction of G’ and allowed for the formation of a stronger gel. Both the moisture content and the curd yield increased with the addition of soymilk and enzyme modified soymilk, and overall the effect of adding a high degree of hydrolysis of enzyme modified soymilk was superior. Compared to untreated soymilk, the addition of a certain amount of enzyme modified soymilk resulted in a new protein structure, which would improve the texture of blend cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Quality Properties and Shelf Life Stability of New Formulated Muffins Based on Black Rice
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23113047 - 21 Nov 2018
Abstract
Effects of partial (50%) and total replacement of wheat flour with black rice flour on the phytochemical, physico-chemical, sensorial, and textural properties of muffins were studied. Partial or total replacement of wheat flour with black rice flour in muffins improved their nutritional and [...] Read more.
Effects of partial (50%) and total replacement of wheat flour with black rice flour on the phytochemical, physico-chemical, sensorial, and textural properties of muffins were studied. Partial or total replacement of wheat flour with black rice flour in muffins improved their nutritional and antioxidative properties with a positive effect on microbiological and color stability during the storage period in accelerated conditions. The low gluten muffins had an anthocyanin content of 27.54 ± 2.22 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G)/100 g dry weight (DW), whereas the gluten free muffins had 46.11 ± 3.91 mg C3G/100 g DW, with significant antioxidant values. Retention of 60% and 64% for anthocyanins and 72% and 80% for antioxidant activity after baking was found. The fracturability and hardness scores increased with the addition of black rice flour, whereas firmness and chewiness increased for gluten free muffins. The confocal analysis revealed a tendency of glucidic components to aggregate, with gathers of small bunches of black rice starch granules comprising anthocyanin. The results allowed designing two new value added bakery products, low and free gluten muffins, with significant high amounts of bioactive compounds, suggesting the functional potential of black rice flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Stability Analysis of Anthocyanins Using Alcoholic Extracts from Black Carrot (Daucus Carota ssp. Sativus Var. Atrorubens Alef.)
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112744 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Anthocyanins are used for food coloring due their low toxicity and health benefits. They are extracted from different sources, but black carrot has higher anthocyanin content compared with common fruits and vegetables. Here, we study alcoholic anthocyanin extracts from black carrot to enhance [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are used for food coloring due their low toxicity and health benefits. They are extracted from different sources, but black carrot has higher anthocyanin content compared with common fruits and vegetables. Here, we study alcoholic anthocyanin extracts from black carrot to enhance their stability. The objective of our research is to determine if microencapsulation with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) is a feasible option for preventing black carrot anthocyanin degradation. Extraction solvents were solutions of (1) ethanol/acetic acid and (2) ethanol/citric acid. Samples were purified through a resin column and microencapsulated using TEOS. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of samples were obtained, and degradation studies were performed under different conditions of UV radiation, pH and temperature. Antioxidant activity was evaluated with radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and electrochemical cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Color evaluation on food models were performed with CIE Lab at the beginning of experiments and after 25 days of storage. Results indicate that the more stable extracts against pH media changes are samples obtained with ethanol/acetic acid solution as extraction solvent. Extract purification through resin and TEOS microencapsulation had no significant effect on extract stability. In conclusion, although TEOS microencapsulation has proven to be effective for some dried materials from natural extracts in our previous research, we do not recommend its use for black carrot extracts considering our results in this particular case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Beta Cyclodextrin on the Reduction of Cholesterol in Ewe’s Milk Manchego Cheese
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071789 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is a cyclic oligosaccharide consisting of seven glucose units and is produced from starch using cyclodextrin glycotransferase enzymes to break the polysaccharide chain and forming a cyclic polysaccharide molecule. The use of β-CD in food research for reduction of cholesterol is [...] Read more.
Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is a cyclic oligosaccharide consisting of seven glucose units and is produced from starch using cyclodextrin glycotransferase enzymes to break the polysaccharide chain and forming a cyclic polysaccharide molecule. The use of β-CD in food research for reduction of cholesterol is increasing due to its affinity for non-polar molecules such as cholesterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using β-CD in cholesterol removal from pasteurized ewe’s milk Manchego cheese and evaluate the effect on the main components of the milk, lipids, and flavor characteristics. Approximately 97.6% cholesterol reduction was observed in the cheese that was treated using β-CD. Physicochemical properties (fat, moisture and protein) were not changed by the β-CD treatment, except the soluble nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen that showed slight differences after the treatment. The amount of the different components of the lipid fraction (fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were similar in cheeses treated and not treated with β-CD. Flavor compound and short chain free fatty acids were not mostly significantly influenced by the effect of the β-CD. β-CD molecules are edible and nontoxic and as a result they can be used safely for cholesterol removal processing in cheese manufacturing. Therefore, the present study suggests that β-CD treatment is an effective process for cholesterol removal from Manchego cheese while preserving its properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Use of Trisodium Citrate to Improve the Textural Properties of Acid-Induced, Transglutaminase-Treated Micellar Casein Gels
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071632 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this study, the effect of trisodium citrate on the textural properties and microstructure of acid-induced, transglutaminase-treated micellar casein gels was investigated. Various concentrations of trisodium citrate (0 mmol/L, 10 mmol/L, 20 mmol/L, and 30 mmol/L) were added to micellar casein dispersions. After [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of trisodium citrate on the textural properties and microstructure of acid-induced, transglutaminase-treated micellar casein gels was investigated. Various concentrations of trisodium citrate (0 mmol/L, 10 mmol/L, 20 mmol/L, and 30 mmol/L) were added to micellar casein dispersions. After being treated with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase), all dispersions were acidified with 1.3% (w/v) gluconodelta-lactone (GDL) to pH 4.4–4.6. As the concentration of trisodium citrate increased from 0 mmol/L to 30 mmol/L, the firmness and water-holding capacity increased significantly. The final storage modulus (G′) of casein gels was positively related to the concentration of trisodium citrate prior to mTGase treatment of micellar casein dispersions. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy images indicated that more interconnected networks and smaller pores were present in the gels with higher concentrations of trisodium citrate. Overall, when micellar casein dispersions are treated with trisodium citrate prior to mTGase crosslinking, the resulted acid-induced gels are firmer and the syneresis is reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Agro-Food Byproducts as a New Source of Natural Food Additives
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061056 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Nowadays, the agro-food industry generates high amounts of byproducts that may possess added value compounds with high functionality and/or bioactivity. Additionally, consumers’ demand for healthier foodstuffs has increased over the last years, and thus the food industry has strived to answer this challenge. [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the agro-food industry generates high amounts of byproducts that may possess added value compounds with high functionality and/or bioactivity. Additionally, consumers’ demand for healthier foodstuffs has increased over the last years, and thus the food industry has strived to answer this challenge. Byproducts are generally secondary products derived from primary agro-food production processes and represent an interesting and cheaper source of potentially functional ingredients, such as peptides, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, thus promoting a circular economy concept. The existing body of work has shown that byproducts and their extracts may be successfully incorporated into foodstuffs, for instance, phenolic compounds from eggplant can be potentially used as a mulfitunctional food additive with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and food colorant properties. As such, the aim of this review is to provide insights into byproducts and their potential as new sources of foodstuffs additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Open AccessReview
Green Natural Colorants
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010154 - 02 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Although there is no legal and clear definition of the term “natural food colorant”, the market trends, and consequently industrial and commercial interest, have turned to foods with added natural pigments. This progressive substitution of artificial colorants has faced chemical complications with some [...] Read more.
Although there is no legal and clear definition of the term “natural food colorant”, the market trends, and consequently industrial and commercial interest, have turned to foods with added natural pigments. This progressive substitution of artificial colorants has faced chemical complications with some colors, with a lack of stable green hues being one of them. Several strategies have been applied for green color stabilization in processed foods, from the formation of metallochlorophylls to the microencapsulation of green pigments. However, at present, the utilization of green coloring foodstuffs, which are considered an ingredient in the EU, seems to be the more successful solution for the market. Besides those topics, the present review aims to clarify the current confusion between the different chlorophyll compounds that form part of the authorized green food colorants. In this sense, legislations from different countries are compared. Finally, and in line with current concerns, the knowledge gathered so far in relation to the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of all green natural food colorants is reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Urtica spp.: Ordinary Plants with Extraordinary Properties
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071664 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Nettles (genus Urtica, family Urticaceae) are of considerable interest as preservatives in foods for both human and animal consumption. They have also been used for centuries in traditional medicine. This paper reviews the properties of nettles that make them suitable for wider [...] Read more.
Nettles (genus Urtica, family Urticaceae) are of considerable interest as preservatives in foods for both human and animal consumption. They have also been used for centuries in traditional medicine. This paper reviews the properties of nettles that make them suitable for wider applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Nettles contain a significant number of biologically-active compounds. For example, the leaves are rich sources of terpenoids, carotenoids and fatty acids, as well as of various essential amino acids, chlorophyll, vitamins, tannins, carbohydrates, sterols, polysaccharides, isolectins and minerals. Extracts from the aerial parts of nettles are rich sources of polyphenols, while the roots contain oleanol acid, sterols and steryl glycosides. Due to the variety of phytochemicals and their proportions they contain, nettles show noticeable activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These properties make nettles suitable for a range of possible applications, including functional food, dietary supplements and pharmacological formulations. Despite these benefits, the nettle is still an underestimated plant source. This paper provides a unique overview of the latest research on nettle plants focusing on the possibilities for transforming a common weed into a commercial plant with a wide range of applications. Special attention is paid to the antimicrobial activity of the active compounds in nettles and to possible uses of these valuable plants in food and feed formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Back to TopTop