Next Article in Journal
γ-Propoxy-Sulfo-Lichenan Induces In Vitro Cell Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization of the Extraction Process to Obtain a Colorant Ingredient from Leaves of Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens
Previous Article in Journal
Fast Amide Bond Cleavage Assisted by a Secondary Amino and a Carboxyl Group—A Model for yet Unknown Peptidases?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Olive Leaf Addition Increases Olive Oil Nutraceutical Properties
Open AccessArticle

Ultrasound as a Rapid and Low-Cost Extraction Procedure to Obtain Anthocyanin-Based Colorants from Prunus spinosa L. Fruit Epicarp: Comparative Study with Conventional Heat-Based Extraction

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Nutrition and Food Science Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, CITACA, CACTI, University of Vigo-Vigo Campus, 36310 Vigo, Spain
3
Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering—Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
4
Departamento Acadêmico de Alimentos (DAALM), Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Medianeira, 85884-000 Paraná, Brasil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Locatelli
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030573
Received: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
An ultrasound rapid and low-cost procedure for anthocyanin-based colorants from Prunus spinosa L. fruit epicarp was developed, and the advantages were compared with conventional heat-based extraction. To obtain the conditions that maximize anthocyanins’ extraction, a response surface methodology was applied using the variables of time, temperature, and ethanol content, in the case of heat extraction, whereas for ultrasound assisted extraction, temperature was replaced by ultrasound power. Two anthocyanin compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS—namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside. The responses used were the extraction yield and the content of the identified anthocyanins. Ultrasound extraction was the most effective method at 5.00 ± 0.15 min, 400.00 ± 32.00 W, and 47.98% ± 2.88% of ethanol obtaining 68.60% ± 2.06% of extracted residue, with an anthocyanin content of 18.17 mg/g (extract-basis) and 11.76 mg/g (epicarp-basis). Overall, a viable green process was achieved that could be used to support pilot-scale studies for industrial production of anthocyanin-based colorants from P. spinosa fruit epicarp. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prunus spinosa L. fruit epicarp; wild fruit valorization; cyanidin 3-rutinoside; peonidin 3-rutinoside; heat and ultrasound assisted extraction; response surface methodology Prunus spinosa L. fruit epicarp; wild fruit valorization; cyanidin 3-rutinoside; peonidin 3-rutinoside; heat and ultrasound assisted extraction; response surface methodology
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Leichtweis, M.G.; Pereira, C.; Prieto, M.; Barreiro, M.F.; Baraldi, I.J.; Barros, L.; Ferreira, I.C. Ultrasound as a Rapid and Low-Cost Extraction Procedure to Obtain Anthocyanin-Based Colorants from Prunus spinosa L. Fruit Epicarp: Comparative Study with Conventional Heat-Based Extraction. Molecules 2019, 24, 573.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop