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Molecules 2019, 24(4), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040686

Optimization of the Extraction Process to Obtain a Colorant Ingredient from Leaves of Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo—Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
3
University of Belgrade, Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2023 KB, uploaded 14 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Heat-Assisted Extraction (HAE) was used for the optimized production of an extract rich in anthocyanin compounds from Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens leaves. The optimization was performed using the response surface methodology employing a central composite experimental design with five-levels for each of the assessed variables. The independent variables studied were the extraction time (t, 20–120 min), temperature (T, 25–85 °C), and solvent (S, 0–100% of ethanol, v/v). Anthocyanin compounds were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and the extraction yields were used as response variables. Theoretical models were developed for the obtained experimental data, then the models were validated by a selected number of statistical tests, and finally, those models were used in the prediction and optimization steps. The optimal HAE conditions for the extraction of anthocyanin compounds were: t = 65.37 ± 3.62 min, T = 85.00 ± 1.17 °C and S = 62.50 ± 4.24%, and originated 114.74 ± 0.58 TA mg/g of extract. This study highlighted the red rubin basil leaves as a promising natural matrix to extract pigmented compounds, using green solvents and reduced extraction times. The extract rich in anthocyanins also showed antimicrobial and anti-proliferative properties against four human tumor cell lines, without any toxicity on a primary porcine liver cell line. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural colorants; anthocyanins; Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens leaves; red rubin basil; Heat-Assisted Extraction; extraction optimization natural colorants; anthocyanins; Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens leaves; red rubin basil; Heat-Assisted Extraction; extraction optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fernandes, F.; Pereira, E.; Prieto, M.A.; Calhelha, R.C.; Ćirić, A.; Soković, M.; Simal-Gandara, J.; Barros, L.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Optimization of the Extraction Process to Obtain a Colorant Ingredient from Leaves of Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens. Molecules 2019, 24, 686.

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