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Special Issue "Natural Additives in Food II"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural additives have great potential for the food industry, due to the interest of consumers in alternatives to artificial counterparts. After a first Special Issue published in 2019 (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules/special_issues/natural_additives?view=compact&listby=type), we have the pleasure to announce a second edition of the Special Issue in Molecules called “Natural Additives in Food II” in order to highlight the significant progress in this area.

The plant and fungi kingdom are great sources of bioactive compounds, that can be used to develop natural food ingredients. These natural ingredients can be added as extracts, taking advantage of the synergistic effects between compounds, or as individual molecules, after purification, thus, adding the most bioactive ones to the foodstuff. Although quite promising, natural additives still face some drawbacks and limitations. Therefore, an important research topic is the discovery of new alternative sources of natural additives fulfilling the different classes: preservatives (antimicrobials, antioxidants, and antibrowning), nutritional additives, coloring agents, flavoring agents, texturizing agents, and miscellaneous agents.

This Special Issue “Natural additives in Food II” invites researchers to contribute with original research or review articles related to natural ingredients for food applications, including natural compounds obtained from plants, mushrooms, marine, and bee products, extraction procedures, chemical identification, stabilization techniques, and food incorporation.

Dr. Lillian Barros
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bio-based compounds
  • Extraction procedures
  • Chemical characterization
  • Food incorporation
  • Stabilization techniques
  • Functional foods

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Ciders Depends on the Must Supplementation with Mineral Salts
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3640; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163640 - 10 Aug 2020
Abstract
Providing yeast with the right amount of mineral salts before fermentation can contribute to improving the entire technological process, resulting in a better-quality final product. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of apple must supplementation with mineral salts ((NH [...] Read more.
Providing yeast with the right amount of mineral salts before fermentation can contribute to improving the entire technological process, resulting in a better-quality final product. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of apple must supplementation with mineral salts ((NH4)2SO4, MgSO4, (NH4)3PO4)) on enological parameters, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, and the profile of volatile cider compounds fermented with various yeast strains. Rubin cultivar must was inoculated with wine, cider, and distillery or wild yeast strains. Various mineral salts and their mixtures were introduced into the must in doses from 0.167 g/L to 0.5 g/L. The control sample consisted of ciders with no added mineral salts. The basic enological parameters, antioxidant properties, total polyphenol content, and their profile, as well as the composition of volatile compounds, were assessed in ciders. Must supplementation with magnesium salts significantly influenced the use of the analyzed element by yeast cells and was dependent on the yeast strain. In supplemented samples, a decrease in alcohol concentration and total acidity, as well as an increase in the content of extract and total polyphenols, was observed compared to the controls. The addition of ammonium salts caused a decrease in the amount of higher alcohols and magnesium salts, as well as a decrease in the concentration of some esters in ciders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Nitrogen Fertigation and Harvesting Time on Plant Growth and Chemical Composition of Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta (DC.) Runemark
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3175; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143175 - 11 Jul 2020
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertigation (0, 200, 400, and 600 ppm of total nitrogen) and harvesting time (9 March 2018 and 19 April 2018) on the plant growth, chemical composition, and bioactive properties of [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertigation (0, 200, 400, and 600 ppm of total nitrogen) and harvesting time (9 March 2018 and 19 April 2018) on the plant growth, chemical composition, and bioactive properties of Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta plants. The highest yield of fresh leaves was observed for the treatment of 200 ppm of N without compromising nutritional value. The increasing nitrogen levels resulted in an increase of α- and total tocopherols and sugars content, especially in the second harvest for tocopherols and in the first harvest for sugars. Similarly, total organic acids and oxalic acid content increased with increasing nitrogen levels in both harvests, while fatty acids composition had a varied response to the tested factors. Pinocembrin neohesperidoside and pinocembrin acetyl neohesperidoside isomer II were the most abundant phenolic compounds with the highest content being observed in the control treatment of the first and second harvest, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the control and the 600 ppm treatments of the second harvest for the OxHLIA and TBARS assays, respectively, probably due to the high content of pinocembrin acetyl neohesperidoside isomer II and α-tocopherol, respectively. Finally, cytotoxic effects and antimicrobial properties showed a varied response depending on the treatment. In conclusion, C. raphanina subsp. mixta has low requirements of nitrogen to achieve the highest yield, while a varied response to the tested fertigation treatments and harvesting time was observed in terms of the chemical composition and the bioactive properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Characterization and Application of Pomegranate Epicarp Extracts as Functional Ingredients in a Typical Brazilian Pastry Product
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071481 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
Currently, there is a clear tendency to incorporate natural ingredients into food and pharmaceutical formulations. Besides being well-accepted by consumers, these ingredients have less adverse side effects than their artificial counterparts. The pomegranate processing industry produces large quantities of by-products that are discarded [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a clear tendency to incorporate natural ingredients into food and pharmaceutical formulations. Besides being well-accepted by consumers, these ingredients have less adverse side effects than their artificial counterparts. The pomegranate processing industry produces large quantities of by-products that are discarded as bio-residues, despite containing bioactive compounds. Accordingly, the epicarp of two pomegranate varieties (Mollar de Elche and Purple Queen) was tested as a potential source of bioactive compounds with food application. The phenolic profile was identified by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS, revealing fourteen phenolic compounds in both varieties (Purple Queen showed also three anthocyanins), with punicalagin isomers as the major compounds. Nonetheless, Mollar de Elche presented greater antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Despite this result, Purple Queen was selected to be tested as a new natural colouring and functionalizing ingredient in a Brazilian pastry product. The incorporation of the selected extract maintained the nutritional profile and provided a higher antioxidant activity compared to the traditional product. In this way, this work confirmed the possible use of pomegranate epicarp as a natural ingredient in the food industry, conferring dyeing and functionalizing effects, and anticipating a possible valorisation of this bio-residue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
Open AccessArticle
Potential Application of Hippophae Rhamnoides in Wheat Bread Production
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061272 - 11 Mar 2020
Abstract
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries are well known for their content in bioactive compounds, high acidity, bright yellow color, pleasant taste and odor, thus their addition in a basic food such as bread could be an opportunity for modern food producers. [...] Read more.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries are well known for their content in bioactive compounds, high acidity, bright yellow color, pleasant taste and odor, thus their addition in a basic food such as bread could be an opportunity for modern food producers. The aim of the present research was to investigate the characteristics and the effects of the berry’ flour added in wheat bread (in concentration of 1%, 3% and 5%) on sensory, physicochemical and antioxidant properties, and also bread shelf life. Berry flour contained total polyphenols—1467 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g, of which flavonoids—555 mg GAE/100 g, cinnamic acids—425 mg caffeic acid equivalents (CAE)/100 g, flavonols—668 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g. The main identified phenolics were catechin, hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, cis- and trans-resveratrol, ferulic and protocatechuic acids, procyanidins B1 and B2, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, p- and m-hydroxybenzoic acids. The antioxidant activity was 7.64 mmol TE/100 g, and carotenoids content 34.93 ± 1.3 mg/100 g. The addition of berry flour increased the antioxidant activity of bread and the shelf life up to 120 h by inhibiting the development of rope spoilage. The obtained results recommend the addition of 1% Hippophae rhamnoides berry flour in wheat bread, in order to obtain a product enriched in health-promoting biomolecules, with better sensorial and antioxidant properties and longer shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Different Green Extraction Methods and Solvents on Bioactive Components of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Flowers
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040810 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) dried flowers contain a group of interesting biologically active compounds such as sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, coumarins, vitamins, phenolic acids and glucosides. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the composition in bioactive compounds (specialized metabolites) present [...] Read more.
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) dried flowers contain a group of interesting biologically active compounds such as sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, coumarins, vitamins, phenolic acids and glucosides. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the composition in bioactive compounds (specialized metabolites) present in water and ethanol extracts of chamomile flowers, together with monitoring the impact of different extraction techniques (conventional vs. ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE)) on the parameters under investigation. UAE treatment significantly decreased the extraction time of bioactive compounds from herbal material. Polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in UAE extracts. Moreover, solvent type had a significant impact on the specialized metabolites content, while the highest vitamin C and polyphenols content were recorded in 50% ethanol (v/v) extracts. Optimization of basic extraction factors: solvent type, temperature and technique is crucial for obtaining the extracts with the highest content of specialized metabolites and antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessArticle
By-Products of Camu-Camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] as Promising Sources of Bioactive High Added-Value Food Ingredients: Functionalization of Yogurts
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010070 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh) is a fruit economically relevant to the Amazon region, mostly consumed in the form of processed pulp. Our aim was to perform an unprecedented comparative study on the chemical composition and bioactivities of the camu-camu pulp and [...] Read more.
Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh) is a fruit economically relevant to the Amazon region, mostly consumed in the form of processed pulp. Our aim was to perform an unprecedented comparative study on the chemical composition and bioactivities of the camu-camu pulp and industrial bio-residues (peel and seed), and then the most promising fruit part was further explored as a functionalized ingredient in yogurt. A total of twenty-three phenolic compounds were identified, with myricetin-O-pentoside and cyanindin-3-O-glucoside being the main compounds in peels, followed by p-coumaroyl hexoside in the pulp, and ellagic acid in the seeds. The peel displayed the richest phenolic profile among samples, as well as the most significant antibacterial (MICs = 0.625–10 mg/mL) and anti-proliferative (GI50 = 180 µg/mL against HeLa cells) activities. For this reason, it was selected to be introduced in a food system (yogurt). Taken together, our results suggest the possibility of using the camu-camu peel as a source of food additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization of Phenolic Compounds from Citrus latifolia Waste for Chitosan Bioactive Nanoparticles Development
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3541; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193541 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bioactive Phenols-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PL-CNps) were developed by ionic gelation from Persian lemon (Citrus latifolia) waste (PLW) and chitosan nanoparticles. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) conditions for the total phenolic compounds (TPC) recovery [...] Read more.
Bioactive Phenols-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PL-CNps) were developed by ionic gelation from Persian lemon (Citrus latifolia) waste (PLW) and chitosan nanoparticles. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) conditions for the total phenolic compounds (TPC) recovery from PLW (58.13 mg GAE/g dw), evaluating the ethanol concentration, extraction time, amplitude, and solid/liquid ratio. Eight compounds expressed as mg/g dry weight (dw) were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) analysis: eriocitrin (20.71 ± 0.09), diosmin (18.59 ± 0.13), hesperidin (7.30 ± 0.04), sinapic acid (3.67 ± 0.04), catechin (2.92 ± 0.05), coumaric acid (2.86 ± 0.01), neohesperidin (1.63 ± 0.00), and naringenin (0.44 ± 0.00). The PL-CNps presented size of 232.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.182, Z potential of −3.8 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 81.16%. The results indicated that a synergic effect between phenolic compounds from PLW and chitosan nanoparticles was observed in antioxidant and antibacterial activity, according to Limpel’s equation. Such results indicate that PLW in such bioprocesses shows excellent potential as substrates for the production of value-added compounds with a special application for the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessArticle
Antifungal Properties of Fucus vesiculosus L. Supercritical Fluid Extract Against Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3518; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193518 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, potential antifungal properties of a brown alga Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated. The algal extract was obtained with the use of supercritical fluid extraction (scCO2) at a temperature of 50 °C under a pressure of 300 bar. The aqueous [...] Read more.
In this study, potential antifungal properties of a brown alga Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated. The algal extract was obtained with the use of supercritical fluid extraction (scCO2) at a temperature of 50 °C under a pressure of 300 bar. The aqueous solution of the extract at the concentration of 0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% was studied against pathogenic fungi on a liquid RB medium. This study is the first report on antifungal properties of the brown algae F. vesiculosus scCO2 extract against Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum phytopathogens. The concentrations of the studied extract (0.5% and 1.0%) were demonstrated to have an ability to inhibit 100% growth of macroconidia within 144 h, as well as an ability to cause their total degradation. As a result of the study, the antifungal effect of fucosterol against F. culmorum was also indicated. The total macroconidia growth was inhibited by 1.0% fucosterol. Moreover, at lower concentrations (0.05–0.2%) of fucosterol, macroconidia were characterized by shorter length and structural degradation was observed. The mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum (Fo38) by 1% scCO2 F. vesiculosus extract was analyzed at the level of 48% after 168 h of incubation, whereas 100% extract was found to be effective in F. culmorum (CBS122) and F. oxysporum (Fo38) growth inhibition by 72% and 75%, respectively after 168 h of incubation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Purification of Zeaxanthin and Lutein in Corn Gluten Meal
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162994 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Zeaxanthin and lutein have a wide range of pharmacological applications. In this study, we conducted systematic experimental research to optimize antioxidant extraction based on detection, extraction, process amplification, and purification. An ultrasonic-assisted method was used to extract zeaxanthin and lutein with high efficiency [...] Read more.
Zeaxanthin and lutein have a wide range of pharmacological applications. In this study, we conducted systematic experimental research to optimize antioxidant extraction based on detection, extraction, process amplification, and purification. An ultrasonic-assisted method was used to extract zeaxanthin and lutein with high efficiency from corn gluten meal. Firstly, the effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and ultrasonic extraction time on the extraction of zeaxanthin were investigated in single-factor experiments. The optimization extraction parameters of zeaxanthin and lutein with ethanol solvent were obtained using the response surface methodology (RSM) as follows: liquid–solid ratio of 7.9:1, extraction temperature of 56 °C, and extraction time of 45 min. The total content of zeaxanthin and lutein was 0.501%. The optimum extraction experimental parameters were verified by process amplification, and we confirmed that the parameters of the extraction process optimized using the RSM design are reliable and precise. Zeaxanthin and lutein from crude extract of corn gluten were separated and purified using silica gel column chromatography with the purity of zeaxanthin increasing from 0.28% to 31.5% (about 110 times) and lutein from 0.25% to 16.3% (about 65 times), which could be used for large-scale industrial production of carotenoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Anthocyanin Profile of Elderberry Juice: A Natural-Based Bioactive Colouring Ingredient with Potential Food Application
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132359 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) is a widely disseminated plant that produces bright black berries containing high quantities of anthocyanins, acknowledged for their bioactivity and dye capacity. Besides other applications, anthocyanins might be employed as natural colouring agents to reduce/eliminate the use of [...] Read more.
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) is a widely disseminated plant that produces bright black berries containing high quantities of anthocyanins, acknowledged for their bioactivity and dye capacity. Besides other applications, anthocyanins might be employed as natural colouring agents to reduce/eliminate the use of artificial dyes, while providing positive effects on consumers’ health. Herein, the anthocyanins profile of elderberry juice was characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn. In addition, its antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. As a proof-of-concept of its colouring capacity, elderberry juice was added (different percentages) to a highly appreciated and consumed pastry product (croissant) and compared with a commercial dye (black carrot). In general, the nutritional properties of control and coloured croissants were similar, despite some individual differences in sugars and fatty acids. In turn, the appearance obtained with elderberry juice incorporation might be considered innovative, besides partially maintaining the anthocyanins content of fresh juice and showing considerable antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Profile and Safety Assessment of a Food-Grade Acetogenin-Enriched Antimicrobial Extract from Avocado Seed
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132354 - 26 Jun 2019
Abstract
Acetogenins are bioactive fatty acid derivatives found in avocado tissues. Their efficacy as antimicrobials has been documented and initiated interest to use them as replacements of synthetic food additives. The present work focused on evaluation of multiple analytical methodologies for detection and quantification [...] Read more.
Acetogenins are bioactive fatty acid derivatives found in avocado tissues. Their efficacy as antimicrobials has been documented and initiated interest to use them as replacements of synthetic food additives. The present work focused on evaluation of multiple analytical methodologies for detection and quantification of organic solids present in a food-grade acetogenin-enriched extract (Avosafe®), and on its safety evaluations using bacterial reverse mutation (AMES) tests and acute oral toxicity to rat assays. Results confirmed chemical structures of two acetogenins as present in Avosafe® (AcO-avocadyne-(0) and AcO-avocadiene B-(3)), and together with seven other previously known compounds, quantified 94.74 ± 5.77% w/w of its solids as acetogenins. Safety evaluations indicated that Avosafe® was non-mutagenic and had an acute median lethal oral dose (LD50) to rats higher than the maximum concentration tested (>2000 mg·kg−1), with no signs of macroscopic abnormalities in organs. Mean body weight and hematological and biochemical parameters were normal after 14 days of a single oral dose of 2000 mg·kg−1. The results advance scientific information on the safety of avocado seed acetogenins and also generate new knowledge on profiles and concentrations of individual acetogenins found in avocado tissues (seed, pulp, and leaves) and in Avosafe®. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Pomegranate Peel as Suitable Source of High-Added Value Bioactives: Tailored Functionalized Meat Products
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122859 - 21 Jun 2020
Abstract
In the last few years, the consumer’s concern with the relationship between health and diet has led to the search of foods with functional properties beyond the nutritional. In this framework, the consumption of pomegranate has increased due to their sensorial attributes and [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the consumer’s concern with the relationship between health and diet has led to the search of foods with functional properties beyond the nutritional. In this framework, the consumption of pomegranate has increased due to their sensorial attributes and remarkable amounts of bioactive compounds, which generate, at the same time, huge amounts of by-products. A search in the Scopus database for the last 10 years has revealed the rising interest in pomegranate peel (PP), the main residue from this fruit. The meat industry is a food sector that has had to search for new alternatives to substitute the use of synthetic preservatives by new natural additives, to extend the self-life and keep the quality attributes of their processed products. This review sets out the main bioactivities of PP extracts, and their incorporation in meat products is elaborated. PP is a good source of bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins, which have beneficial health effects. It can be concluded that the reformulation of meat products with PP extracts is a suitable strategy for enhancing their technological characteristics, in addition to conferring functional properties that make them healthier and potentially more acceptable for the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Trends in Controlling the Enzymatic Browning of Fruit and Vegetable Products
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122754 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Enzymatic browning because of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) contributes to the color quality of fruit and vegetable (FV) products. Physical and chemical methods have been developed to inhibit the activity of PPOs, and several synthetic chemical compounds are commonly being used as PPO inhibitors [...] Read more.
Enzymatic browning because of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) contributes to the color quality of fruit and vegetable (FV) products. Physical and chemical methods have been developed to inhibit the activity of PPOs, and several synthetic chemical compounds are commonly being used as PPO inhibitors in FV products. Recently, there has been an emphasis on consumer-oriented innovations in the food industry. Consumers tend to urge the use of natural and environment-friendly PPO inhibitors. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms underlying the anti-browning action of chemical PPO inhibitors and current trends in the research on these inhibitors. Based on their mechanisms of action, chemical inhibitors can be categorized as antioxidants, reducing agents, chelating agents, acidulants, and/or mixed-type PPO inhibitors. Here, we focused on the food ingredients, dietary components, food by-products, and waste associated with anti-browning activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food II)
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