Special Issue "Chlamydia-like Bacteria: Evolution, Pathogenicity, Diagnostics and Treatment"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Eberhard Straube

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, D-07747 Jena, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mechanisms of persistent infection caused by chlamydiae or other bacteria; zoonotic infections by chlamydiae or coxiella; diagnostic and typing procedures of chlamydiae; molecular epidemiology; quality assessment of diagnostic procedures of chlamydial infection; fast identification of medical important microorganisms

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chlamydiae are phylogenetic old bacteria that are very well adapted to their hosts. They are found within the cells of vertebrates and amoebae, while similar particles have been reported in invertebrate species including coelenterates, arthropods, and molluscs. Chlamydiae are small nonmotile

Gram-negative bacteria with a biphasic development cycle. They are not cultivable in media free of living eukaryotic cells. Many chlamydiae coexist in an apparently asymptomatic state within hosts that probably act as a natural reservoir for them. Chlamydiaceae of the order Chlamydiales contain some well-known human pathogens like Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, as well as Chlamydia psittaci. Other mainly animal pathogens are accidentally found as cause of a severe infection in Man, e.g., Chlamydia abortus. Even other members of Chlamydiales may contain human pathogens, e.g., Simkania negevensis or Waddlia chondrophila that may be found in human respiratory infections. The pathogenic capacity of further members of Chlamydiales, like Parachlamydiae, Protochlamydiae, and Neochlamydiae that are found in several animals or environment is uncertain. Some chlamydiae have a zoonotic importance. Since chlamydiae have the competence to control their host cell, they frequently produce persistent infections.

Thus, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms of host cell control by these bacteria. Insights into these mechanisms will enable us to find adequate diagnostics as well as effective therapy of diseases caused by chlamydiae.

Prof. Dr. Eberhard Straube
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Chlamydia
  • Simkania
  • Waddlia
  • Zoonoses
  • Persistent infection
  • Chlamydia related diseases
  • Diagnostic procedures
  • Quality assessment
  • Molecular typing
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Therapy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin
Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4030028
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals [...] Read more.
Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors
Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4040043
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous [...] Read more.
Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target. Full article
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Open AccessReview Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections
Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4040039
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 16 October 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species [...] Read more.
Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research. Full article
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Open AccessReview Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research
Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4030030
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 18 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a [...] Read more.
Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides. Full article
Open AccessReview Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections
Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4030025
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a [...] Read more.
The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Hokynar, K. et al. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 28
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020060
Received: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following modification to this paper [...] Full article
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