Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals (IEC2M 2021)"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 6317

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Eric D. van Hullebusch
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Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. João Pedro Oliveira
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Guest Editor
UNIDEMI, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, NOVA School of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: advanced characterization; martensitic transformation; thermomechanical processing; welding; synchrotron radiation; additive manufacturing
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Prof. Dr. Belén Díaz Fernández
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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: surface treatments; interfacial characterization; wear and corrosion; protective coatings and films; surface characterization techniques; advanced surface engineering; novel surface solutions
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Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzański
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Guest Editor
1. Medical and Dental Engineering Centre for Research, Design and Production ASKLEPIOS, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; medical; dental; manufacturing and surface engineering; machine building and automation; management and organization
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Dr. Jae-chun Lee
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Guest Editor
1. Resources Recycling, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
2. Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea
Interests: leaching, separation, and purification of metals from primary and secondary resources; material preparation by aqueous processing; recycling of valuable metals from industrial waste and waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) by hydrometallurgical routes
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Dr. Alex Lanzutti
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Guest Editor
Dipartimento Politecnico di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università degli Studi di Udine, Via delle scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy
Interests: additive manufacturing; tribology; corrosion; heat treatment; surface treatments; fatigue
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will comprise selected papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals (IEC2M), held from 22 February 2021 to 7 March 2021, on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

The conference is organized around the following eight themes:

  • Session A: Hydrometallurgy/Pyrometallurgy;
  • Session B: Powder Metallurgy;
  • Session C: Corrosion and Protection;
  • Session D: Biobased and Biodegradable Metals;
  • Session E: Metal Forming;
  • Session F: Additive Manufacturing;
  • Session G: Metal Failure;
  • Session H: Metal Recycling.

For more information on IEC2M, please go to https://sciforum.net/conference/IEC2M.

Prof. Dr. Eric D. Van Hullebusch
Prof. Dr. João Pedro Oliveira
Prof. Dr. Belén Díaz Fernández
Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzański
Dr. Jae-chun Lee
Dr. Alex Lanzutti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydrometallurgy/Pyrometallurgy
  • Powder Metallurgy
  • Corrosion and Protection
  • Biobased and Biodegradable Metals
  • Metal Forming
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Metal Failure
  • Metal Recycling

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Performance of Ni-Based Coatings with Various Additives Fabricated by Cold Gas Spraying
Metals 2022, 12(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020314 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The complexity of the operating conditions in oil fields requires the development and use of materials with unique properties. This paper presents the study results for nickel-based coatings fabricated by cold gas spraying. In this study, compositions based on Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn, Ni-Al [...] Read more.
The complexity of the operating conditions in oil fields requires the development and use of materials with unique properties. This paper presents the study results for nickel-based coatings fabricated by cold gas spraying. In this study, compositions based on Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn, Ni-Al2O3/TiC coatings applied to low-alloyed steel bases were investigated. Corrosion resistance was studied by means of electrochemical autoclave testing in simulated oilfield conditions. Hydroabrasive resistance was studied using a unique testing bench. Scanning electron microscopy mappings, microhardness testing, and adhesion testing were used to correlate the results of the tests with the structure, continuity, and porosity of the studied coatings. All the studied coating specimens had a sufficiently high adhesion. The Ni-Zn coating exhibited the lowest corrosion resistance and high hydroabrasive resistance. The Ni-Cu coatings exhibited a high degree of corrosion. The Al2O3/TiC additives gave ambiguous results with respect to the studied properties. Thicknesses of 40–60 microns provided acceptable performance for the studied coatings. Thus, varying the chemical composition the thickness of coatings allows optimal qualities to be obtained for Ni-based coatings made by cold gas spraying for use in the oil and gas industry. Full article
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Article
Causes of Structural Heterogeneity in High-Strength OCTG Tubes and Minimizing Their Impact on Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111843 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 403
Abstract
High-strength oil country tubular goods (OCTG) like C110, according to standard API 5CT (yield strength at least 758 MPa), are subject to requirements in terms of mechanical and corrosion properties. In this work, we studied the microstructure of seamless casing tubes made of [...] Read more.
High-strength oil country tubular goods (OCTG) like C110, according to standard API 5CT (yield strength at least 758 MPa), are subject to requirements in terms of mechanical and corrosion properties. In this work, we studied the microstructure of seamless casing tubes made of class C110 high-strength steel with a 194.5 mm diameter and 19.7 mm wall thickness, and its influence on sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC). Casing tubes were obtained from continuous billets by screw piercing with preliminary quenching and tempering. It was shown that cracking during the tests always begins from the inner surface of the tube. Rough segregation bands were found on the inner tube surface, which occupies about a third of the thickness of the wall. To increase the resistance of 0.3C-Cr-Mn-Mo + 0.15(V + Nb + Ti) steel to SSC, primary recommendations for adjusting the chemical composition, production technology and heat treatment were developed. Full article
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Article
Quantitative Description of Duplex Stainless Steels Microstructure Using Selective Etching
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111750 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 468
Abstract
The properties of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) depend on the ferrite–austenite ratio, on the content of secondary phases and on the contamination with non-metallic inclusions. To assess the quality of DSSs, it is necessary to use an integrated approach which includes controlling for [...] Read more.
The properties of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) depend on the ferrite–austenite ratio, on the content of secondary phases and on the contamination with non-metallic inclusions. To assess the quality of DSSs, it is necessary to use an integrated approach which includes controlling for the volume fraction, the morphology and the distribution of all phases and non-metallic inclusions. Samples of several grades of DSSs were obtained using various heat treatments, such as solution annealing and quenching from 1050 to 1250 °C to obtain different amounts of ferrite and to provoke annealing at 850 °C to precipitate σ-phase. As a result, a metallographic technique of phase analysis in DSSs based on selective etching and subsequent structure parameters estimation according to ASTM E1245 was developed. We demonstrated that the developed method of quantitative analysis based on selective etching and metallographic analysis according to ASTM E1245 allows us to obtaining much more accurate results, compared to the point count method described in ASTM E562 and to the XRD method. Full article
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Article
Al-Based Foams as Permanent Cores in Al Castings: Effect of Surface Skin Thickness and Composition on Infiltration and Core-Shell Bonding
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111715 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 481
Abstract
An emerging and still poorly explored application of aluminum foams is their potential use as permanent cores (inserts) in the casting of aluminum alloys. In this context, Al-based foams can introduce a weight reduction, the obtainment of cavities, a strength increase, the ability [...] Read more.
An emerging and still poorly explored application of aluminum foams is their potential use as permanent cores (inserts) in the casting of aluminum alloys. In this context, Al-based foams can introduce a weight reduction, the obtainment of cavities, a strength increase, the ability to absorb impact energy and vibration, acoustic insulation ability, the possibility to simplify the technological processes (no removal/recycling of traditional sand cores), and finally, they can be fully recyclable. Cymat-type Al foams with thin outer skin were used as permanent cores in Al-alloy gravity casting in the present research. Al-foams were characterized in terms of porosity, density, cell wall and skin thickness, surface chemical composition and morphology, and compression resistance. Cast objects with foam inserts were characterized by means of optical microscopy. The preservation of up to 50% of the initial porosity was observed for foam inserts with higher density. Metallurgical bonding between the foam core and the cast metal was observed in some regions. Full article
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Article
Investigation of Factors Influencing the Autoclave Tests Results of Internal Anticorrosive Polymer Coatings
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111713 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Polymer coatings are one of the most common methods for protecting metal structures from corrosion damage. For example, in the oil and gas industry, polymer coatings are used to protect the inner surfaces of oilfield pipelines. Forecasting the service life of the coating [...] Read more.
Polymer coatings are one of the most common methods for protecting metal structures from corrosion damage. For example, in the oil and gas industry, polymer coatings are used to protect the inner surfaces of oilfield pipelines. Forecasting the service life of the coating is an unsolved problem. Existing test methods allow to assess the quality of coating application and compliance with the declared properties, for example, resistance at a certain temperature, but do not allow to understand the expected service life or degradation dynamics. One solution to this problem may be the development of existing methods of autoclave testing of coatings with the addition of more criteria for assessing degradation. This paper considers the methodological features of autoclave testing with rapid pressure relief. The decompression autoclave test was considered from the point of view of the principles of its conduct and evaluation of test results. The tests were carried out in environments containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The main object of the tests was anticorrosive polymer powder coatings applied in industrial conditions. The work assessed the influence of the following factors on the test result: pressure relief time, test cycle, and coating quality. Attention was also paid to the evaluation methods; aside from the adhesion assessment, optical microscopy and the evaluation of the microhardness of coatings were used. As a result of the work carried out, it was shown that the pressure relief rate within 5 s affects the test results. An increase in micropores and a drop in the microhardness of coatings after cyclic autoclave tests were also shown. The method of assessing the degradation of coatings using microhardness also showed the convergence of the results with the traditional method of assessing adhesion. The results of the work can be used to modify the autoclave testing method and transition to resource forecasting. Full article
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Article
Study on Static Strain Aging Kinetics of High-Carbon Steel Wires and Its Impact on High-Strength Steel Cords
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111684 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Under quasi-static loading, an irregular failure mode of high-strength thin carbon steel cords were observed after low-temperature thermal aging. Character and kinetics of damage in such wire ropes highly depend on the plastic elongation of the steel wires, which is significantly modified by [...] Read more.
Under quasi-static loading, an irregular failure mode of high-strength thin carbon steel cords were observed after low-temperature thermal aging. Character and kinetics of damage in such wire ropes highly depend on the plastic elongation of the steel wires, which is significantly modified by the strain aging effect. In this paper, the static strain aging effect on heavily drawn high-carbon steel wires and their cords is experimentally studied in the 80–200 °C temperature range. The kinetics of the aging process is studied in detail. Experimental data are fit by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov (JMAK) kinetic model. The temperature dependence of the static strain aging process is given by means of the Arrhenius equation. The associated JMAK exponents, the apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential constant are determined. Quantitative analysis of the affected strength and strain parameters is given, and based on this, the macroscopic failure mechanism is fundamentally explained. Full article
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Article
Database Clustering after Automatic Feature Analysis of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101650 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
Non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) in steel have a negative impact on the properties of steel, so the problem of producing clean steels is actual. The existing metallographic methods for evaluating and analyzing nonmetallic inclusions make it possible to determine the composition and type of [...] Read more.
Non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) in steel have a negative impact on the properties of steel, so the problem of producing clean steels is actual. The existing metallographic methods for evaluating and analyzing nonmetallic inclusions make it possible to determine the composition and type of NMIs, but do not determine their real composition. The analysis of single NMIs using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fractional gas analysis (FGA), or electrolytic extraction (EE) of NMIs is too complicated. Therefore, in this work, a technique based on the automatic feature analysis (AFA) of a large number of particles by SEM was used. This method allows to obtain statistically reliable information about the amount, composition, and size of NMIs. To analyze the obtained databases of compositions and sizes of NMIs, clustering was carried out by the hierarchical method by constructing tree diagrams, as well as by the k-means method. This made it possible to identify the groups of NMIs of similar chemical composition (clusters) in the steel and to compare them with specific stages of the steelmaking process. Using this method, samples of steels produced at different steel plants and using different technologies were studied. The analysis of the features of melting of each steel is carried out and the features of the formation of NMIs in each considered case are revealed. It is shown that in all the studied samples of different steels, produced at different steel plants, similar clusters of NMIs were found. Due to this, the proposed method can become the basis for creating a modern universal classification of NMIs, which adequately describes the current state of steelmaking. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Process Conditions for Additive Manufacturing Technology Combining High-Power Diode Laser and Hot Wire
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101583 - 04 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
A high-efficiency additive manufacturing technology that combines a high-power diode laser with a large-rectangle spot (beam width of 11 mm) and a hot-wire system was developed. The hot-wire system can generate Joule heat by wire current and heat a filler to its melting [...] Read more.
A high-efficiency additive manufacturing technology that combines a high-power diode laser with a large-rectangle spot (beam width of 11 mm) and a hot-wire system was developed. The hot-wire system can generate Joule heat by wire current and heat a filler to its melting point independently from the main heat source of a high-power diode laser. A simple calculation method to derive the appropriate hot-wire current of Z3321-YS308L was proposed with verification by hot-wire feeding experiments without laser irradiation at various wire currents. The effect of process parameters, such as laser power, process speed, and the wire feeding rate (wire feeding speed/process speed) on bead characteristics was investigated by cross-sectional evaluations on three-layer depositions. High-speed imaging observations of wire melting and molten pool formation showed that the energy density input and the wire feeding rate were dominant parameters in terms of bead formation and hot-wire feeding stability. A 50-mm-high, 8-mm-wide, and 250-mm-long sample was fabricated by using appropriate process conditions, and tensile tests were performed by using a sub-sample from the large sample. Full article
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Article
Reliability Design of Mechanical Systems Such as Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Stresses
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081261 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
This study demonstrates the use of parametric accelerated life testing (ALT) as a way to recognize design defects in mechanical products in creating a reliable quantitative (RQ) specification. It covers: (1) a system BX lifetime that X% of a product population fails, created [...] Read more.
This study demonstrates the use of parametric accelerated life testing (ALT) as a way to recognize design defects in mechanical products in creating a reliable quantitative (RQ) specification. It covers: (1) a system BX lifetime that X% of a product population fails, created on the parametric ALT scheme, (2) fatigue and redesign, (3) adapted ALTs with design alternations, and (4) an evaluation of whether the system design(s) acquires the objective BX lifetime. A life-stress model and a sample size formulation, therefore, are suggested. A refrigerator compressor is used to demonstrate this method. Compressors subjected to repetitive impact loading were failing in the field. To analyze the pressure loading of the compressor and carry out parametric ALT, a mass/energy balance on the vapor-compression cycle was examined. At the first ALT, the compressor failed due to a cracked or fractured suction reed valve made of Sandvik 20C carbon steel (1 wt% C, 0.25 wt% Si, 0.45 wt% Mn). The failure modes of the suction reed valves were similar to those valves returned from the field. The fatigue failure of the suction reed valves came from an overlap between the suction reed valve and the valve plate in combination with the repeated pressure loading. The problematic design was modified by the trespan dimensions, tumbling process, a ball peening, and brushing process for the valve plate. At the second ALT, the compressor locked due to the intrusion between the crankshaft and thrust washer. The corrective action plan specified to perform the heat treatment to the exterior of the crankshaft made of cast iron (0.45 wt% C, 0.25 wt% Si, 0.8 wt% Mn, 0.03 wt% P). After these design modifications, there were no troubles during the third ALT. The lifetime of the compressor was secured to have a B1 life of 10 years. Full article
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Article
Bubble Phenomena and Bubble Properties for Horizontal and Vertical Carbon Anode Surfaces in Cryolite Melt Applying a See-Through Cell
Metals 2021, 11(6), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11060965 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
Gas bubble behavior on a carbon anode in a cryolite melt has been studied using a see-through cell. The phenomena studied have been growth, coalescence, detachment, and wetting during electrolysis. The surface orientation affects bubble behavior. Therefore, two different anode designs were tested, [...] Read more.
Gas bubble behavior on a carbon anode in a cryolite melt has been studied using a see-through cell. The phenomena studied have been growth, coalescence, detachment, and wetting during electrolysis. The surface orientation affects bubble behavior. Therefore, two different anode designs were tested, an anode with a horizontal downward-facing surface and an anode with a vertical surface. At the horizontal anode, it was found that one large bubble was formed by the growth and coalescence of smaller bubbles, and finally, the large bubble detached periodically. For the vertical anode surface, the detaching bubbles were smaller, and most of them had been going through a coalescence process prior to detachment. The bubbles detached randomly. The coalescence process from the initiation to the final bubble shape at the vertical surface took about 0.016–0.024 s. The current density did not affect the duration of the coalescence. The bubble diameter was decreasing with increasing current density for both anodes. The values were in the range 7.2 to 5.7 mm for the horizontal anode in the current density interval 0.2–1.0 A cm−2 and in the range 3.7 mm to 1.5 mm for the vertical anode in the current density interval 0.1–2.0 A cm−2. The wetting contact angle for the vertical anode stayed more or less constant with an increase in current density, which likely can be attributed to the decreasing bubble size rather than an increase in polarization. In addition to the bubble phenomena described and bubble properties found, the impact of the results for better design of laboratory-scale studies is discussed. Full article
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