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Surface and Interface Engineering

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 27777

Special Issue Editor

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: surface treatments; interfacial characterization; wear and corrosion; protective coatings and films; surface characterization techniques; advanced surface engineering; novel surface solutions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In general, engineering and surface technology covers the phenomena that exert influence on surface and interface structures with the purpose of improving the performance of materials by providing them with several functionalities. A precise control of the structure at both levels will be required in order to find the most precise function. In addition to a large variety of treatments and surface processes, surface engineering compiles both coating technologies and chemical or physical procedures to modify its structure. A continuous development to offer solutions in the most advanced applications is essential, given the demanding challenges currently present in contemporary technological fields, such as automotive, aerospace, biochemistry, and electronics.

This Special Issue will comprise research reports that describe any advanced strategy and promising approach as well as innovative experimental setups and techniques to improve the performance of single components or large structures in diverse areas. The topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Characterization and performance of chemical and electrochemical deposited films;
  • Novel coatings and films with innovative properties and applications;
  • Development of self-assembled layers and multilayer structures;
  • Chemical conversion and multifunctional films;
  • Surface heat treatments;
  • Advancements in the sol–gel technology;
  • Surface modification and damage such as corrosion, wear, and friction;
  • Interfacial interaction studies.

Prof. Dr.  Belén Díaz Fernández

 Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coatings and thin films
  • surface characterization techniques
  • interfacial phenomena

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3725 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Phosphate Coatings: Influence of the Acid Pickling Conditions
Materials 2021, 14(4), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041048 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
This research emphasizes the importance of the acid cleaning prior to the phosphate development on high-strength steel rods. It compares the phosphate properties achieved after different acid-pickling conditions. The most common inorganic acids were considered in this study. Additionally, taking into account the [...] Read more.
This research emphasizes the importance of the acid cleaning prior to the phosphate development on high-strength steel rods. It compares the phosphate properties achieved after different acid-pickling conditions. The most common inorganic acids were considered in this study. Additionally, taking into account the environmental and safety concerns of these acids, the assessment of a less harmful organic acid is presented. This study revealed significant differences in the coating morphology and chemical composition whereas no great changes were found in terms of the coating weight or porosity. Thus, hydrochloric and sulfuric acid promote the growth of a Fe-enriched phosphate layer with a less conductive character that is not developed after the pickling with phosphoric acid. The phosphate developed after the citric acid pickling is comparable to that developed after the inorganic acids although with a porosity slightly higher. The temperature of the citric acid bath is an important parameter that affects to the phosphate appearance, composition, and porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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12 pages, 5003 KiB  
Article
Gas Sensor Based on Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering
Materials 2021, 14(2), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020388 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
In order to address problems of safety and identification in gas detection, an optical detection method based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was studied to detect ethanol vapor. A SERS device of silver nanoparticles modified polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was realized by freeze-drying method. [...] Read more.
In order to address problems of safety and identification in gas detection, an optical detection method based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was studied to detect ethanol vapor. A SERS device of silver nanoparticles modified polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was realized by freeze-drying method. This SERS device was placed in a micro transparent cavity in order to inject ethanol vapor of 4% and obtain Raman signals by confocal Raman spectrometer. We compared different types of SERS devices and found that the modification of polyvinylpyrrolidone improves adsorption of ethanol molecules on surfaces of silver nanoparticle, and finally we provide the mechanism by theory and experiment. Finite Difference Time Domain(FDTD) simulation shows that single layer close-packed Ag nanoparticles have strong local electric field in a wide spectral range. In this study, we provide a case for safety and fingerprint recognition of ethanol vapor at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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13 pages, 4607 KiB  
Article
Triaxial Testing of Geosynthetics Reinforced Tailings with Different Reinforced Layers
by and
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081943 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
To evaluate the shear properties of geotextile-reinforced tailings, triaxial compression tests were performed on geogrids and geotextiles with zero, one, two, and four reinforced layers. The stress–strain characteristics and reinforcement effects of the reinforced tailings with different layers were analyzed. According to the [...] Read more.
To evaluate the shear properties of geotextile-reinforced tailings, triaxial compression tests were performed on geogrids and geotextiles with zero, one, two, and four reinforced layers. The stress–strain characteristics and reinforcement effects of the reinforced tailings with different layers were analyzed. According to the test results, the geogrid stress–strain curves show hardening characteristics, whereas the geotextile stress–strain curves have strain-softening properties. With more reinforced layers, the hardening or softening characteristics become more prominent. We demonstrate that the stress–strain curves of geogrids and geotextile reinforced tailings under different reinforced layers can be fitted by the Duncan–Zhang model, which indicates that the pseudo-cohesion of shear strength index increases linearly whereas the friction angle remains primarily unchanged with the increase in reinforced layers. In addition, we observed that, although the strength of the reinforced tailings increases substantially, the reinforcement effect is more significant at a low confining pressure than at a high confining pressure. On the contrary, the triaxial specimen strength decreases with the increase in the number of reinforced layers. Our findings can provide valuable input toward the design and application of reinforced engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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14 pages, 4298 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Mg3Sb2/Mg2Si Heterogeneous Nucleation Interface Using Density Functional Theory
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071681 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
In this study, the cohesive energy, interfacial energy, electronic structure, and bonding of Mg2Si (111)/Mg3Sb2 (0001) were investigated by using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the Mg3Sb2 heterogeneous [...] Read more.
In this study, the cohesive energy, interfacial energy, electronic structure, and bonding of Mg2Si (111)/Mg3Sb2 (0001) were investigated by using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the Mg3Sb2 heterogeneous nucleation potency on Mg2Si grains was revealed. The results indicated that the Mg3Sb2 (0001) slab and the Mg2Si (111) slab achieved bulk-like characteristics when the atomic layers N ≥ 11, and the work of adhesion of the hollow-site (HCP) stacking structure (the interfacial Sb atom located on top of the Si atom in the second layer of Mg2Si) was larger than that of the other stacking structures. For the four HCP stacking structures, the Sb-terminated Mg3Sb2/Si-terminated Mg2Si interface with a hollow site showed the largest work of adhesion and the smallest interfacial energy, which implied the strongest stability among 12 different interface models. In addition, the difference in the charge density and the partial density of states indicated that the electronic structure of the Si-HCP-Sb interface presented a strong covalent, and the bonding of the Si-HCP-Mg interface and the Mg-HCP-Sb interface was a mixture of a covalent bond and a metallic bond, while the Mg-HCP-Mg interfacial bonding corresponded to metallicity. As a result, the Mg2Si was conducive to form a nucleus on the Sb-terminated-hollow-site Mg3Sb2 (0001) surface, and the Mg3Sb2 particles promoted the Mg2Si heterogeneous nucleation, which was consistent with the experimental expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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16 pages, 8775 KiB  
Article
Shear Testing of the Interfacial Friction Between an HDPE Geomembrane and Solid Waste
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071672 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane is often used as an anti-seepage material in domestic and industrial solid waste landfills. To study the interfacial shear strength between the HDPE anti-seepage geomembrane and various solid wastes, we performed direct shear tests on the contact interface between [...] Read more.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane is often used as an anti-seepage material in domestic and industrial solid waste landfills. To study the interfacial shear strength between the HDPE anti-seepage geomembrane and various solid wastes, we performed direct shear tests on the contact interface between nine types of industrial solid waste or soil (desulfurization gypsum, fly ash, red mud, mercury slag, lead-zinc slag, manganese slag, silica fume, clay and sand) and a geomembrane with a smooth or rough surface in Guizhou Province, China. Friction strength parameters like the interfacial friction angle and the apparent cohesion between the HDPE geomembrane and various solid wastes were measured to analyze the shear strength of the interface between a geomembrane with either a smooth or a rough surface and various solid wastes. The interfacial shear stress between the HDPE geomembrane and the industrial solid waste increased with shear displacement and the slope of the stress-displacement curve decreased gradually. When shear displacement increased to a certain range, the shear stress at the interface remained unchanged. The interfacial shear strength between the geomembrane with a rough surface and the solid waste was higher than for the geomembrane with a smooth surface. Consequentially, the interfacial friction angle for the geomembrane with a rough surface was larger. The geomembrane with a rough surface had a better shear resistance and the shear characteristics fully developed when it was in full contact with the solid waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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14 pages, 3791 KiB  
Article
Effect of Grain Size and Surface Roughness on the Normal Coefficient of Restitution of Single Grains
Materials 2020, 13(4), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040814 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3682
Abstract
The coefficient of restitution (COR) represents the fraction of pre-collision kinetic energy remained after the collision between two bodies. The COR parameter plays an important role in the discrete numerical analysis of granular flows or the design of protective barriers to reduce flow [...] Read more.
The coefficient of restitution (COR) represents the fraction of pre-collision kinetic energy remained after the collision between two bodies. The COR parameter plays an important role in the discrete numerical analysis of granular flows or the design of protective barriers to reduce flow energy. This work investigated the COR for grain-block type impacts through comprehensive experiments using a custom-built impact loading apparatus. Glass balls of three different sizes were used as grains. The impact experiments were performed on three different types of materials as base blocks, namely brass, granite and rubber. Experiments on the brass block showed a decrease in COR values with increasing grain size. On the contrary, impacts on granite and rubber blocks showed an increase in COR values with increasing grain size. Additionally, the effect of surface roughness on the COR was investigated. It was revealed that the increase in surface roughness of either the grain or the block reduced the COR values due to the increased plastic deformations of surface asperities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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10 pages, 3202 KiB  
Article
Equivalent Method of Joint Interface Based on Persson Contact Theory: Virtual Material Method
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193150 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
An accurate equivalent method of metal joint interface is of great significance to optimize the dynamic performance of the whole machine. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an accurate equivalent method of joint interface. The virtual material method is a precise equivalent method [...] Read more.
An accurate equivalent method of metal joint interface is of great significance to optimize the dynamic performance of the whole machine. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an accurate equivalent method of joint interface. The virtual material method is a precise equivalent method of joint interface. The traditional virtual material method is based on the M–B fractal contact theory. By modeling the contact mechanics of the joint interface, the physical properties of the virtual material are obtained separately, such as elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and density. In this paper, Persson contact theory is used to establish the interface contact mechanics model to find the physical properties of virtual materials. The virtual material methods constructed by two theories are respectively applied to the modal simulation to obtain the natural frequencies of the joint interface. By comparing the natural frequencies obtained by modal experiment and modal simulation, it is found that the natural frequencies obtained by the virtual material method based on Persson contact theory are closer to the results obtained by the modal experiment, and the error is within 5%. The error of the natural frequencies obtained by the virtual material method based on the M–B fractal contact theory is within 10%. Therefore, the Persson contact theory can establish a more accurate equivalent method of metal’s joint interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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13 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Surface Roughness Effects on the Broadband Reflection for Refractory Metals and Polar Dielectrics
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193090 - 22 Sep 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4006
Abstract
Random surface roughness and surface distortions occur inevitably because of various material processing and fabrication techniques. Tailoring and smoothing the surface roughness can be especially challenging for thermomechanically stable materials, including refractory metals, such as tungsten (W), and polar dielectrics, such as silicon [...] Read more.
Random surface roughness and surface distortions occur inevitably because of various material processing and fabrication techniques. Tailoring and smoothing the surface roughness can be especially challenging for thermomechanically stable materials, including refractory metals, such as tungsten (W), and polar dielectrics, such as silicon carbide (SiC). The spectral reflectivity and emissivity of surfaces are significantly impacted by surface roughness effects. In this paper, we numerically investigated the surface roughness effects on the spectral reflectivity and emissivity of thermomechanically stable materials. Based on our results, we determined that surface roughness effects are strongly impacted by the correlation length of the Gaussian surface. In addition, our results indicate that surface roughness effects are stronger for the materials at the epsilon-near-zero region. Surface roughness effects are stronger between the visible and infrared spectral region for W and around the wavelength of 12 μ m for SiC, where plasma frequency and polar resonance frequency are located. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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9 pages, 77815 KiB  
Article
Experimental Verification and Comparative Analysis of Equivalent Methods on Metal’s Fixed Joint Interface
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152381 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
In order to effectively improve the dynamic characteristics of the fixed metal joint interface, it is important to establish a correct equivalent model of the metal joint interface. In this paper, three equivalent methods for simulating the metal joint interface are analyzed, including [...] Read more.
In order to effectively improve the dynamic characteristics of the fixed metal joint interface, it is important to establish a correct equivalent model of the metal joint interface. In this paper, three equivalent methods for simulating the metal joint interface are analyzed, including the virtual material method, spring damping method, finite element method, and verification by modal experiment. First, according to the contact mechanics model of the constructed metal joint interface, the physical properties of the three-dimensional models of the fixed joint interface are assigned in the ANSYS software. Then, three methods are used for the modal analysis and compared with a modal experiment. The results show that the modal shapes of the three theoretical methods are consistent with those of the experimental modes. The first five natural frequencies obtained by the virtual material method are closest to the experimental natural frequencies, and the errors are within 10%. The errors of the other two methods are between 9% and 39%. Therefore, the virtual material method is a better equivalent method of the metal joint interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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9 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Study Using Oblique Angle Deposition of Ag Using Different Substrates
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101581 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
The oblique angle deposition of Ag with different deposition rates and substrates was studied for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) efficiency. The deposition rate for the Ag substrate with maximum SERS efficiency was optimized to 2.4 Å/s. We also analyzed the morphology of Ag [...] Read more.
The oblique angle deposition of Ag with different deposition rates and substrates was studied for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) efficiency. The deposition rate for the Ag substrate with maximum SERS efficiency was optimized to 2.4 Å/s. We also analyzed the morphology of Ag nanorods deposited at the same rate on various substrates and compared their SERS intensities. Ag deposited on SiO2, sapphire, and tungsten showed straight nanorods shape and showed relatively high SERS efficiency. However, Ag deposited on graphene or plasma-treated SiO2 substrate was slightly or more aggregated (due to high surface energy) and showed low SERS efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Engineering)
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