Recent Biomedical Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Biobased and Biodegradable Metals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 14943

Special Issue Editors


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Institute of Machine Design and Machinery Operations, University of Zielona, Gora, Poland
Interests: materials; surface and mechanical engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; management and organization
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Medical and Dental Centre SOBIESKI, 12/1 King Jana III Sobieskiego St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: dental and materials engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; medical, manufacturing and surface engineering; computer-aided engineering; medical electronics
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Design and Production Centre for Medical and Dental Engineering ASKLEPIOS, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: dentistry; endodontics; dental implantology; dental prosthetics; dental imaging
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the main Sustainable Development Goals designated by the United Nations is a long and healthy life. As a result of ageing populations, the resection of organs after oncological operations or dangerous inflammations, as a result of traffic or sports accidents, and recently also as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic and other infectious diseases, there is a need to replace lost parts of the human body including tissues and organs. In addition, modern medicine widely uses the achievements of basic sciences, as well as the technical and physicochemical sciences. There is even an opinion that many of the current successes of medicine have become real mainly due to the implementation of avant-garde technical solutions serving it. One of the main determinants of technological development determining the achievement of the most advanced stage of Industry 4.0 is the development and implementation of more and more new engineering materials at the Materials 4.0 stage. Achieving the equally advanced stages of Medicine 4.0 and Dentistry 4.0 is an obvious goal, largely served by the advanced and extremely dynamically increasing stage of biomedical materials development. A special need has become to constantly support medicine with engineering activities, which largely applies to a wide group of medical devices, including implants, implant scaffolds, scaffolds and prostheses, as well as entire systems and various methods of drug delivery synthesized by engineers, which by definition are not medical devices.

Biomedical materials (also called biomaterials) are substances designed to interact with biological systems for therapeutic purposes. Biomedical materials are often used or adapted for medical applications. Thus they constitute a part or even the whole of a living organism or biomedical device that performs, improves on, or replaces a natural function. Such functions can be bioactive and interactive, as in the case of hip implants, or even when tissue is replaced by tissue engineering methods or relatively passive technologies (e.g., in heart valves). Biomedical materials are used in various fields of medicine, especially in regenerative medicine, surgery, and dentistry, for the treatment, repair, or replacement of body tissues; the improvement or restoration of tissue function; and for diagnostic purposes. Tissue engineering is extremely important, where natural tissues are replaced by cultured materials or even synthesized in a laboratory. Some of the biomedical materials are biodegradable and are used to initiate certain processes in the body. Scaffolds are one important area of application of biomedical materials. Biomedical materials are also widely used in connection with drug delivery (e.g., pharmaceutical products placed in the body to release the drug over long periods). The biomedical materials can be autografts, allografts, or xenografts used as transplant materials. Biomedical materials are used, among others, for replacing joints, as bone plates, bone cement, surgical sutures, clips and staples for closing wounds, pins and screws for stabilizing fractures, surgical meshes, breast implants, artificial ligaments and tendons, dental implants, stabilizers, blood vessel prostheses, heart valves, vascular grafts, stents, nerve cables, skin repair devices, intraocular lenses for eye surgery, contact lenses, and drug delivery systems. Biomedical materials  must be compatible with the organism, and before the product can be used in a clinical setting, biocompatibility issues must be resolved. For these reasons, biomedical materials are usually evaluated in different tests, which must be certified.

The essence of biomedical materials is their constant contact with living tissues, organisms, or microorganisms, so they should meet numerous requirements, including in the areas of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering, and materials engineering. Biomedical materials can be natural, although they are extremely often engineered, as they are synthesized using various methods and include metals, polymers, ceramics or composites, as well as porous and biotechnological materials. It is usually advisable to use surface engineering methods to ensure the expected properties of biomedical materials. Currently, the production and synthesis of biomedical materials require the use of various technologies and methods. These methods are often used to obtain the desired material, which is then processed using advanced material processing technologies to make a specific prosthesis or other implant type. Often, however, it is necessary to directly manufacture a specific product with individualized geometric features and properties tailored to the requirements of a particular patient. In such cases, additive manufacturing methods are widely and more commonly used. Special technologies are required for diagnostic materials and long-term drug release systems. Technologies of the current stage of the industrial revolution, Industry 4.0, are often used in the biomedical materials production cycle. Therefore, it can be considered that the Biomaterials 4.0 stage is getting closer, where it becomes necessary to manufacture and process biomedical materials, among others, with the use of cyber-physical systems.

The objective of this Special Issue on Recent Biomedical Materials is to provide a summary of the latest results in the development and production of modern biomedical materials used in contemporary medicine and dentistry. The scope covers general considerations concerning the protection of health and general well-being of societies as well as disease prevention demanding biomedical materials applications, as well as the design of biomedical materials and their technologies, including computer-aided design and manufacturing using CAD/CAM methods. The scope also includes the study of their structure and properties as well as surface properties, including biological research characterizing the reactions of the human organism to implantation or the introduction of various types of biomedical materials, both in the field of regenerative medicine and regenerative dentistry, as well as tissue engineering. We are interested in considerations concerning moral imperatives resulting from the cooperation of doctors and engineers in the context of providing medical aid and the use of biomedical materials in everyday diagnostic and therapeutic practice.

Studies related to metals and their alloys are expected, due to the substantive limitations resulting from the scope of the Metals journal, within which the publication of this Special Issue is planned. We are also interested incomposite materials with the participation of metals and their alloys, as well as metal layers applied to the substrates of various materials or various coatings (including ceramic and polymer coatings) applied to metal substrates, or the comparison of metal materials with ceramic or polymer materials.

We strongly encourage the wide circle of potential Authors to engage their interest in the presented topic and invite them to submit their articles to this Issue.

Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzanski
Prof. Dr. Anna D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz
Dr. Lech Bolesław Dobrzański
Dr. Joanna Dobrzańska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomedical materials (biomaterials)
  • Metallic materials
  • Coatings
  • Technology
  • Medicine
  • Dentistry
  • Structure
  • Properties
  • Ethics in medicine and stomatology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 6723 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on the Microstructure and Biodegradation Behavior of Commercialized Pure Mg and Mg-1.0Ca-0.5Sr Alloy in 27 mM HCO3-SBF: The Influence of the pH Regulation Treatments
by Sabri Shafyra, Engku Mohammad Nazim, Nor Hasrul Akhmal Ngadiman and Izman Sudin
Metals 2023, 13(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010136 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
The biodegradation behavior of newly developed orthopedic implant materials provides essential insight into the potential degradation products and their ability to match the rate of bone healing prior to complete degradation. Ironically, biodegradation performance is not only influenced by alloy design or advanced [...] Read more.
The biodegradation behavior of newly developed orthopedic implant materials provides essential insight into the potential degradation products and their ability to match the rate of bone healing prior to complete degradation. Ironically, biodegradation performance is not only influenced by alloy design or advanced surface treatment on the alloy, but also it is dominantly controlled by the specific inorganic species and their concentration in the corrosion media as well as their pH level. In this study, the biodegradation behavior of commercially pure magnesium (CP Mg) and a Mg-1.0Ca-0.5Sr alloy was evaluated in 27 mM HCO3- Simulated Body Fluid (r-SBF) due to its identical ionic species and concentrations with human blood plasma via immersion test, including (i) hydrogen evolution test (H2), (ii) pH trend, and (iii) weight-loss measurement. To simulate the pH regulation by the physiological homeostatic response, the pseudo-physiological solution was treated with two treatments: through a (i) a 24 h corrosion media renewal routine and through the use of (ii) a TRIS-HCL buffer reagent. The Mg-1.0Ca-0.5Sr alloy is shown to have superior corrosion resistance due to grain refinement and unique secondary phases, whereas the daily renewal routine imparts a better emulation of in vivo corrosion control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Biomedical Materials)
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Review

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16 pages, 3115 KiB  
Review
Powder Metallurgy: A New Path for Advanced Titanium Alloys in the EU Medical Device Supply Chain
by Joan Lario Femenia, Raúl Poler Escoto and Vicente Amigó Borras
Metals 2023, 13(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020372 - 12 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3696
Abstract
New beta titanium alloys are expected to present high mechanical properties with good biocompatibility to meet the demands of next-generation implants. This paper presents an overview of the current European Union titanium supply chain and several metallurgical processes and technologies required to develop [...] Read more.
New beta titanium alloys are expected to present high mechanical properties with good biocompatibility to meet the demands of next-generation implants. This paper presents an overview of the current European Union titanium supply chain and several metallurgical processes and technologies required to develop the beta-based titanium alloy industry. The thermomechanical process involves manufacturing advanced beta titanium alloys, where cost reduction must involve every step of the entire process. When synergistically combined, powder metallurgical technology, together with a set metallurgical process, can produce advanced materials for the biomedical industry with a low-cost ratio compared to current melting and forging manufacturing routes. We propose a new strategy to increase the role of advanced titanium alloys in the European Union medical device supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Biomedical Materials)
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22 pages, 4576 KiB  
Review
A Review of Surgical Bone Drilling and Drill Bit Heat Generation for Implantation
by Md Ashequl Islam, Nur Saifullah Kamarrudin, Ruslizam Daud, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd Noor, Azwan Iskandar Azmi and Zuradzman Mohamad Razlan
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111900 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4364
Abstract
This study aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge on factors that contribute to heat generation during the bone drilling process and how these aspects can be better understood and avoided in the future through new research methodologies. Frictional pressures, mechanical [...] Read more.
This study aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge on factors that contribute to heat generation during the bone drilling process and how these aspects can be better understood and avoided in the future through new research methodologies. Frictional pressures, mechanical trauma, and surgical methods can cause thermal damage and significant micro-fracturing, which can impede bone recovery. According to current trends in the technical growth of the dental and orthopedic industries’ 4.0 revaluation, enhancing drill bit design is one of the most feasible and cost-effective alternatives. In recent years, research on drilling bones has become important to reduce bone tissue damage, such as osteonecrosis (ON), and other problems that can happen during surgery. Reviewing the influence of feed rate, drill design, drill fatigue, drill speed, and force applied during osteotomies, all of which contribute to heat generation, was a major focus of this article. This comprehensive review can aid medical surgeons and drill bit makers in comprehending the recent improvements through optimization strategies for reducing or limiting thermal damage in bone drilling procedures used in the dental and orthopedic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Biomedical Materials)
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53 pages, 163150 KiB  
Review
What Are the Chances of Resilon to Dominate the Market Filling Materials for Endodontics?
by Joanna Dobrzańska, Lech B. Dobrzański, Leszek A. Dobrzański, Anna D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz and Klaudiusz Gołombek
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111744 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4656
Abstract
This paper is a literature review with additional virtual analyses of the authors’ own experimental research results. Knowledge from various areas was synergistically combined, appropriately for concurrent engineering, presenting several possible methodological approaches used in research, optimizing the selection of engineering materials and [...] Read more.
This paper is a literature review with additional virtual analyses of the authors’ own experimental research results. Knowledge from various areas was synergistically combined, appropriately for concurrent engineering, presenting several possible methodological approaches used in research, optimizing the selection of engineering materials and the conditions of their application with particular application in endodontics. Particular attention was paid to the theoretical aspects of filling material strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats SWOT analysis. Attention was paid to the original concepts of Sustainable Dentistry Development in conjunction with Dentistry 4.0, which includes endodontics as an important element. The dentists’ actions, among others, in conservative dentistry, along with endodontics, requires close cooperation with engineers and the enginering sciences. Methods of root canal preparation were described, together with selected tools, including those made of nitinol. Principles concerning the process of cleaning and shaping the pulp complex are presented. The importance of obturation methods, including the Thermo-Hydraulic-Condensation THC technique, and the selection of filling materials with the necessary sealants for the success of endodontic treatment are discussed. The experimental studies were carried out in vitro on human teeth removed for medical reasons, except for caries, for which two groups of 16 teeth were separated. After the root canal was prepared, it was filled with studs and pellets of a filling material based on polyester materials, which has gained the common trade name of resilon or, less frequently, RealSeal (SybronEndo) with an epiphany sealant. The teeth for the first group were obturated by cold lateral condensation. In the second case the obturation was performed using the Thermo-Hydraulic-Condensation technique using System B and Obtura III. The experimental leakage testing was done using a scanning electron microscope SEM and a light stereoscopic microscope LSM, as typical research tools used in materialography. The research results, in a confrontation with the data taken from the literature studies, do not indicate the domination of resilon in endodontics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Biomedical Materials)
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