Special Issue "Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzański
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Medical and Dental Engineering Centre for Research, Design and Production ASKLEPIOS, Gliwice 44-100, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; medical; dental; manufacturing and surface engineering; machine building and automation; management and organization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anna D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Institute of Machine Design and Machinery Operations, University of Zielona, Gora, Poland
Interests: materials; surface and mechanical engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; management and organization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Lech Bolesław Dobrzański
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Design and Production Centre for Medical and Dental Engineering ASKLEPIOS, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: Dental & Materials Engineering; Nanotechnology; Biomaterials; Medical, Manufacturing & Surface Engineering; Computer-Aided Engineering, Medical Electronics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Joanna Dobrzańska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Design and Production Centre for Medical and Dental Engineering ASKLEPIOS, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: dentistry; endodontics; dental implantology; dental prosthetics; dental imaging
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern medicine takes advantage of the progress not only of basic science but also of engineering and physical and chemical sciences. One of the best examples of such combination of competencies is biomaterials. A biomaterial is a substance that has been designed to interact with biological systems for therapeutic purposes. Biomaterials are employed in various medical fields, especially in regenerative medicine, for treatment, replenishment, repair, or replacement of body tissues, to improve or restore tissue functions, and for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, biomaterials used in contact with living tissues, organisms, or microorganisms,  have to take into consideration various issues, related not only to medicine but also to biology, chemistry, tissue engineering, and material engineering. Biomaterials can come from nature or be synthesized in the laboratory with a variety of approaches that use metals, polymers, ceramic, or composite materials. They are often used or adapted for medical applications and thus include all or part of a living biomedical structure or device that performs, enhances, or replaces a natural function. Such functions may be relatively passive, as in the case of a heart valve, or bioactive and more interactive, as in the case of hip implants coated with hydroxyapatite. Biomaterials are also commonly used in dental applications, surgery, and drug delivery, e.g., in the form of pharmaceutical products placed in the body to release a drug over a long period of time. Biomaterials can be autografts, allografts, or xenografts used as transplant materials. Biomaterials are used, among other applications, for joint replacement, bone plates, bone cement, surgical sutures, clips and staples to close wounds, pins and screws to stabilize fractures, surgical mesh, breast implants, artificial ligaments and tendons, dental implants for teeth stabilization, blood vessels prostheses, heart valves, vascular grafts, stents, nerve conduits, skin repair devices, intraocular lenses in eye surgery, contact lenses, drug delivery systems. Biomaterials must be compatible with the body, and problems with biocompatibility must be resolved before a product can be used in a clinical setting. For this reason, biomaterials are usually subjected to many tests, and the technologies for their assessment must be certified.

The production and synthesis of biomaterials now require the use of various technologies and methods. Often, these are methods that produce a suitable material, which is then processed using advanced material-processing technologies to obtain a specific prosthetics or another type of implant. Often, however, it is necessary to create directly a specific product with individualized geometric features and properties adapted to the requirements of a particular patient. In the case of diagnostic materials as well as of long-term drug-releasing systems, it is necessary to use special technologies.

This Special Issue on the "Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials" aims to inventory the latest achievements in the development and production of modern biomaterials that are used in modern medicine and dentistry, for instance, in cases where, as a result of traffic or sports accidents, ageing, resection of organs following cancer surgery or dangerous inflammation, there is a need to substitute lost organs, tissues, and parts of the human body. This Special Issue welcomes papers concerning the design of biomaterials and related technologies, including CAD/CAM methods, and research on their structure and properties, including biological tests characterizing the reactions of the human body to implanting or introducing different types of the biomaterials.

Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzański
Prof. Dr. Anna D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz
Dr. Lech Bolesław Dobrzański
Dr. Joanna Dobrzańska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomaterials
  • Technology
  • Medicine
  • Dentistry
  • Structure
  • Properties

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Photopolymerization Process of Dental Composites
Processes 2021, 9(5), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9050779 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 219
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to perform optimization of photopolymerization process of dental composites in order to obtain maximum hardness. Samples (5 mm diameter; 2, 3 and 4 mm thickness) were made of Universal Composite (UC), Bulk fill Composite (BC) and Flowable [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to perform optimization of photopolymerization process of dental composites in order to obtain maximum hardness. Samples (5 mm diameter; 2, 3 and 4 mm thickness) were made of Universal Composite (UC), Bulk fill Composite (BC) and Flowable Composite (FC). Light curing of specimens was performed with 600, 1000 and 1500 mW/cm2 light intensity and an irradiation time of 20, 40 and 60 s. Vickers microhardness on the top and bottom surfaces of samples was measured. Optimization was carried out via regression analysis using QStatLab software. Photopolymerization process parameters were calculated using a specially designed MatLab software-based algorithm. For all composites, regression models for hardness on top and bottom surfaces of composite layer were established. Layer thickness as well as hardness on top and bottom surfaces of each composite was calculated for 21 curing modes varying with light intensity and irradiation time. It was established that photopolymerization guidelines only of FC manufacturer guarantee the required hardness, while recommended regimes for UC and BC did not satisfy this requirement. Tables, containing recommended light curing regimes, were developed for three composite types, guaranteeing high hardness of composite restoration. They were designed to facilitate work of dentists in dental offices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Resistance of Cr–Co Alloys Subjected to Porcelain Firing Heat Treatment—In Vitro Study
Processes 2021, 9(4), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040636 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
The procedure of ceramics fusion to cobalt–chromium (Co–Cr) base dental crowns affects their corrosion behavior and biological tolerance. This study’s purpose was to comparatively evaluate the effect of heat treatment (HT) applicable for dental ceramics firing on the corrosion properties among Co–Cr base [...] Read more.
The procedure of ceramics fusion to cobalt–chromium (Co–Cr) base dental crowns affects their corrosion behavior and biological tolerance. This study’s purpose was to comparatively evaluate the effect of heat treatment (HT) applicable for dental ceramics firing on the corrosion properties among Co–Cr base alloys fabricated via different methods: casting (CST), milling soft metal and post sintering (MSM), and selective laser melting (SLM). All specimens were subjected to a heat treatment corresponding to a full firing schedule. The microstructure and elemental composition of oxidized surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Corrosion properties were examined by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization tests. The values of jcorr, Ecorr, Rp, and breakdown potential Ebr were estimated. The oxide layers formed during the HT process corresponded to the composition of the original alloys’ structure. Among the thermal treated alloys, SLM showed the highest corrosion resistance, followed by the MSM and CST. This may be attributed to uniform distribution of alloying elements in homogenous structure and to the reduced porosity, which enhances corrosion resistance and decreases the risk of crevice corrosion. The overall corrosion behavior was strongly influenced by the segregation of alloying elements in the microstructure, thus, is directly determined by the manufacturing method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Antagonistic Contradictoriness of the Progress of Advanced Digitized Production with SARS-CoV-2 Virus Transmission in the Area of Dental Engineering
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091097 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
The general goals of advanced digitized production in the Industry 4.0 stage of the industrial revolution were presented along with the extended holistic model of Industry 4.0, introduced by the authors, indicating the importance of material design and the selection of appropriate manufacturing [...] Read more.
The general goals of advanced digitized production in the Industry 4.0 stage of the industrial revolution were presented along with the extended holistic model of Industry 4.0, introduced by the authors, indicating the importance of material design and the selection of appropriate manufacturing technology. The effect of the global lockdown caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission pandemic was a drastic decrease in production, resulting in a significant decrease in the gross domestic product GDP in all countries, and gigantic problems in health care, including dentistry. Dentists belong to the highest risk group because the doctor works in the patient’s respiratory tract. This paper presents a breakthrough authors solution, implemented by the active SPEC strategy, and aims to eliminate clinical aerosol at the source by negative pressure aspirating bioaerosol at the patient’s mouth line. The comparative benchmarking analysis and its results show that only the proprietary solution with a set of devices eliminates the threat at the source, while the remaining known methods do not meet the expectations. The details of this solution are described. Photopolymer materials and additive Digital Light Printing (DLP) technology were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Application Solid Laser-Sintered or Machined Ti6Al4V Alloy in Manufacturing of Dental Implants and Dental Prosthetic Restorations According to Dentistry 4.0 Concept
Processes 2020, 8(6), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060664 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of the impact of milling technology in the computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining centre and selective laser sintering (SLS) and on the structure and properties of solid Ti6Al4V alloy. It has been shown that even small changes in [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison of the impact of milling technology in the computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining centre and selective laser sintering (SLS) and on the structure and properties of solid Ti6Al4V alloy. It has been shown that even small changes in technological conditions in the SLS manufacturing variant significantly affect changes from two to nearly two and a half times in tensile and bending strengths. Both the tensile and bending strength obtained in the most favourable manufacturing variant by the SLS method is over 25% higher than in the case of cast materials subsequently processed by milling. Plug-and-play SLS conditions provide about 60% of the possibilities. Structural, tribological and electrochemical tests were carried out. In vitro biological tests using osteoblasts confirm the good tendency for the proliferation of live cells on the substrate manufactured under the most favourable SLS conditions. The use of SLS additive technology for the manufacturing of dental implants and abutments made of Ti6Al4V alloy in combination with the digitisation of dental diagnostics and computer-aided design and manufacture of computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) following the idea of Dentistry 4.0 is the best choice of technology for manufacturing of prosthetic and implant devices used in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Analysis in Setting of Fillings of V-Shaped Tooth Defects Made with Glass-Ionomer Cement and Flowable Composite
Processes 2020, 8(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030363 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the deformation–stress state of fillings of V-shaped tooth defects by finite element analysis (FEA). Two different materials are used—auto-cured resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and flowable photo-cured composite (FPC). Two materials are placed into the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the deformation–stress state of fillings of V-shaped tooth defects by finite element analysis (FEA). Two different materials are used—auto-cured resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and flowable photo-cured composite (FPC). Two materials are placed into the cavity in one portion, as before the application of the composite the cavity walls are covered with a thin adhesive layer. Deformations and equivalent von Mises stresses are evaluated by FEA. Experimental study of micro-leakage is performed. It is established that there is an analogous non-homogeneous distribution of equivalent Von Mises stresses at fillings of V-shaped defects, made with GIC and FPC. Maximum stresses are generated along the boundaries of the filling on the vestibular surface of the tooth and at the bottom of the filling itself. Values of equivalent Von Mises stresses of GIC fillings are higher than that of FPC. Magnitude and character of deformation distribution at GIC and FPC fillings are similar—deformation is maximum along the vestibular surface of the filling and is 0.056 and 0.053 mm, respectively. In FPC fillings, the adhesive layer, located along the cavity/filling boundary, is characterized with greatest strain. The experimental study of micro-leakage has confirmed the adequacy of models used in FEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
New Hybrid Bioactive Composites for Bone Substitution
Processes 2020, 8(3), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030335 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Recently, intensive efforts have been undertaken to find new, superior biomaterial solutions in the field of hybrid inorganic–organic materials. In our studies, biomicroconcretes containing hydroxyapatite (HAp)–chitosan (CTS) granules dispersed in an α tricalcium phospahate (αTCP) matrix were investigated. The influence of CTS content [...] Read more.
Recently, intensive efforts have been undertaken to find new, superior biomaterial solutions in the field of hybrid inorganic–organic materials. In our studies, biomicroconcretes containing hydroxyapatite (HAp)–chitosan (CTS) granules dispersed in an α tricalcium phospahate (αTCP) matrix were investigated. The influence of CTS content and the size of granules on the physicochemical properties of final bone implant materials (setting time, porosity, mechanical strength, and phase composition) were evaluated. The obtained materials were found to be promising bone substitutes for use in non-load bearing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysis of the Degradation Process of Alginate-Based Hydrogels in Artificial Urine for Use as a Bioresorbable Material in the Treatment of Urethral Injuries
Processes 2020, 8(3), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030304 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Hydrogels from natural polymers such as sodium alginate have great potential in regenerative medicine because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical properties, bioresorption ability, and relatively low cost. Sodium alginate, a polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, is the most widely investigated and used biomaterial [...] Read more.
Hydrogels from natural polymers such as sodium alginate have great potential in regenerative medicine because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical properties, bioresorption ability, and relatively low cost. Sodium alginate, a polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, is the most widely investigated and used biomaterial in biomedical applications. Alginate dressings are also useful as a delivery platform in order to provide a controlled release of therapeutic substances (e.g., pain-relieving, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory agents). In our work, we aimed to analyze process of degradation of alginate hydrogels. We also describe an original hybrid crosslinking process by using not one, as usual, but a mixture of two crosslinking agents (calcium chloride and barium chloride). We proved that different crosslinking agents allow producing hydrogels with a spectrum of mechanical properties, similar to the urethra tissue. Hydrogels were formed using a dip-coating technique, and then examined by mechanical testing, FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), and resorption on artificial urine. Obtained hydrogels have a different degradation rate in artificial urine, and they can be used as a material for healing of urethra injuries, especially urethra strictures, which significantly affect the quality of life of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Sintering Parameters of 316L Stainless Steel for In-Situ Nitrogen Absorption and Surface Nitriding Using Response Surface Methodology
Processes 2020, 8(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030297 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
This research investigates the simultaneous sintering and surface nitriding of 316L stainless steel alloy using powder metallurgy method. The influence of sintering temperature and dwell time are investigated for maximum nitrogen absorption, densification and increased microhardness using response surface methodology (RSM). In this [...] Read more.
This research investigates the simultaneous sintering and surface nitriding of 316L stainless steel alloy using powder metallurgy method. The influence of sintering temperature and dwell time are investigated for maximum nitrogen absorption, densification and increased microhardness using response surface methodology (RSM). In this study, 316L stainless steel powder was compacted at 800 MPa and sintered at two different temperatures of 1150 and 1200 °C with varying dwell times of 1, 3, 5 and 8 h in nitrogen atmosphere. The sintered compacts were then characterized for their microstructure, densification, microhardness and nitrogen absorption. The results revealed that increased dwell time assisted nitrogen to diffuse into stainless steel matrix along with the creation of nitride layer onto the sample surface. The microhardness and density also increased with increasing dwell time. A densification of 7.575 g/cm3 and microhardness of 235 HV were obtained for the samples sintered at 1200 °C temperature with 8 h dwell time. The simultaneous sintering and surface nitriding technique developed in this research work can help in improving corrosion resistance of this material and controlling leaching of metal ions for its potential use in biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evolution of Phase Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Zr–C Thin Films
Processes 2020, 8(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030260 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
The research presented in this article concerns Zr–C coatings which were deposited on 304L steel by reactive magnetron sputtering from the Zr target in an Ar–C2H2 atmosphere at various acetylene flow rates, resulting in various atomic carbon concentrations in the [...] Read more.
The research presented in this article concerns Zr–C coatings which were deposited on 304L steel by reactive magnetron sputtering from the Zr target in an Ar–C2H2 atmosphere at various acetylene flow rates, resulting in various atomic carbon concentrations in the coating. The article describes research covering the change in the antibacterial and anticorrosive properties of these coatings due to the change in their chemical and phase composition. The concentration of C in the coatings varied from 21 to 79 at.%. The coating morphology and the elemental distribution in individual coatings were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to analyze their microstructure and phase composition. Parallel changes in the mechanical properties of the coatings were analyzed. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the wide possibility of shaping the mechanical properties of Zr–C coatings in combination with relatively good antibacterial properties after exceeding 50 at.% of carbon concentration in coatings and high protective potential of these coatings make them a good candidate for medical applications. In particular, corrosion tests showed the high anti-pitting potential of Zr–C coatings in the environment of artificial saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fretting Wear in Orthodontic and Prosthetic Alloys with Ti(C, N) Coatings
Processes 2019, 7(12), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120874 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 785
Abstract
Fretting occurs during orthodontic treatment or wearing prosthesis. Although weight of particles is marginal, the total releasing area is more of a concern due to amount and volume of molecules. The aim of the study was to examine the fretting wear resistance of [...] Read more.
Fretting occurs during orthodontic treatment or wearing prosthesis. Although weight of particles is marginal, the total releasing area is more of a concern due to amount and volume of molecules. The aim of the study was to examine the fretting wear resistance of orthodontic and prosthetic alloy Ni-Cr-Mo samples coated with Ti(C, N) and to compare them with samples without any coating. Five groups of cylindrical shape samples (S1–S5) made of Ni-Cr-Mo were coated with Ti(C, N) layers with different content of C and N. The control group (S0) was without layer. The alloys underwent fretting wear resistance tests with amplitude 100 μm, at frequency 0.8 Hz with averaged unit load: 5, 10, and 15 N for 15 min. The samples were subjected to microscopic observations using scanning electron microscope and a laser scanning microscope. Samples with Ti(C, N) coatings revealed higher fretting wear resistance. The wear in each case with Ti(C, N) coatings was over twice as low. The lowest wear and thus the highest resistance was demonstrated by sample S3 (1.02 µm) whereas in control group-S0 (2.64 µm). The use of Ti(C, N)-type coatings reduces the adverse effects of fretting wear, decreasing the amount of ions released during orthodontic treatment or wearing prosthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Engineering of Porous Silica and Hollow Silica Nanoparticles to Enhance Drug-loading Capacity
Processes 2019, 7(11), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110805 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
As a promising candidate for expanding the capacity of drug loading in silica nanoplatforms, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are gaining increasing attention. In this study, porous nanosilica (PNS) and HMSNs were prepared by the sol-gel method and template assisted method, then further [...] Read more.
As a promising candidate for expanding the capacity of drug loading in silica nanoplatforms, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are gaining increasing attention. In this study, porous nanosilica (PNS) and HMSNs were prepared by the sol-gel method and template assisted method, then further used for Rhodamine (RhB) loading. To characterize the as-synthesized nanocarriers, a number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen absorption-desorption isotherms, dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed. The size of HMSN nanoparticles in aqueous solution averaged 134.0 ± 0.3 nm, which could be adjusted by minor changes during synthesis, whereas that of PNS nanoparticles was 63.4 ± 0.6 nm. In addition, the encapsulation of RhB into HMSN nanoparticles to form RhB-loaded nanocarriers (RhB/HMSN) was successful, achieving high loading efficiency (51.67% ± 0.11%). This was significantly higher than that of RhB-loaded PNS (RhB/PNS) (12.24% ± 0.24%). Similarly, RhB/HMSN also possessed a higher RhB loading content (10.44% ± 0.02%) compared to RhB/PNS (2.90% ± 0.05%). From those results, it is suggested that prepared HMSN nanocarriers may act as high-capacity carriers in drug delivery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Green and Facile Synthesis of Dendritic and Branched Gold Nanoparticles by Gelatin and Investigation of Their Biocompatibility on Fibroblast Cells
Processes 2019, 7(9), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090631 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
In this work, gold nanostar (AuNPs) and gold nanodendrites were synthesized by one-pot and environmentally friendly approach in the presence of gelatin. Influence of gelatin concentrations and reaction conditions on the growth of branched (AuNPs) were investigated further. Interestingly, the conversion of morphology [...] Read more.
In this work, gold nanostar (AuNPs) and gold nanodendrites were synthesized by one-pot and environmentally friendly approach in the presence of gelatin. Influence of gelatin concentrations and reaction conditions on the growth of branched (AuNPs) were investigated further. Interestingly, the conversion of morphology between dendritic and branched nanostructure can be attained by changing the pH value of gelatin solution. The role of gelatin as a protecting agent through the electrostatic and steric interaction was also revealed. Branched nanoparticles were characterized by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta-potential. The chemical interaction of gelatin with branched gold nanoparticles was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IT) technique. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy results indicated the formation of branched gold nanoparticles with the maximum surface plasmon resonance peak at 575–702 nm. The structure of both nanodendrites and nanostars were determined by TEM. The crystal sizes of nano-star ranged from 42 to 55 nm and the nanodendrites sizes were about 75–112 nm. Based on the characterizations, a growth mechanism could be proposed to explain morphology evolutions of branched AuNPs. Moreover, the branched AuNPs is high viability at 100 μg/mL concentration when performed by the SRB assay with human foreskin fibroblast cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Nitrogen Absorption on Microstructure, Properties and Cytotoxicity Assessment of 316L Stainless Steel Alloy Reinforced with Boron and Niobium
Processes 2019, 7(8), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080506 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
In the past, 316L stainless steel (SS) has been the material of choice for implant manufacturing. However, the leaching of nickel ions from the SS matrix limits its usefulness as an implant material. In this study, an efficient approach for controlling the leaching [...] Read more.
In the past, 316L stainless steel (SS) has been the material of choice for implant manufacturing. However, the leaching of nickel ions from the SS matrix limits its usefulness as an implant material. In this study, an efficient approach for controlling the leaching of ions and improving its properties is presented. The composition of SS was modified with the addition of boron and niobium, which was followed by sintering in nitrogen atmosphere for 8 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the formation of strong nitrides, indicating the diffusion of nitrogen into the SS matrix. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that a nitride layer was deposited on the sample surface, thereby helping to control the leaching of metal ions. The corrosion resistance of the alloy systems in artificial saliva solution indicated minimal weight loss, indicating improved corrosion resistance. The cytotoxicity assessment of the alloy system showed that the developed modified stainless steel alloys are compatible with living cells and can be used as implant materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Hydrophilic Drug Encapsulation and Controlled Release Using a Modified Nanoprecipitation Method
Processes 2019, 7(6), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060331 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The improvement of the loading content of hydrophilic drugs by polymer nanoparticles (NPs) recently has received increased attention from the field of controlled release. We developed a novel, simply modified, drop-wise nanoprecipitation method which separated hydrophilic drugs and polymers into aqueous phase (continuous [...] Read more.
The improvement of the loading content of hydrophilic drugs by polymer nanoparticles (NPs) recently has received increased attention from the field of controlled release. We developed a novel, simply modified, drop-wise nanoprecipitation method which separated hydrophilic drugs and polymers into aqueous phase (continuous phase) and organic phase (dispersed phase), both individually and involving a mixing process. Using this method, we produced ciprofloxacin-loaded NPs by Poly (d,l-lactic acid)-Dextran (PLA-DEX) and Poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-Polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) successfully, with a considerable drug-loading ability up to 27.2 wt% and an in vitro sustained release for up to six days. Drug content with NPs can be precisely tuned by changing the initial drug feed concentration of ciprofloxacin. These studies suggest that this modified nanoprecipitation method is a rapid, facile, and reproducible technique for making nano-scale drug delivery carriers with high drug-loading abilities Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Injectable Chitosan Scaffolds with Calcium β-Glycerophosphate as the Only Neutralizing Agent
Processes 2019, 7(5), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7050297 - 19 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
The presented work describes the method of preparation of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels using calcium β-glycerophosphate salt as the only pH neutralizing agent and supporting the crosslinking process. The presence of calcium ions instead of sodium ions is particularly important in the case of [...] Read more.
The presented work describes the method of preparation of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels using calcium β-glycerophosphate salt as the only pH neutralizing agent and supporting the crosslinking process. The presence of calcium ions instead of sodium ions is particularly important in the case of scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. Rheological and physicochemical properties of low concentrated chitosan solutions with the addition of calcium β-glycerophosphate were investigated using rotational rheometry techniques, Zeta potential (by electrophoresis), XPS, and SEM analysis together with an EDS detector. It was found to be possible to prepare colloidal solutions of chitosan containing only calcium β-glycerophosphate (without sodium ions) undergoing a sol-gel phase transition at the physiological temperature of the human body. It has also been shown that it is possible to further enrich the obtained cellular scaffolds with calcium ions. Using the addition of calcium carbonate, hydrogels with a physiological ratio of calcium to phosphorus (1.6–1.8):1 were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Effect of Biomedical Materials in the Implementation of a Long and Healthy Life Policy
Processes 2021, 9(5), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9050865 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 194
Abstract
This paper is divided into seven main parts. Its purpose is to review the literature to demonstrate the importance of developing bioengineering and global production of biomaterials to care for the level of healthcare in the world. First, the general description of health [...] Read more.
This paper is divided into seven main parts. Its purpose is to review the literature to demonstrate the importance of developing bioengineering and global production of biomaterials to care for the level of healthcare in the world. First, the general description of health as a universal human value and assumptions of a long and healthy life policy is presented. The ethical aspects of the mission of medical doctors and dentists were emphasized. The coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic has had a significant impact on health issues, determining the world’s health situation. The scope of the diseases is given, and specific methods of their prevention are discussed. The next part focuses on bioengineering issues, mainly medical engineering and dental engineering, and the need for doctors to use technical solutions supporting medicine and dentistry, taking into account the current stage Industry 4.0 of the industrial revolution. The concept of Dentistry 4.0 was generally presented, and a general Bioengineering 4.0 approach was suggested. The basics of production management and the quality loop of the product life cycle were analyzed. The general classification of medical devices and biomedical materials necessary for their production was presented. The paper contains an analysis of the synthesis and characterization of biomedical materials supporting medicine and dentistry, emphasizing additive manufacturing methods. Numerous examples of clinical applications supported considerations regarding biomedical materials. The economic conditions for implementing various biomedical materials groups were supported by forecasts for developing global markets for biomaterials, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. In the seventh part, recapitulation and final remarks against the background of historical retrospection, it was emphasized that the technological processes of production and processing of biomedical materials and the systematic increase in their global production are a determinant of the implementation of a long and healthy policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Concept of Sustainable Development of Modern Dentistry
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121605 - 06 Dec 2020
Viewed by 912
Abstract
This paper concerns the assessment of the current state of dentistry in the world and the prospects of its sustainable development. A traditional Chinese censer was adopted as the pattern, with a strong and stable support on three legs. The dominant diseases of [...] Read more.
This paper concerns the assessment of the current state of dentistry in the world and the prospects of its sustainable development. A traditional Chinese censer was adopted as the pattern, with a strong and stable support on three legs. The dominant diseases of the oral cavity are caries and periodontal diseases, with the inevitable consequence of toothlessness. From the caries 3.5–5 billion people suffer. Moreover, each of these diseases has a wide influence on the development of systemic complications. The territorial range of these diseases and their significant differentiation in severity in different countries and their impact on disability-adjusted life years index are presented (DALY). Edentulousness has a significant impact on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The etiology of these diseases is presented, as well as the preventive and therapeutic strategies undertaken as a result of modifying the Deming circle through the fives’ rules idea. The state of development of Dentistry 4.0 is an element of the current stage of the industrial revolution Industry 4.0 and the great achievements of modern dental engineering. Dental treatment examples from the authors’ own clinical practice are given. The systemic safety of a huge number of dentists in the world is discussed, in place of the passive strategy of using more and more advanced personal protective equipment (PPE), introducing our own strategy for the active prevention of the spread of pathogenic microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2. The ethical aspects of dentists’ activity towards their own patients and the ethical obligations of the dentist community towards society are discussed in detail. This paper is a polemic arguing against the view presented by a group of eminent specialists in the middle of last year in The Lancet. It is impossible to disagree with these views when it comes to waiting for egalitarianism in dental care, increasing the scope of prevention and eliminating discrimination in this area on the basis of scarcity and poverty. The views on the discrimination of dentistry in relation to other branches of medicine are far more debatable. Therefore, relevant world statistics for other branches of medicine are presented. The authors of this paper do not agree with the thesis that interventional dental treatment can be replaced with properly implemented prophylaxis. The final remarks, therefore, present a discussion of the prospects for the development of dentistry based on three pillars, analogous to the traditional Chinese censer obtaining a stable balance thanks to its three legs. The Dentistry Sustainable Development (DSD) > 2020 model, consisting of Global Dental Prevention (GDP), Advanced Interventionist Dentistry 4.0 (AID 4.0), and Dentistry Safety System (DSS), is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Comparison of Bioactive Glass Scaffolds Fabricated ‎by Robocasting from Powders Made by Sol–Gel and Melt-Quenching Methods
Processes 2020, 8(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050615 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Bioactive glass scaffolds are used in bone and tissue biomedical implants, and there is great interest in their fabrication by additive manufacturing/3D printing techniques, such as robocasting. Scaffolds need to be macroporous with voids ≥100 m to allow cell growth and vascularization, biocompatible [...] Read more.
Bioactive glass scaffolds are used in bone and tissue biomedical implants, and there is great interest in their fabrication by additive manufacturing/3D printing techniques, such as robocasting. Scaffolds need to be macroporous with voids ≥100 m to allow cell growth and vascularization, biocompatible and bioactive, with mechanical properties matching the host tissue (cancellous bone for bone implants), and able to dissolve/resorb over time. Most bioactive glasses are based on silica to form the glass network, with calcium and phosphorous content for new bone growth, and a glass modifier such as sodium, the best known being 45S5 Bioglass®. 45S5 scaffolds were first robocast in 2013 from melt-quenched glass powder. Sol–gel-synthesized bioactive glasses have potential advantages over melt-produced glasses (e.g., greater porosity and bioactivity), but until recently were never robocast as scaffolds, due to inherent problems, until 2019 when high-silica-content sol–gel bioactive glasses (HSSGG) were robocast for the first time. In this review, we look at the sintering, porosity, bioactivity, biocompatibility, and mechanical properties of robocast sol–gel bioactive glass scaffolds and compare them to the reported results for robocast melt-quench-synthesized 45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds. The discussion includes formulation of the printing paste/ink and the effects of variations in scaffold morphology and inorganic additives/dopants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Dentistry 4.0 Concept in the Design and Manufacturing of Prosthetic Dental Restorations
Processes 2020, 8(5), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050525 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The paper is a comprehensive but compact review of the literature on the state of illnesses of the human stomatognathic system, related consequences in the form of dental deficiencies, and the resulting need for prosthetic treatment. Types of prosthetic restorations, including implants, as [...] Read more.
The paper is a comprehensive but compact review of the literature on the state of illnesses of the human stomatognathic system, related consequences in the form of dental deficiencies, and the resulting need for prosthetic treatment. Types of prosthetic restorations, including implants, as well as new classes of implantable devices called implant-scaffolds with a porous part integrated with a solid core, as well as biological engineering materials with the use of living cells, have been characterized. A review of works on current trends in the technical development of dental prosthetics aiding, called Dentistry 4.0, analogous to the concept of the highest stage of Industry 4.0 of the industrial revolution, has been presented. Authors’ own augmented holistic model of Industry 4.0 has been developed and presented. The studies on the significance of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in planning prosthetic treatment, as well as in the design and manufacture of prosthetic restorations, have been described. The presented and fully digital approach is a radical turnaround in both clinical procedures and the technologies of implant preparation using computer-aided design and manufacturing methods (CAD/CAM) and additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, including selective laser sintering (SLS). The authors’ research illustrates the practical application of the Dentistry 4.0 approach for several types of prosthetic restorations. The development process of the modern approach is being observed all over the world. The use of the principles of the augmented holistic model of Industry 4.0 in advanced dental engineering indicates a change in the traditional relationship between a dentist and a dental engineer. The overall conclusion demonstrates that it is inevitable and extremely beneficial to implement the idea of Dentistry 4.0 following the assumptions of the authors’ own, holistic Industry 4.0 model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
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