Special Issue "Dental Engineering: Materials, Technologies and Devices for Dentistry 4.0"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 4795

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzański
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Medical and Dental Engineering Centre for Research, Design and Production ASKLEPIOS, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; medical; dental; manufacturing and surface engineering; machine building and automation; management and organization
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Dr. Lech Bolesław Dobrzański
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical and Dental Centre SOBIESKI, 12/1 King Jana III Sobieskiego St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: dental and materials engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; medical, manufacturing and surface engineering; computer-aided engineering; medical electronics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anna D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Machine Design and Machinery Operations, University of Zielona, Gora, Poland
Interests: materials; surface and mechanical engineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; management and organization
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Dr. Joanna Dobrzańska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Design and Production Centre for Medical and Dental Engineering ASKLEPIOS, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: dentistry; endodontics; dental implantology; dental prosthetics; dental imaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health, including oral health, is a human right, and inclusive growth reduces inequalities, provided by universal access to healthcare, including primary dental care. Improving oral health reduces development burdens and costs to society, health systems, and the economy in general. Caries is one of the diseases that affect 3–5 million people in the world. Apart from focal symptoms in the oral cavity, it includes numerous distant effects involving numerous organs of the body, and, in extreme cases, it can also be a direct cause of death. Tooth extractions are also necessary, leading to a large percentage of people suffering from complete toothlessness. In turn, edentulousness is the cause of a variety of other conditions, including coordination diseases. Apart from aesthetic considerations, this is the reason for undertaking implantology and prosthetic treatment.

Of the global bodies responsible for the development of dentistry, there are very controversial and extremely opposite opinions. In addition to the consistent implementation of the outlined trends resulting from the idea of ​​Dentistry 4.0, following the modern stage of Industry 4.0 of the industrial revolution, it is believed that 21st-century dentistry is in a crisis, and is still unable to overcome the global challenge of oral diseases. There have been criticisms that dentistry continues to adopt an approach to care that is dominated by treatment; is interventionist, technical, and specialized; and is increasingly reliant on technology advancement once a disease or problem has manifested, rather than being proactive and preventive. Even assuming that this approach is correct and should, therefore, be implemented, it is a process that will take decades to begin implementing. Moreover, it seems that both of the approaches outlined are not alternatives. While efforts in the field of systemic global prevention are fully justified, the interventionist and inherently individualistic removal of the effects of the diagnosed diseases is an indispensable synergistic action. Practically, it should be noted that even the most effective prevention is not able to effectively eliminate disease states in general.

In light of the opinions presented here, it is obvious that both now and for many years to come, modern dentistry must use engineering support. More generally, the interdisciplinary branch of technology dealing with these issues is referred to as Dental Engineering. This subject, understood very broadly, is covered in this Special Issue. Engineering activities in this area fully correspond to modern trends in industrial development. Nowadays, dental engineering has all of the achievements of material engineering; the technology of material processes, including additive technologies, manufacturing engineering with computer-aided design, and computer-aided manufacturing; tissue engineering; and information technology, automation, and robotics, taking into account the development of machines and technological devices used by dentists directly during the implementation of medical procedures and by engineers who manufacture implantable devices and elements of prosthetic restorations. An extremely important issue is the use of medical imaging methods, and in the era of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic, also technical means of protecting both dentists and patients. The issues raised relate generally to the current stage of civilization development and the industrial revolution in these areas. Industry and its production, social, spatial, and economic functions constitute the global base of prosperity, and is an important measure of civilization progress, and industrial production is the main determinant of society's value. The synergy of physical, cybernetic, and biological activities can be considered as the modern stage of civilization development, generally defined as Civilization 4.0, or, somewhat more narrowly, as Economy 4.0. These terms are related to the quite commonly introduced concept of Industry 4.0, which, in turn, is related to the more detailed issues of Materials 4.0 or Dentistry 4.0. We invite a wide group of scientists, engineers, and dentists to submit any scientific, research, engineering, IT, design, and technical studies that determine the modern possibilities of dentistry, during both the diagnostics and implementation of clinical procedures, including the possibility of using robots, fully or partially replacing dentists, and imaging the condition of the dentition of the patient using CBCT tomography; intraoral and extraoral scanning; and the manufacturing of implants and prosthetic restorations and other equipment. In the new approach, which takes into account advanced techniques of planning surgical and prosthetic procedures, the dental engineer starts treatment planning with the dentist before the dentist takes any action in the patient's mouth. The actual needs and possibilities of dental engineering related to its digitization within the Dentistry 4.0 model should be taken into account. It is also interesting to present case studies of the works and technological and clinical research of this modern approach to solving clinical problems in modern dentistry, as well as the use of appropriate biomaterials in dentistry. Particular attention should be paid to maintaining very high-quality standards and tight dimensional tolerances. Design solutions for implants and implant-scaffolds are of great importance, especially because of the improvement of osseointegration, including elements of tissue engineering. In the case of dental engineering, a very important role is played by the correct material design in relation to the biomaterials used, as well as the dissemination of the application of additive technologies for the manufacturing of implants, prosthetic restorations, and additional equipment used in clinical practice, including surgical templates and accessories facilitating the assembly of implants. The use of nanotechnology, e.g., in the use of nanostructured or nanocomposite materials, and the use of nano coatings, e.g., using the atomic layer deposition ALD methods as well as nanodots is worth considering. The intention of the editors of this Special Issue is to compile a very wide collection of studies that can be treated as a kind of compendium of modern dental engineering. We invite you to participate in co-creating this ambitious project.

Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzański
Dr. Lech Bolesław Dobrzański
Prof. Dr. Anna D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz
Dr. Joanna Dobrzańska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental engineering
  • materials engineering
  • manufacturing engineering
  • computer-aided design
  • computer aided manufacturing
  • medical imaging
  • biomaterials
  • prosthetic restorations
  • nanostructural materials and coatings

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Advanced Digital 3D Technology in the Combined Surgery-First Orthognathic and Clear Aligner Orthodontic Therapy for Dentofacial Deformity Treatment
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091609 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Orthognathic surgery and orthodontic treatment are required for patients with dentofacial deformities to obtain an ideal facial esthetic with good functioning. Recently, characterized by the surgery-first approach, an integrated orthodontic–surgical treatment has been introduced as an emerging solution to dentofacial deformity treatment. The [...] Read more.
Orthognathic surgery and orthodontic treatment are required for patients with dentofacial deformities to obtain an ideal facial esthetic with good functioning. Recently, characterized by the surgery-first approach, an integrated orthodontic–surgical treatment has been introduced as an emerging solution to dentofacial deformity treatment. The surgery-first approach is regarded to have less treatment time and quicker enhancement of a facial profile than the conventional orthodontic–surgical treatment. Moreover, the recent advances in computing and imaging have allowed the adoption of 3-dimensional (3D) virtual planning protocols in orthognathic surgery as well as digital orthodontic treatment, which enables a paradigm shift when realizing virtual planning properly. These techniques then allow the surgeon and orthodontist to collaborate, plan, and simulate the dentofacial deformity treatment before performing the whole procedure. Along this line, in this research article, we present an integrated treatment method for the realization of an effective deformity treatment. Specifically, we implemented the integrated 3D technique by combining it with the surgery-first orthognathic approach (SFOA) as a novel treatment method for the patients. The outcomes from the combined treatments of the patients with dentofacial deformity, in practice, have demonstrated that our proposed 3D technique in orthognathics and orthodontics using clear aligner therapy (e.g., Invisalign) can enhance the satisfactory level of the patient since the start of treatment then improve their quality of life. As a result, the combined techniques realize the novel integrated treatment method using 3D technology with the use of 3D imaging and modeling as a promising development trend of dentistry, which fits into the context of Dentistry 4.0 as a key enabler to the concept of sustainable dentistry development. Full article
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Review

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Review
Nitinol Type Alloys General Characteristics and Applications in Endodontics
Processes 2022, 10(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010101 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
A very extensive literature review presents the possibilities and needs of using, in endodontics, the alloys commonly known as nitinol. Nitinol, as the most modern group of engineering materials used to develop root canals, is equilibrium nickel and titanium alloys in terms of [...] Read more.
A very extensive literature review presents the possibilities and needs of using, in endodontics, the alloys commonly known as nitinol. Nitinol, as the most modern group of engineering materials used to develop root canals, is equilibrium nickel and titanium alloys in terms of the elements’ atomic concentration, or very similar. The main audience of this paper is engineers, tool designers and manufacturers, PhD students, and students of materials and manufacturing engineering but this article can also certainly be used by dentists. The paper aims to present a full material science characterization of the structure and properties of nitinol alloys and to discuss all structural phenomena that determine the performance properties of these alloys, including those applied to manufacture the endodontic tools. The paper presents the selection of these alloys’ chemical composition and processing conditions and their importance in the endodontic treatment of teeth. The results of laboratory studies on the analysis of changes during the sterilization of endodontic instruments made of nitinol alloys are also included. The summary of all the literature analyses is an SWOT analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, and is a forecast of the development strategy of this material in a specific application such as endodontics. Full article
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Review
Development Strategy of Endodontic Filling Materials Based on Engineering and Medical Approaches
Processes 2021, 9(11), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9112014 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
This article is a literature review aimed at presenting the general state of knowledge in manufacturing engineering and materials engineering to develop engineering materials applied for endodontic treatment as filling materials. Particular attention was paid to theoretical analyses concerning the selection of methods [...] Read more.
This article is a literature review aimed at presenting the general state of knowledge in manufacturing engineering and materials engineering to develop engineering materials applied for endodontic treatment as filling materials. Particular attention was paid to theoretical analyses concerning the selection of methods for developing and obturating root canals and discussing the results of experimental studies available in the literature. These activities aimed to compare the importance of the most commonly used endodontic filling materials based on gutta-percha or polymeric polyester materials, commonly known as resilon, respectively. The motivation to take up this complex, multi-faceted topic in this paper is the extent of caries, periodontal disease, and other oral diseases in 3 to 5 billion people, often affecting toothlessness and contributing to an increase in the index of disability-adjusted life years (number). Endodontics is an important element of the authors’ concept of Dentistry Sustainable Development (DSD) > 2020. The principles of qualifying patients for endodontic treatment are discussed. The introduction of rotary tools, especially manufactured from Nitinol alloy, to develop root canals and the latest thermohydraulic and condensation techniques for obturation guarantee progress in endodontics. The “Digital Twins” methodology was used, rooted in the idea of Industry 4.0 and the resulting idea of Dentistry 4.0, as well as knowledge management methods, to perform experimental research in virtual space, concerning methods of developing and obturating the root canal and assessing the tightness of fillings. Microscopic visualization methods were also used. Significant factors determining the effectiveness of endodontic obturation are the selection of the filling material and the appropriate obturation method. The generalized dendrological matrix of endodontic filling materials considers the criteria of mechanical strength influencing the potential root fracture and the quality of root canal filling. The results of the SWOT point analysis (strengths and weaknesses, opportunities, threats) were also compared. For both filling materials, the weaknesses are much less than the strengths, while the threats are slightly less than the opportunities for the gutta-percha-based material, while for resilon the opportunities are much smaller than the threats. It requires the application of an appropriate development strategy, i.e., MAXI-MAXI in the case of a filling material based on gutta-percha and MAXI-MINI in the case of resilon. Therefore, the analysis of these experimental data does not indicate the real competitiveness of resilon for the gutta-percha-based material. This material deservedly maintains its strong position as the “Gold Standard of Endodontics”. Full article
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Review
Is Gutta-Percha Still the “Gold Standard” among Filling Materials in Endodontic Treatment?
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081467 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
The paper is an extensive monographic review of the literature, and also uses the results of the authors’ own experimental research illustrating the noticed developmental tendencies of the filling material based on gutta-percha. The whole body of literature proves the correctness of the [...] Read more.
The paper is an extensive monographic review of the literature, and also uses the results of the authors’ own experimental research illustrating the noticed developmental tendencies of the filling material based on gutta-percha. The whole body of literature proves the correctness of the research thesis that this material is the best currently that can be used in endodontics. Caries is one of the most common global infectious diseases. Since the dawn of humankind, the consequence of the disease has been the loss of dentition over time through dental extractions. Both tooth caries and tooth loss cause numerous complications and systemic diseases, which have a serious impact on insurance systems and on the well-being, quality, and length of human life. Endodontic treatment, which has been developing since 1836, is an alternative to tooth extraction. Based on an extensive literature review, the methodology of qualifying patients for endodontic treatment was analyzed. The importance of selecting filling material and techniques for the development and obturation of the root canal during endodontic treatment was described. Particular attention was paid to the materials science aspects and the sequence of phase transformations and precipitation processes, as well as the need to ensure the stoichiometric chemical composition of Ni–Ti alloys, and the vacuum metallurgical processes and material processing technologies for the effects of shape memory and superelasticity, which determine the suitability of tools made of this alloy for endodontic purposes. The phenomena accompanying the sterilization of such tools, limiting the relatively small number of times of their use, play an important role. The methods of root canal preparation and obturation methods through cold side condensation and thermoplastic methods, including the most modern of them, the thermo-hydraulic condensation (THC) technique, were analyzed. An important element of the research hypothesis was to prove the assumption that to optimize the technology of development and obturation of root canals, tests of filling effectiveness are identified by the density and size of the gaps between the root canal wall, and the filling methods used and devices appropriate for material research, using mainly microscopy such as light stereoscopic (LSM) and scanning electron (SEM). The most beneficial preparations were obtained by making a longitudinal breakthrough of 48 natural human teeth, extracted for medical reasons, different from caries, with compliance with all ethical principles in this field. The teeth were prepared using various methods and filled with multiple obturation techniques, using a virtual selection of experimental variants. The breakthroughs were made in liquid nitrogen after a one-sided incision with a narrow gap created by a diamond disc using a materialographic cutter. The best effectiveness of the root canal filling was ensured by the technology of preparing the root canals with K3 rotary nitinol tools and filling the teeth with the THC thermoplastic method using the System B and Obtura III devices with studs and pellets of filling material based on gutta-percha after covering the root canal walls with a thin layer of AH Plus sealant. In this way, the research thesis was confirmed. Full article
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