Special Issue "Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aleksander Lisiecki
Website
Guest Editor
Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Welding Engineering, Konarskiego 18A Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: laser surface engineering, laser material processing, welding, coatings, additive manufacturing of metal parts
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Laser technologies of materials processing are being increasingly used in the laser device industry. This is the result of dynamic development in the field of the design and construction of laser devices, as well as in the improvement of technical parameters of laser devices and the characteristics of laser radiation.

One of the main areas of application of laser technologies is the welding and surface treatment of metals and alloys. Laser welding is advantageous, especially in the case of modern and advanced alloys, such ultra-high-strength steels (UHSS) and advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), as well as in modern stainless duplex and super duplex steels, nonferrous metals, and light metals such titanium and aluminium. The laser beam as a heat source in welding processes can provide high-power density and a low beam spot diameter, thus providing high penetration depth; high welding speed; and low, controllable heat input.

On the other hand, in the field of surface treatment, the flexibility of shaping laser beams can provide different beam spot profiles and sizes, and different beam spot energy distributions adjusted for controllable heating, melting, or evaporation of the substage material. Therefore, lasers are used in different processes of surface treatment such laser surface hardening (LSH), melting (LSM), shocking (LSS), texturing (LST), alloying (LSA), cladding (LSC), remelting (LSR), and for surface deposition (LSD) or in additive manufacturing for laser metal deposition (LMD) or selective laser sintering and melting (SLS/SLM).

The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the latest developments in the field of research on laser welding technologies and surface treatment technologies of metals and alloys.

The main topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

- The study of laser welding technology of metals;

- The study of laser brazing/soldering of metals;

- The study of laser cladding of metals;

- The study of laser metal deposition;

- The study of laser melting and remelting of metals;

- The study of laser alloying of metals;

- The study of laser hardening of metals;

- The characterization of laser clads and surface layers produced on metal substrate;

- The study of structure and mechanical properties of laser welds of metals;

- The characterization of 3D laser-printed metal structures.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aleksander Lisiecki
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Keyhole laser welding
  • Conduction mode laser welding
  • Laser brazing/soldering
  • Laser cladding
  • Laser melting/remelting and alloying
  • Laser hardening and shocking
  • Laser metal deposition
  • Selective laser sintering
  • Selective laser melting

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Effect of Laser Welding on the Properties and Structure of TMCP Steel Butt Joints
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061312 - 13 Mar 2020
Abstract
The research work and related tests aimed to identify the effect of filler metal-free laser beam welding on the structure and properties of butt joints made of steel 700MC subjected to the TMCP (thermo-mechanically controlled processed) process. The tests involved 10-mm thick welded [...] Read more.
The research work and related tests aimed to identify the effect of filler metal-free laser beam welding on the structure and properties of butt joints made of steel 700MC subjected to the TMCP (thermo-mechanically controlled processed) process. The tests involved 10-mm thick welded joints and a welding linear energy of 4 kJ/mm and 5 kJ/mm. The inert gas shielded welding process was performed in the flat position (PA) and horizontal position (PC). Non-destructive testing enabled classification of the tested welded joints as representing the quality level B in accordance with the requirements set out in standard 13919-1. Destructive tests revealed that the tensile strength of the joints was 5% lower than S700MC steel. The results of tensile tests and changes in structure were referred to joints made using the MAG (Metal Active Gas) method. The tests of thin films performed using a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope revealed that, during laser beam welding, an increase in dilution was accompanied by an increase in the content of alloying microadditions titanium and niobium, particularly in the fusion area. A significant content of hardening phases in the welded joint during cooling led to significant precipitation hardening by fine-dispersive (Ti,Nb)(C,N) type precipitates being of several nanometres in size, which, in turn, resulted in the reduction of plastic properties. An increase in the concentration of elements responsible for steel hardening, i.e., Ti and Nb, also contributed to reducing the weld toughness below the acceptable value, which amounts to 25 J/cm2. In cases of S700MC, the analysis of the phase transformation of austenite exposed to welding thermal cycles and the value of carbon equivalent cannot be the only factors taken into consideration when assessing weldability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Techniques in Numerical Simulations of Arc and Laser Welding Processes
Materials 2020, 13(3), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030608 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The article presents a comparison of modern computational techniques used in numerical analyses of welding processes. The principles of the “transient” technique calculations with a moving heat source, the “macro-bead” (MBD) technique, with an imposed thermal cycle on a selected weld bead section [...] Read more.
The article presents a comparison of modern computational techniques used in numerical analyses of welding processes. The principles of the “transient” technique calculations with a moving heat source, the “macro-bead” (MBD) technique, with an imposed thermal cycle on a selected weld bead section and the “local–global” approach with shrinkage calculation technique were described. They can be used, depending on the variant chosen, both for individual, simple weld joints and those made of many beads or constructions containing dozens of welds and welded elements. Differences in the obtained results and time needed to perform calculations with four different calculation examples of single and multipass arc and laser beam welding processes were presented. The results of calculations of displacements and stresses distributions in the welded joints using various computational techniques were compared, as well as the calculation times with the described techniques. The numerical analyses in the SYSWELD software package have shown the differences between the described computational techniques, as well as an understanding of the benefits and disadvantages of using each of them. This knowledge allows preparing an efficient and fast optimization of the welding processes, often aimed at minimizing deformations in the first place, as well as detection of potential defects of both simple and complex welded structures. In general, the possibilities and flexibility of modern numerical calculation software have been presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloy AlMg9 with B4C Powder
Materials 2020, 13(2), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020402 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
This paper presents the effects of laser treatment (fiber laser YLS-4000) on the microstructure and selected mechanical properties of the surface layer of AlMg (AlMg9) foundry alloy obtained by alloying with boron carbide (B4C). The correlation between laser alloying process parameters [...] Read more.
This paper presents the effects of laser treatment (fiber laser YLS-4000) on the microstructure and selected mechanical properties of the surface layer of AlMg (AlMg9) foundry alloy obtained by alloying with boron carbide (B4C). The correlation between laser alloying process parameters and selected properties of the formed layer was discussed. The studies were supported by microstructural analysis of the remelted zone (RZ), heat affected zone (HAZ), undissolved carbide particles, substrate material, and precipitates formed during rapid solidification. Metallographic investigations of the laser-treated layer were performed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition and a detailed analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The remelting thickness, heat-affected zone (HAZ), and amount of base material in surface layers were determined. Microhardness tests were performed on transverse cross-sections of the remelted zone to obtain the hardness profiles in the base material (BM), remelted zone (RZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ). The hardness, roughness, and wear resistance measurements showed that the highest tribological properties of the obtained surface layer were achieved using 0.5 Bar protective gas (Ar) during alloying with B4C powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Correlation between Thermal Cycling and the Microstructures of X100 Pipeline Steel Laser-Welded Joints
Materials 2020, 13(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010121 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
Due to the limitations of the energy density and penetration ability of arc welding technology for long-distance pipelines, the deterioration of the microstructures in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (HAZ) in welded joints in large-diameter, thick-walled pipeline steel leads to insufficient strength and toughness [...] Read more.
Due to the limitations of the energy density and penetration ability of arc welding technology for long-distance pipelines, the deterioration of the microstructures in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (HAZ) in welded joints in large-diameter, thick-walled pipeline steel leads to insufficient strength and toughness in these joints, which strongly affect the service reliability and durability of oil and gas pipelines. Therefore, high-energy-beam welding is introduced for pipeline steel welding to reduce pipeline construction costs and improve the efficiency and safety of oil and gas transportation. In the present work, two pieces of X100 pipeline steel plates with thicknesses of 12.8 mm were welded by a high-power robot laser-welding platform. The quantitative correlation between thermal cycling and the microstructure of the welded joint was studied using numerical simulation of the welding temperature field, optical microscopy (OM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the heat-source model of a Gaussian-distributed rotating body and the austenitization degree parameters are highly accurate in simulating the welding temperature field and characterizing the austenitization degree. The effects of austenitization are more significant than those of the cooling rate on the final microstructures of the laser-welded joint. The microstructure of the X100 pipeline steel in the HAZ is mainly composed of acicular ferrite (AF), granular bainite (GB), and bainitic ferrite (BF). However, small amounts of lath martensite (LM), upper bainite (UB), and the bulk microstructure are found in the columnar zone of the weld. The aim of this paper is to provide scientific guidance and a reference for the simulation of the temperature field during high-energy-beam laser welding and to study and formulate the laser-welding process for X100 pipeline steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Flame Spraying of Aluminum Coatings Reinforced with Particles of Carbonaceous Materials as an Alternative for Laser Cladding Technologies
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213467 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The article presents results of the preliminary research of mechanical properties of flame-sprayed aluminum coatings reinforced with carbon materials made on the construction steel S235J0 substrate. For reinforcement the following carbon materials were used: carbon nanotubes Nanocyl NC 7000 (0.5 wt.% and 1 [...] Read more.
The article presents results of the preliminary research of mechanical properties of flame-sprayed aluminum coatings reinforced with carbon materials made on the construction steel S235J0 substrate. For reinforcement the following carbon materials were used: carbon nanotubes Nanocyl NC 7000 (0.5 wt.% and 1 wt.%) and carburite (0.5 wt.%). The properties evaluation was made using metallographic macroscope and microscope, chemical composition, microhardness, abrasion and erosion resistance studies. The obtained results were compared with aluminum powder coatings (EN AW 1000 series). It was proved that the flame spraying of aluminum coatings reinforced with particles of carbonaceous materials can be an effective alternative for laser cladding technology. The preliminary test results will be successively extended by further experiments to contribute in the near future to develop innovative technologies, that can be implemented in the automotive industry for production of components with high strength, wear resistance, good thermal conductivity and low density, such as brake shoes, cylinder liners, piston rings and gears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Bead Sequence in Underwater Welding
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203372 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper presents examinations of the role of the bead sequence in underwater welding. Two specimens of wet welded layers made by covered electrodes with the use of normalized S355G10+N steel were welded by a reasonable bead sequence. For each specimen, metallographic macro- [...] Read more.
This paper presents examinations of the role of the bead sequence in underwater welding. Two specimens of wet welded layers made by covered electrodes with the use of normalized S355G10+N steel were welded by a reasonable bead sequence. For each specimen, metallographic macro- and micro-scopic tests were done. Then, Vickers HV10 hardness measurements were conducted for each pad weld in the welded layer. The results show that welding in the water environment carries many problems in the stability of the welding arc, which influences the properties of the welds. The effects of refining and tempering the structure in heat-affected zones of earlier laid beads was observed, which provides a reduction of hardness. The possibility of applying two techniques while welding the layer by the wet method is described. It is stated that a reasonable bead sequence can decrease the hardness in heat-affected zones up to 40 HV10. Tempering by heat from next beads can also change the microstructure in this area by tempering martensite and can decrease susceptibility to cold cracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Optical Properties of Surface Layers Produced by Laser Surface Melting and Laser Surface Nitriding of Titanium Alloy
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193112 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This study measured optical properties, such as specular, diffuse, and total reflection for 808 nm wavelength, characteristic for high power diode lasers radiation, from the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V at delivery conditions, polished, and oxidized. Moreover, the optical properties of surface layers [...] Read more.
This study measured optical properties, such as specular, diffuse, and total reflection for 808 nm wavelength, characteristic for high power diode lasers radiation, from the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V at delivery conditions, polished, and oxidized. Moreover, the optical properties of surface layers produced by high power direct diode laser (HPDDL) melting and nitriding were determined. Additionally, a methodology for determining the value of absorption for 808 nm wavelength of the HPDDL radiation on the surface of a melt pool during laser surface melting and nitriding of titanium alloy was proposed. The results show that the distinct differences in absorption affect the heat transfer, thermal conditions of laser heating and thereby the penetration depth during laser melting and nitriding of the titanium alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Investigation of thermal conditions in the molten pool during laser surface melting and alloying of ductile cast iron
Author: Prof. Damian Janicki, [email protected]
Affiliation: Department of Welding Engineering, Silesian University of Technology
Abstract: The thermal conditions in the molten pool during the laser surface melting and alloying of ductile cast iron substrate under different processing conditions have been estimated using a novel research methodology, in which an experimental approach, comprising contact and non-contact measurements, was complimented by the numerical simulations. The experimental approach included temperature measurements on the surface of the molten pool and in the region of the molten pool adjacent to the fusion boundary. The temperature distribution on the surface of the molten pool was measured by the infrared thermography. The temperature change in the region of the molten pool adjacent to the fusion boundary was measured by means of high temperature thermocouples.

Title: Evaluation of the impact of laser welding on structural changes and mechanical properties of thermomechanically rolled
Author: Prof. Jacek Górka; [email protected]
Affiliation: Department of Welding Engineering, Silesian University of Technology
Abstract: The research-related tests aimed to determine the effect of filer-metal free laser beam welding on the structure and properties of 10 mm thick steel S700MC subjected to the Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP). The non-destructive tests revealed that the welded joints represented quality level B according to the requirements of standard 13919-1. During the research, the impact of laser beam welding on the structural changes occurring in the weld area and HAZ of thermomechanically rolled steel S700MC were evaluated. The X-ray material of the weld was analyzed and the chemical composition changes were determined, with particular emphasis on the content of alloying alloys such as: Nb, Ti. The tests carried out with the use of electron microscopy of scanning allowed the analysis of precipitation processes in particular areas of welded joints. The carried out strength tests (static tensile test, bending test, impact tests) allowed to confirm the influence of separated processes on the properties of welded joints.

Title: Heat source models in numerical simulations of laser welding
Author: Dr. Tomasz Kik; [email protected]
Affiliation: Department of Welding Engineering, Silesian University of Technology
Abstract: Lasers as a modern heat source in welding processes are currently very often used in production processes. Their high precision and efficiency is associated with the high quality of the joints they produce, but also significantly increases the complexity of welding technology. The article presents issues concerning the application of modern computational techniques with the use of the SYSWELD package in the modeling of laser welding processes. Due to the fact that lasers of various power distributions on the surface and shapes of beam spots in industry are used, the method of selecting the appropriate mathematical model of heat source used in calculations and its application depending on the analysed case will be presented. Results from the real experiments will create the input data set for the calibration and validation of the proposed simulation methodology. On the basis of metallographic studies and registration of thermal cycles on real samples, numerical analyses of temperature fields, individual metallurgical phases, hardness, strains and plastic deformations distributions in simulated processes will be carried out. The results carried out with the use of typical mathematical heat source models and calculations based on a given thermal cycle measured during tests on real samples will also be compared. This article also presents the benefits resulting from the use of such analyses, due to the significant savings in time and resources to be spent on the development of correct technologies variants, especially given that some of the results are unavailable or very difficult to collect using conventional measurement methods.

Title: Preparation and characterization of copper oxide sheets using high power diode laser
Author: M. Musztyfaga-Staszuka, D Janickia, P. Panek b, K. Gawlińska-Nęcekb
Affiliation:a Silesian University of Technology, Welding Department, Konarskiego 18A, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland;[email protected]; bInstitute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Reymonta 25, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Abstract: Copper oxides (Cu2O, CuO) are p-type semiconductor materials with small band gap energy (2.1 eV for Cu2O and 1.2 eV for CuO). Moreover, copper oxide (Cu2O) is a very promising material for photovoltaic application (for instance to manufacture a heterojunction solar cell). The oxidation of copper sheet induced by a laser beam is investigated. Formation of investigated materials with different thicknesses were performed in the atmosphere of air. The following technological recommendations for the laser technology such as the laser power, warm-up time and focal length to manufacture copper oxides were experimentally selected. Metallographic (among others: SEM, AFM, CLSM), optical investigation (spectral reflection) and structural (XRD, EDS analyses) investigation were performed. The theoretical studies and experimental results of the initial stages of copper oxidation using high power diode laser have been reviewed.
Keywords:
Cu, CuO, Cu2O, laser technology

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