materials-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Characterization and Behavior of Dental, Oral and Maxillo-Facial Reconstructive Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 40437

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Periodontology and Dental Implantology, School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Interests: soft and hard tissue reconstruction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
Interests: fixed prosthodontics; implant dentistry; aesthetic dentistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scope of this Materials Special Issue entitled “Characterization and Behavior of Dental, Oral, and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Materials” is to evaluate and advance evidence-based dentistry towards predictable prolonged dental treatment consequences. It is intended to cover a wide range of materials and techniques applied in all dental disciplines, including oral rehabilitation, periodontology, dental implantology, oral, and maxillofacial reconstruction and endodontology.

Dental, oral, and maxillofacial reconstructive materials have largely evolved during the last few years.

In oral rehabilitation and dental restorative procedures, a wide range of materials has become available.

In periodontal therapy, tooth prognosis may be significantly improved through reconstructive treatment meant to restore the functional periodontal support, offering a valuable treatment alternative even for cases with extensive loss of support.

Dental implants offer an evidence-based treatment alternative to replace missing teeth. Implant therapy is continuously evolving; macro and micro-implant morphology, surface characteristics, and connection types have dramatically changed during these last few years. However, implant-supported rehabilitation is not devoid of complications.

Lack of sufficient bone volume may prevent implant placement. Various factors may influence the choice of a certain surgical technique for bone augmentation. Different procedures may present advantages and shortcomings. The majority of bone reconstruction materials applied today in clinical practice present only a conductive effect filling and maintaining a space, where bone regeneration can occur. However, the ideal bone graft should also have inductive effects, promoting osseous regeneration. New biological materials, some of them derived from the patient’s blood, have been described and clinically applied lately.

Treatment of several medical situations in the maxillofacial region results in soft and hard tissue defects, and materials and techniques used for their reconstruction are constantly being improved.

Modern endodontic treatment leads to improved results, and new materials and techniques have been introduced and applied in clinical practice.

This Special Issue will be dedicated to all reconstructive materials in dentistry. Quality reviews, original articles, and outstanding case series evaluations discussing rationale, indications, and clinical procedures will be considered. Internationally-renowned leading researchers and clinicians are expected to contribute articles in their field of expertise.

Prof. Carlos E. Nemcovsky
Prof. Joseph Nissan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral rehabilitation
  • dental restorative materials
  • periodontology
  • reconstructive treament
  • dental implants
  • endodontology
  • bone reconstruction
  • soft tissue

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Bacterial Growth on Three Non-Resorbable Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Membranes—An In Vitro Study
by Helena Zelikman, Gil Slutzkey, Ofir Rosner, Shifra Levartovsky, Shlomo Matalon and Ilan Beitlitum
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165705 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
GBR (Guided Bone Regeneration) procedure is challenged by the risk of membrane exposure to the oral cavity and contamination. The barrier quality of these membranes serve as a mechanical block from bacterial penetration into the GBR site. The purpose of this in vitro [...] Read more.
GBR (Guided Bone Regeneration) procedure is challenged by the risk of membrane exposure to the oral cavity and contamination. The barrier quality of these membranes serve as a mechanical block from bacterial penetration into the GBR site. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of three commercial non-resorbable polytetrafluoroethylene membranes. (Two d-PTFE membranes and one double layer e-PTFE +d-PTFE membrane). A validated in vitro model with two bacterial species (Streptococcus sanguinis and Fusobacterium nucleatum) was used. Eight samples from membrane each were placed in a 96-well microtiter plate. The experimental and positive control groups were exposed to a bacterial suspension which involved one bacterial species in each plate. Bacterial growth was monitored spectrophotometrically at 650 nm for 24 h in temperature controlled microplate spectrophotometer under anaerobic conditions. One- Sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov Normal test and the Kruskal–Wallis test was used for the statistical analysis. As shown by the bacterial growth curves obtained from the spectrophotometer readings, all three membranes resulted in bacterial growth. We have not found a statistical difference in F. nucleatum growth between different membrane samples and the positive control group. However, S. sanguinis growth was reduced significantly in the presence of two membranes (CYTOPLAST TXT-200 and NeoGenTM) when compared to the control (p < 0.01). The presence of Permamem® had no significant influence on S. sanguinis growth. Some types of commercial non-resorbable PTFE membranes may have an impact on the growth dynamics of specific bacterial species. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1567 KiB  
Article
Primary Implant Stability Analysis of Different Dental Implant Connections and Designs—An In Vitro Comparative Study
by Perry Raz, Haya Meir, Shifra Levartovsky, Alon Sebaoun and Ilan Beitlitum
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093072 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
Primary implant stability can be evaluated at the time of placement by measuring the insertion torque (IT). However, another method to monitor implant stability over time is resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Our aim was to examine the effect of bone type, implant design, [...] Read more.
Primary implant stability can be evaluated at the time of placement by measuring the insertion torque (IT). However, another method to monitor implant stability over time is resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Our aim was to examine the effect of bone type, implant design, and implant length on implant primary stability as measured by IT and two RFA devices (Osstell and Penguin) in an in vitro model. Ninety-six implants were inserted by a surgical motor in an artificial bone material, resembling soft and dense bone. Two different implant designs—conical connection (CC) and internal hex (IH), with lengths of 13 and 8 mm, were compared. The results indicate that the primary stability as measured by RFA and IT is significantly increased by the quality of bone (dense bone), and implant length and design, where the influence of dense bone is similar to that of CC design. Both the Osstell and Penguin devices recorded higher primary implant stability for long implants in dense bone, favoring the CC over the IH implant design. The CC implant design may compensate for the low stability expected in soft bone, and dense bone may compensate for short implant length if required by the anatomical bone conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 646 KiB  
Article
Reliability and Correlation of Different Devices for the Evaluation of Primary Implant Stability: An In Vitro Study
by Perry Raz, Haya Meir, Shifra Levartovsky, Maia Peleg, Alon Sebaoun and Ilan Beitlitum
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195537 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Our aim was to analyze the correlation between the IT evaluated by a surgical motor and the primary implant stability (ISQ) measured by two RFA devices, Osstell and Penguin, in an in vitro model. This study examines the effect of bone type (soft [...] Read more.
Our aim was to analyze the correlation between the IT evaluated by a surgical motor and the primary implant stability (ISQ) measured by two RFA devices, Osstell and Penguin, in an in vitro model. This study examines the effect of bone type (soft or dense), implant length (13 mm or 8 mm), and implant design (CC: conical connection; IH: internal hexagon), on this correlation. Ninety-six implants were inserted using a surgical motor (IT) into two types of synthetic foam blocks. Initial measurements for both the peak IT and ISQ were recorded at the point when implant insertion was stopped by the surgical motor, and the final measurements were recorded when the implant was completely inserted into the synthetic blocks using only the RFA devices. Our null hypothesis was that there is a good correlation between the devices, independent of the implant length, design, or bone type. We found a positive, significant correlation between the IT, and the Osstell and Penguin devices. Implant length and bone type did not affect this correlation. The correlation between the devices in the CC design was maintained; however, in the IH design it was maintained only between the RFA devices. We concluded that there is a high positive correlation between the IT and ISQ from a mechanical perspective, which was not affected by bone type or implant length but was affected by the implant design. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3901 KiB  
Article
Impact of Cross-Linking of Collagen Matrices on Tissue Regeneration in a Rabbit Calvarial Bone Defect
by Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Elena Andrejova, Hiroki Katagiri, Benoit Schaller, Anton Sculean, Jean-Claude Imber, Niklaus P. Lang and Nikola Saulacic
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133740 - 4 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1784
Abstract
The cross-linking of collagen matrices (Cl_CM) may provide volume-stable enhanced defect regeneration when compared to non-cross-linked matrices (Ncl_CM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the bone forming potential of collagen matrices (CMs) and the effects of cross-linking CMs in a [...] Read more.
The cross-linking of collagen matrices (Cl_CM) may provide volume-stable enhanced defect regeneration when compared to non-cross-linked matrices (Ncl_CM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the bone forming potential of collagen matrices (CMs) and the effects of cross-linking CMs in a rabbit calvaria defect model. (1) Empty controls (n = 6), (2) Ncl_CM (n = 8), and (3) Cl_CM (n = 8) were selected to be observed for the healing in 10 mm critical-sized calvarial bone defects. The potential for the bone as well as the connective tissue formation were evaluated by micro-CT and histomorphometry at three months post-surgery. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of new bone volume in the defects between the groups. However, the Cl_CM induced significantly greater fibrous tissue regeneration (5.29 ± 1.57 mm2) when compared to the controls (3.51 ± 0.93 mm2) by histomorphometry. The remnants of collagen fibers with immune cells, including macrophages and giant cells, were occasionally observed in the Cl_CM group but not in the Ncl_CM group. In conclusion, the cross-linking of collagen did not influence the potential for bone formation. Nevertheless, Cl_CM might be advantageous for the maintenance of fibrous tissue volume without disturbing bone formation in the defects. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 21026 KiB  
Article
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Modulated Guided Tissue Regeneration with a Bioresorbable Membrane in Class III Furcation Defects: A Histometric Study in the Monkey
by Dietmar Weng, Lina Stapf, Matthias Kern and Ralf-Joachim Kohal
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092420 - 6 May 2021
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
It was the aim of this study to histometrically evaluate guided tissue regeneration (bioresorbable membrane plus bone mineral) (GTR) with or without platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in two different types of class III furcation defects (small keyhole defects and horizonal defects) in monkeys. [...] Read more.
It was the aim of this study to histometrically evaluate guided tissue regeneration (bioresorbable membrane plus bone mineral) (GTR) with or without platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in two different types of class III furcation defects (small keyhole defects and horizonal defects) in monkeys. In six cynomolgus monkeys, two types of class III furcation defects were created and allowed to chronify for 5 months in mandibular first and second molars. After a hygiene program the molars were assigned to GTR group (collagen membrane plus bovine bone mineral), PDGF group (collagen membrane plus bovine bone mineral plus PDGF), or negative control group (flap reposition only). Histologic sections were made after 7 months of healing and descriptive statistics were provided from the histometric parameters. Postoperative healing was uneventful despite marginal membrane exposures in the GTR and PDGF group. Bone regeneration of 23–35% of the original defect area was found in the two treatment groups. In none of the evaluated key parameters (formation of bone, root cementum, connective tissue, or epithelium) differences were detected between GTR and PDGF groups. However, the negative control teeth exhibited better bone regeneration than the treatment groups. The type of class III defect did not influence the regenerative outcome. Within the limits of this study PDGF was not able to enhance the histologic regeneration of class III furcation areas in monkeys compared to bone mineral enhanced GTR treatment regardless of the defect configuration. Membrane exposure during early healing might have influenced these outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1881 KiB  
Article
Effect of Denture Base Fabrication Technique on Candida albicans Adhesion In Vitro
by Avi Meirowitz, Arkadi Rahmanov, Eti Shlomo, Helena Zelikman, Eran Dolev and Nir Sterer
Materials 2021, 14(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010221 - 5 Jan 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3287
Abstract
Denture stomatitis is a common manifestation of oral candidiasis affecting some 65% of denture wearers. This condition is initiated by the adherence of Candida albicans to denture base acrylic resin. The present study aimed to test the in vitro effect of traditional and [...] Read more.
Denture stomatitis is a common manifestation of oral candidiasis affecting some 65% of denture wearers. This condition is initiated by the adherence of Candida albicans to denture base acrylic resin. The present study aimed to test the in vitro effect of traditional and novel fabrication methods on Candida albicans adhesion to denture base samples. Denture based acrylic discs were fabricated using: (i) computerized milling, (ii) 3D printing, (iii) heat curing, and (iv) cold curing. Discs were tested for surface roughness (Ra), hydrophobicity (contact angle), mucin adsorption (Bradford assay), and Candida albicans adhesion. 3D printing significantly increased microbial cell adhesion as compared with heat curing, and computerized milling significantly decreased it. These results were associated with mucin adsorption levels rather than surface roughness. Results suggest that 3D printing may increase the risk for developing denture stomatitis, whereas computerized milling may decrease it as compared with traditional heat curing denture base fabrication. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Residual Alveolar Bone Height on Graft Composition after Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using Two Different Xenografts: A Histomorphometric Comparative Study
by Silvio Taschieri, Moses Ofer, Stefano Corbella, Tiziano Testori, Claudia Dellavia, Carlos Nemcovsky, Elena Canciani, Luca Francetti, Massimo Del Fabbro and Gianluca Tartaglia
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225093 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Aim: To evaluate the hypothesis of a correlation between the preoperative residual alveolar bone height (RBH) and graft maturation after maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures using two different bone substitutes. Methods: A total of 20 patients who underwent unilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation [...] Read more.
Aim: To evaluate the hypothesis of a correlation between the preoperative residual alveolar bone height (RBH) and graft maturation after maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures using two different bone substitutes. Methods: A total of 20 patients who underwent unilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation with either mineralized deproteinized bovine bone (DBBM) or a xenograft enriched with polymer and gelatin (NBS) were included in this prospective study. Six months after sinus surgery, bone biopsies were harvested with a 3.2 mm diameter trephine bur, prior to dental implant placement. Histomorphometric analysis was performed, and the results were correlated with the individual RBH. Implants were loaded after 5 months of insertion, and 1-year implant success and marginal bone level change were assessed. Results: RBH was 2.17 ± 1.11 mm (range 0.5–3.5 mm) and 2.14 ± 0.72 mm (range 0.5–3.0 mm) in the NBS and DBBM group, respectively. The biopsy analyses for the DBBM group showed woven bone increases by 5.08% per 1-mm increment of RBH; medullary spaces decreased by 9.02%, osteoid decreased by 4.4%, residual biomaterial decreased by 0.34%, and lamellar bone increased by 5.68% per 1-mm increase of RBH. In the NBS group, samples showed woven bone increases by 8.08% per 1-mm increase of RBH; medullary spaces decreased by 0.38%; osteoid increased by 1.34%, residual biomaterial decreased by 0.58%, and lamellar bone decreased by 5.50% per 1-mm increase of RBH. There was no statistically significant difference in the correlation between RBH and lamellar bone, woven bone, and osteoid, independently of the material used. Implant success was 100% in both groups, and marginal bone loss was 1.02 ± 0.42 mm in DBBM and 0.95 ± 0.31 mm in the NBS group after the 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: In spite of the absence of significance, the observed trend for woven bone to increase and medullary spaces to decrease when RBH increases deserves attention. Residual bone dimension might be a determinant in the bone graft maturation after maxillary sinus augmentation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
Influence of Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression Techniques on Marginal Fit of Metal Frameworks for Fixed Partial Dentures
by Joseph Nissan, Ofir Rosner, Gal Rosen, Sarit Naishlos, Eran Zenziper, Helena Zelikman, David Lavi and Liat Chaushu
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4684; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204684 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
Impression technique is one of the factors affecting restoration fit accuracy, which is a major aspect influencing its survival. The purpose of this study is to compare, in vivo, the effect of two commonly used Vinyl Polysiloxane (VPS) impression techniques on the metal [...] Read more.
Impression technique is one of the factors affecting restoration fit accuracy, which is a major aspect influencing its survival. The purpose of this study is to compare, in vivo, the effect of two commonly used Vinyl Polysiloxane (VPS) impression techniques on the metal framework fitting of fixed partial dentures. Ninety-two consecutive patients, diagnosed as partially edentulous, treated by fixed partial denture restorations, participated in the study. Group 1-impressions (n = 44) were subjected to the 1-step technique, while group 2 impressions (n = 48) were subjected the 2-step technique. Three accuracy assessment common methods: probe, tactile sense and radiographic test, were used to validate the clinical fit of the metal framework. Misfit was defined as even one test failure. Twenty-one (22.8%) out of 92 metal frameworks exhibited metal frameworks misfit, whereas the other 71 (77.2%) were found to be accurate. Group 1 presented significantly (p = 0.04) more metal frameworks misfit, 14/44 (31.8%) vs. 7/48 (14.6%). Restoration location (maxilla vs. mandible) had no statistically significant impact on the results (p = 0.461). The use of the VPS putty/wash 2-step impression technique is recommended to improve the clinical fit of fixed partial denture restorations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4329 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Wound Healing Potential of Primary Human Oral Fibroblasts and Periodontal Ligament Cells Cultured on Four Different Porcine-Derived Collagen Matrices
by Zhikai Lin, Cristina Nica, Anton Sculean and Maria B. Asparuhova
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173819 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
Xenogenic collagen-based matrices represent an alternative to subepithelial palatal connective tissue autografts in periodontal and peri-implant soft tissue reconstructions. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the migratory, adhesive, proliferative, and wound-healing potential of primary human oral fibroblasts (hOF) and periodontal ligament [...] Read more.
Xenogenic collagen-based matrices represent an alternative to subepithelial palatal connective tissue autografts in periodontal and peri-implant soft tissue reconstructions. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the migratory, adhesive, proliferative, and wound-healing potential of primary human oral fibroblasts (hOF) and periodontal ligament cells (hPDL) in response to four commercially available collagen matrices. Non-crosslinked collagen matrix (NCM), crosslinked collagen matrix (CCM), dried acellular dermal matrix (DADM), and hydrated acellular dermal matrix (HADM) were all able to significantly enhance the ability of hPDL and hOF cells to directionally migrate toward the matrices as well as to efficiently repopulate an artificially generated wound gap covered by the matrices. Compared to NCM and DADM, CCM and HADM triggered stronger migratory response. Cells grown on CCM and HADM demonstrated significantly higher proliferative rates compared to cells grown on cell culture plastic, NCM, or DADM. The pro-proliferative effect of the matrices was supported by expression analysis of proliferative markers regulating cell cycle progression. Upregulated expression of genes encoding the adhesive molecules fibronectin, vinculin, CD44 antigen, and the intracellular adhesive molecule-1 was detected in hPDL and hOF cells cultured on each of the four matrices. This may be considered as a prerequisite for good adhesive properties of the four scaffolds ensuring proper cell–matrix and cell–cell interactions. Upregulated expression of genes encoding TGF-β1 and EGF growth factors as well as MMPs in cells grown on each of the four matrices provided support for their pro-proliferative and pro-migratory abilities. The expression of genes encoding the angiogenic factors FGF-2 and VEGF-A was dramatically increased in cells grown on DADM and HADM only, suggesting a good basis for accelerated vascularization of the latter. Altogether, our results support favorable influence of the investigated collagen matrices on the recruitment, attachment, and growth of cell types implicated in oral soft tissue regeneration. Among the four matrices, HADM has consistently exhibited stronger positive effects on the oral cellular behavior. Our data provide solid basis for future investigations on the clinical application of the collagen-based matrices in surgical periodontal therapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements after Incorporation of Marine Derived Hydroxyapatite
by Maja Bilić-Prcić, Valentina Brzović Rajić, Ana Ivanišević, Ana Pilipović, Sevil Gurgan and Ivana Miletić
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163542 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) derived from cuttlefish bone on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GIC). Fuji II LC and Fuji IX GP Extra (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were used [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) derived from cuttlefish bone on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GIC). Fuji II LC and Fuji IX GP Extra (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were used in the study. There were four groups (n = 11–18) for each material: a group without the addition of HA particles and three groups modified by incorporation of 2, 5, and 10 wt% HA. The tests were performed on a universal testing machine (Shimadzu, Duisburg, Germany) and descriptive statistics, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the comparison of three mechanical properties, and one-way ANOVA for the comparison of different concentrations for each material were performed. Regarding the Fuji IX groups, compressive strength (CS) and flexural strength (FS) were highest in the group without HA particles added. The differences in CS between the Fuji IX group without HA particles and the Fuji IX groups with 2 wt% HA and 10 wt% HA were significant. The Fuji II 5 wt% HA group exhibited higher diametral tensile strength (DTS) and CS than other Fuji II groups, but not significantly. The Fuji II group, modified with 10 wt% HA, exhibited significantly higher FS than the Fuji II group without HA particles (p < 0.05). Porous HA incorporated into the Fuji IX groups had a significant impact on mechanical properties only in the Fuji IX 5 wt% HA group. Fuji II groups modified with 10 wt% HA showed the most favorable results with respect to FS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2981 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxicity and Gene Expression Changes of a Novel Homeopathic Antiseptic Oral Rinse in Comparison to Chlorhexidine in Gingival Fibroblasts
by Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Benoit Schaller, Michael A. Pikos, Anton Sculean and Richard J. Miron
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143190 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6356
Abstract
Most available antiseptic solutions available today have strong antibacterial effects, however most also possess major cytotoxic effects on human gingival tissues. The VEGA Oral Care Recovery Kit (StellaLife), previously evaluated in clinical studies, consists of 16 active ingredients that are monographed in the [...] Read more.
Most available antiseptic solutions available today have strong antibacterial effects, however most also possess major cytotoxic effects on human gingival tissues. The VEGA Oral Care Recovery Kit (StellaLife), previously evaluated in clinical studies, consists of 16 active ingredients that are monographed in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of United States (HPUS) and recognized for their accelerated healing properties (reduction in post-op pain). The aim of this study was to compare VEGA to chlorhexidine (CHX) in vitro on gingival fibroblast viability, survival at various concentrations, migration assay, proliferation activity, expression of both regenerative growth factors as well as inflammatory markers, and collagen synthesis. A 10-fold dilution of standard CHX (0.02%) led to cell death, whereas cell viability was significantly better in the VEGA group for all tested parameters. Furthermore, VEGA also induced significantly greater fibroblast migration and proliferation. CHX negatively impacted the cellular inflammatory response of gingival fibroblasts, and also led to a reduction in collagen synthesis (50% decrease). Findings from the present study provide support from basic laboratory experiments that validate the previous clinical studies supporting the use of the VEGA oral rinse on its superior biocompatibility and wound healing properties when compared to CHX. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2450 KiB  
Article
Cleaning and Conditioning of Contaminated Core Build-Up Material before Adhesive Bonding
by Karsten Klosa, Walid Shahid, Milda Aleknonytė-Resch and Matthias Kern
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122880 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cleaning and conditioning procedures after contamination on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of a luting resin to a core build-up composite resin. Specimens (n = 384) made of a core [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cleaning and conditioning procedures after contamination on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of a luting resin to a core build-up composite resin. Specimens (n = 384) made of a core build-up material were stored for 3 weeks in 37 °C water. Half of the specimens were contaminated with saliva and a disclosing silicone and then cleaned either using phosphoric acid, a pumice suspension, air-abrasion with alumina or polishing powder. Surface conditioning was performed by either using a dentin adhesive, a silane containing primer or a composite resin primer, which resulted in 24 unique combinations of 16 specimens per group. Before measuring TBS, half of the specimens of each group were stored in 37 °C water for 3d or were artificially aged for 150 days. Results show that cleaning with pumice or air-abrasion are superior methods compared to using a polishing powder or phosphoric acid. Silane is an inferior conditioning agent compared to composite or dentin primers. Ideally, after contamination, bonding surfaces should be cleaned with a pumice suspension and conditioned with a dentin adhesive. Those surfaces could also be cleaned and conditioned with air-abrasion with alumina particles and a composite resin primer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2433 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Comparison of Macrophage Polarization and Osteoblast Differentiation Potentials between Granules and Block Forms of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral
by Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Simon D. Marjanowski, Michihide Kono, Hiroki Katagiri, Richard J. Miron and Benoit Schaller
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122682 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) bone grafts are commonly utilized for guided bone regeneration (GBR) techniques in regenerative dentistry. It has been hypothesized that different forms (blocks versus particulates) might demonstrate the varying properties of cell behavior during the regenerative process. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) bone grafts are commonly utilized for guided bone regeneration (GBR) techniques in regenerative dentistry. It has been hypothesized that different forms (blocks versus particulates) might demonstrate the varying properties of cell behavior during the regenerative process. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate DBBM granules and blocks for their effects on osteoblasts and macrophages (Mφs). DBBM granules and blocks were filled to the same size (φ6.4 mm in diameter × 2.0 mm in height) in cell culture wells and assessed for cell viability and cell differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, and Mφs derived from human monocyte THP-1 cells. The two groups were first characterized by micro-CT analysis, which demonstrated that DBBM granules had a two-fold greater material volume and a four-fold larger surface area than the blocks. DBBM blocks showed superior viability for both osteoblasts and Mφs. Osteoblast experiments were then utilized to better characterize the influence of DBBM shapes/forms on osteoblast differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining on the undecalcified frozen sections was observed throughout the DBBM granule surface, yet this staining was only observed on the upper portion of the DBBM blocks. Furthermore, DBBM blocks showed M1-Mφ polarization trends with higher IL-1 and IL-6 mRNA expression in Mφs, while the conditioned media from Mφs cultured on DBBM granules promoted osteoblast differentiation with higher mRNA levels of Runx 2, ALP and osteocalcin. In conclusion, the DBBM granules showed more regenerative effects, lower M1 marker expression, and higher osteoblast differentiation potential when compared with the blocks, which might be related to the larger material volume, higher surface area and greater ability for the cells to penetrate through the scaffold. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6034 KiB  
Article
Adsorption and Release of Growth Factors from Four Different Porcine-Derived Collagen Matrices
by Cristina Nica, Zhikai Lin, Anton Sculean and Maria B. Asparuhova
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112635 - 9 Jun 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Xenogeneic acellular collagen matrices represent a safe alternative to autologous soft tissue transplants in periodontology and implant dentistry. Here, we aimed to investigate the adsorption and release of growth factors from four porcine-derived collagen matrices using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Non-crosslinked collagen matrix (NCM), [...] Read more.
Xenogeneic acellular collagen matrices represent a safe alternative to autologous soft tissue transplants in periodontology and implant dentistry. Here, we aimed to investigate the adsorption and release of growth factors from four porcine-derived collagen matrices using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Non-crosslinked collagen matrix (NCM), crosslinked collagen matrix (CCM), dried acellular dermal matrix (DADM), and hydrated acellular dermal matrix (HADM) adsorbed each of the following growth factors, TGF-β1, FGF-2, PDGF-BB, GDF-5 and BMP-2, with an efficiency close to 100%. Growth factor release for a 13-day period was in the range of 10–50% of the adsorbed protein, except for the BMP-2 release that was in the range of 5–7%. Generally, protein release occurred in two phases. Phase I was arbitrary defined by the highest release from the matrices, usually within 24 h. Phase II, spanning the period immediately after the peak release until day 13, corresponded to the delayed release of the growth factors from the deeper layers of the matrices. HADM showed significantly (P < 0.001) higher TGF-β1, FGF-2, and PDGF-BB release in phase II, compared to the rest of the matrices. NCM exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher FGF-2 release in phase II, compared to CCM and DADM as well as a characteristic second peak in PDGF-BB release towards the middle of the tested period. In contrast to NCM and HADM, CCM and DADM showed a gradual and significantly higher release of GDF-5 in the second phase. Several burst releases of BMP-2 were characteristic for all matrices. The efficient adsorption and sustained protein release in the first 13 days, and the kinetics seen for HADM, with a burst release within hours and high amount of released growth factor within a secondary phase, may be beneficial for the long-term tissue regeneration following reconstructive periodontal surgery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

15 pages, 5220 KiB  
Review
Additive Effect of Platelet Rich Fibrin with Coronally Advanced Flap Procedure in Root Coverage of Miller’s Class I and II Recession Defects—A PRISMA Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Saurav Panda, Anurag Satpathy, Abhaya Chandra Das, Manoj Kumar, Lora Mishra, Swati Gupta, Gunjan Srivastava, Monika Lukomska-Szymanska, Silvio Taschieri and Massimo Del Fabbro
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194314 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the additive effect of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) on coronally advanced flap (CAF) procedures in root coverage of Miller’s class I and II gingival recession defects. Review methodology: A comprehensive search in MEDLINE [...] Read more.
Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the additive effect of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) on coronally advanced flap (CAF) procedures in root coverage of Miller’s class I and II gingival recession defects. Review methodology: A comprehensive search in MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus and CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), along with an additional hand search, provided eight randomized clinical trials to be included in this review. A total of 167 patients with 470 gingival recession defects were analyzed. A meta-analysis was carried out to assess the change in gingival thickness (GT), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), root coverage percentage (%RC), clinical attachment level (CAL) and recession depth (RD) at all follow-ups between CAF alone and CAF + L-PRF groups for all included studies. A subgroup analysis was carried out based on recession type (single/multiple). Results: Overall, a significant improvement in GT, CAL and RD was found when treated with CAF + L-PRF. There was a trend for a positive effect in terms of an increase in WKG when using L-PRF, especially in the treatment of single recession, though significance was not achieved (p = 0.08 overall). The results of heterogeneity among the subgroups were varied and were found to be greater than 91.3% for GT and 32.8% for WKG. Conclusion: L-PRF when used in addition to CAF showed favorable results for the treatment of class I and II gingival recession defects. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop