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Article

In Vitro Comparison of Macrophage Polarization and Osteoblast Differentiation Potentials between Granules and Block Forms of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral

1
Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
3
Advanced Research Center, School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, The Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8151, Japan
4
Department of Periodontology, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122682
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) bone grafts are commonly utilized for guided bone regeneration (GBR) techniques in regenerative dentistry. It has been hypothesized that different forms (blocks versus particulates) might demonstrate the varying properties of cell behavior during the regenerative process. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate DBBM granules and blocks for their effects on osteoblasts and macrophages (Mφs). DBBM granules and blocks were filled to the same size (φ6.4 mm in diameter × 2.0 mm in height) in cell culture wells and assessed for cell viability and cell differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, and Mφs derived from human monocyte THP-1 cells. The two groups were first characterized by micro-CT analysis, which demonstrated that DBBM granules had a two-fold greater material volume and a four-fold larger surface area than the blocks. DBBM blocks showed superior viability for both osteoblasts and Mφs. Osteoblast experiments were then utilized to better characterize the influence of DBBM shapes/forms on osteoblast differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining on the undecalcified frozen sections was observed throughout the DBBM granule surface, yet this staining was only observed on the upper portion of the DBBM blocks. Furthermore, DBBM blocks showed M1-Mφ polarization trends with higher IL-1 and IL-6 mRNA expression in Mφs, while the conditioned media from Mφs cultured on DBBM granules promoted osteoblast differentiation with higher mRNA levels of Runx 2, ALP and osteocalcin. In conclusion, the DBBM granules showed more regenerative effects, lower M1 marker expression, and higher osteoblast differentiation potential when compared with the blocks, which might be related to the larger material volume, higher surface area and greater ability for the cells to penetrate through the scaffold. View Full-Text
Keywords: deproteinized bovine bone mineral; guided bone regeneration; GBR; biocompatibility; macrophage polarization; osteoblast differentiation deproteinized bovine bone mineral; guided bone regeneration; GBR; biocompatibility; macrophage polarization; osteoblast differentiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujioka-Kobayashi, M.; Marjanowski, S.D.; Kono, M.; Katagiri, H.; Miron, R.J.; Schaller, B. In Vitro Comparison of Macrophage Polarization and Osteoblast Differentiation Potentials between Granules and Block Forms of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral. Materials 2020, 13, 2682. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122682

AMA Style

Fujioka-Kobayashi M, Marjanowski SD, Kono M, Katagiri H, Miron RJ, Schaller B. In Vitro Comparison of Macrophage Polarization and Osteoblast Differentiation Potentials between Granules and Block Forms of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral. Materials. 2020; 13(12):2682. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122682

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako, Simon D. Marjanowski, Michihide Kono, Hiroki Katagiri, Richard J. Miron, and Benoit Schaller. 2020. "In Vitro Comparison of Macrophage Polarization and Osteoblast Differentiation Potentials between Granules and Block Forms of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral" Materials 13, no. 12: 2682. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122682

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