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Special Issue "Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Paolo Bollella
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, USA
Interests: bioelectrochemistry; biosensors; biofuel cells; bioelectronics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Evgeny Katz
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA
Interests: bioelectronics; bionanotechnology; bioelectrochemistry; biosensors; self-assembling enzymes; monolayers; modified electrodes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The present Special Issue is devoted to all aspects of biosensing in a very broad definition, including, but not limited to, biomolecular composition used in biosensors (e.g., biocatalytic enzymes, DNAzymes, abiotic nanospecies with biocatalytic features, bioreceptors, DNA/RNA, aptasensors, etc.), physical signal transduction mechanisms (e.g., electrochemical, optical, magnetic, etc.), engineering of different biosensing platforms, operation of biosensors in vitro and in vivo (implantable or wearable devices), self-powered biosensors, etc. The biosensors can be represented with analogue devices measuring concentrations of analytes and binary devices operating in the YES/NO format, possibly with logical processing of input signals. The articles addressing biochemical/biophysical aspects of biosensors, engineering information, commercial highlights, and other aspects of biosensor research and application are welcome. The articles should address most recent advances and future perspectives and challenges in biosensors/biosensing.

The present Special Issue will cover all research areas related to biosensor devices, biosensoric procedures, and various biosensor applications, specifically emphasizing biomedical applications and environmental monitoring. The Special Issue will be composed of review-style articles, which can be comprehensive literature reviews or reviews based on the author’s research activities (like concept papers). The Special Issue is planned for later conversion to a book on the same topic.

Prof. Dr. Paolo Bollella
Prof. Dr. Evgeny Katz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrochemical biosensors
  • optical biosensors
  • enzyme-based biosensors
  • DNA-biosensors
  • nanobiosensors
  • flow-cell biosensors
  • environmental biosensors
  • biomedical biosensors
  • homeland security biosensors
  • implantable biosensors
  • in vivo biosensors
  • wearable biosensors

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessReview
Capacitive Field-Effect EIS Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Status Report
Sensors 2020, 20(19), 5639; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20195639 - 02 Oct 2020
Abstract
Electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) field-effect sensors belong to a new generation of electronic chips for biochemical sensing, enabling a direct electronic readout. The review gives an overview on recent advances and current trends in the research and development of chemical sensors and biosensors based on [...] Read more.
Electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) field-effect sensors belong to a new generation of electronic chips for biochemical sensing, enabling a direct electronic readout. The review gives an overview on recent advances and current trends in the research and development of chemical sensors and biosensors based on the capacitive field-effect EIS structure—the simplest field-effect device, which represents a biochemically sensitive capacitor. Fundamental concepts, physicochemical phenomena underlying the transduction mechanism and application of capacitive EIS sensors for the detection of pH, ion concentrations, and enzymatic reactions, as well as the label-free detection of charged molecules (nucleic acids, proteins, and polyelectrolytes) and nanoparticles, are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical Immuno- and Aptamer-Based Assays for Bacteria: Pros and Cons over Traditional Detection Schemes
Sensors 2020, 20(19), 5561; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20195561 - 28 Sep 2020
Abstract
Microbiological safety of the human environment and health needs advanced monitoring tools both for the specific detection of bacteria in complex biological matrices, often in the presence of excessive amounts of other bacterial species, and for bacteria quantification at a single cell level. [...] Read more.
Microbiological safety of the human environment and health needs advanced monitoring tools both for the specific detection of bacteria in complex biological matrices, often in the presence of excessive amounts of other bacterial species, and for bacteria quantification at a single cell level. Here, we discuss the existing electrochemical approaches for bacterial analysis that are based on the biospecific recognition of whole bacterial cells. Perspectives of such assays applications as emergency-use biosensors for quick analysis of trace levels of bacteria by minimally trained personnel are argued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
MXenes-Based Bioanalytical Sensors: Design, Characterization, and Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5434; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185434 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
MXenes are recently developed 2D layered nanomaterials that provide unique capabilities for bioanalytical applications. These include high metallic conductivity, large surface area, hydrophilicity, high ion transport properties, low diffusion barrier, biocompatibility, and ease of surface functionalization. MXenes are composed of transition metal carbides, [...] Read more.
MXenes are recently developed 2D layered nanomaterials that provide unique capabilities for bioanalytical applications. These include high metallic conductivity, large surface area, hydrophilicity, high ion transport properties, low diffusion barrier, biocompatibility, and ease of surface functionalization. MXenes are composed of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides and have a general formula Mn+1Xn, where M is an early transition metal while X is carbon and/or nitrogen. Due to their unique features, MXenes have attracted significant attention in fields such as clean energy production, electronics, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Their composition and layered structure make MXenes attractive for biosensing applications. The high conductivity allows these materials to be used in the design of electrochemical biosensors and the multilayered configuration makes them an efficient immobilization matrix for the retention of activity of the immobilized biomolecules. These properties are applicable to many biosensing systems and applications. This review describes the progress made on the use and application of MXenes in the development of electrochemical and optical biosensors and highlights future needs and opportunities in this field. In particular, opportunities for developing wearable sensors and systems with integrated biomolecule recognition are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Development Perspective of Bioelectrocatalysis-Based Biosensors
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4826; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174826 - 26 Aug 2020
Abstract
Bioelectrocatalysis provides the intrinsic catalytic functions of redox enzymes to nonspecific electrode reactions and is the most important and basic concept for electrochemical biosensors. This review starts by describing fundamental characteristics of bioelectrocatalytic reactions in mediated and direct electron transfer types from a [...] Read more.
Bioelectrocatalysis provides the intrinsic catalytic functions of redox enzymes to nonspecific electrode reactions and is the most important and basic concept for electrochemical biosensors. This review starts by describing fundamental characteristics of bioelectrocatalytic reactions in mediated and direct electron transfer types from a theoretical viewpoint and summarizes amperometric biosensors based on multi-enzymatic cascades and for multianalyte detection. The review also introduces prospective aspects of two new concepts of biosensors: mass-transfer-controlled (pseudo)steady-state amperometry at microelectrodes with enhanced enzymatic activity without calibration curves and potentiometric coulometry at enzyme/mediator-immobilized biosensors for absolute determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Non-Carbon 2D Materials-Based Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors: Recent Advances, Challenges, and Future Perspectives
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4811; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174811 - 26 Aug 2020
Abstract
In recent years, field-effect transistors (FETs) have been very promising for biosensor applications due to their high sensitivity, real-time applicability, scalability, and prospect of integrating measurement system on a chip. Non-carbon 2D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), [...] Read more.
In recent years, field-effect transistors (FETs) have been very promising for biosensor applications due to their high sensitivity, real-time applicability, scalability, and prospect of integrating measurement system on a chip. Non-carbon 2D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphorus (BP), and metal oxides, are a group of new materials that have a huge potential in FET biosensor applications. In this work, we review the recent advances and remarkable studies of non-carbon 2D materials, in terms of their structures, preparations, properties and FET biosensor applications. We will also discuss the challenges facing non-carbon 2D materials-FET biosensors and their future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
DNA/RNA Electrochemical Biosensing Devices a Future Replacement of PCR Methods for a Fast Epidemic Containment
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4648; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164648 - 18 Aug 2020
Abstract
Pandemics require a fast and immediate response to contain potential infectious carriers. In the recent 2020 Covid-19 worldwide pandemic, authorities all around the world have failed to identify potential carriers and contain it on time. Hence, a rapid and very sensitive testing method [...] Read more.
Pandemics require a fast and immediate response to contain potential infectious carriers. In the recent 2020 Covid-19 worldwide pandemic, authorities all around the world have failed to identify potential carriers and contain it on time. Hence, a rapid and very sensitive testing method is required. Current diagnostic tools, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR), have its pitfalls for quick pandemic containment such as the requirement for specialized professionals and instrumentation. Versatile electrochemical DNA/RNA sensors are a promising technological alternative for PCR based diagnosis. In an electrochemical DNA sensor, a nucleic acid hybridization event is converted into a quantifiable electrochemical signal. A critical challenge of electrochemical DNA sensors is sensitive detection of a low copy number of DNA/RNA in samples such as is the case for early onset of a disease. Signal amplification approaches are an important tool to overcome this sensitivity issue. In this review, the authors discuss the most recent signal amplification strategies employed in the electrochemical DNA/RNA diagnosis of pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
3D-Printed Immunosensor Arrays for Cancer Diagnostics
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4514; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164514 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Detecting cancer at an early stage of disease progression promises better treatment outcomes and longer lifespans for cancer survivors. Research has been directed towards the development of accessible and highly sensitive cancer diagnostic tools, many of which rely on protein biomarkers and biomarker [...] Read more.
Detecting cancer at an early stage of disease progression promises better treatment outcomes and longer lifespans for cancer survivors. Research has been directed towards the development of accessible and highly sensitive cancer diagnostic tools, many of which rely on protein biomarkers and biomarker panels which are overexpressed in body fluids and associated with different types of cancer. Protein biomarker detection for point-of-care (POC) use requires the development of sensitive, noninvasive liquid biopsy cancer diagnostics that overcome the limitations and low sensitivities associated with current dependence upon imaging and invasive biopsies. Among many endeavors to produce user-friendly, semi-automated, and sensitive protein biomarker sensors, 3D printing is rapidly becoming an important contemporary tool for achieving these goals. Supported by the widely available selection of affordable desktop 3D printers and diverse printing options, 3D printing is becoming a standard tool for developing low-cost immunosensors that can also be used to make final commercial products. In the last few years, 3D printing platforms have been used to produce complex sensor devices with high resolution, tailored towards researchers’ and clinicians’ needs and limited only by their imagination. Unlike traditional subtractive manufacturing, 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has drastically reduced the time of sensor and sensor array development while offering excellent sensitivity at a fraction of the cost of conventional technologies such as photolithography. In this review, we offer a comprehensive description of 3D printing techniques commonly used to develop immunosensors, arrays, and microfluidic arrays. In addition, recent applications utilizing 3D printing in immunosensors integrated with different signal transduction strategies are described. These applications include electrochemical, chemiluminescent (CL), and electrochemiluminescent (ECL) 3D-printed immunosensors. Finally, we discuss current challenges and limitations associated with available 3D printing technology and future directions of this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Synthesis, Catalytic Properties and Application in Biosensorics of Nanozymes and Electronanocatalysts: A Review
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4509; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164509 - 12 Aug 2020
Abstract
The current review is devoted to nanozymes, i.e., nanostructured artificial enzymes which mimic the catalytic properties of natural enzymes. Use of the term “nanozyme” in the literature as indicating an enzyme is not always justified. For example, it is used inappropriately for nanomaterials [...] Read more.
The current review is devoted to nanozymes, i.e., nanostructured artificial enzymes which mimic the catalytic properties of natural enzymes. Use of the term “nanozyme” in the literature as indicating an enzyme is not always justified. For example, it is used inappropriately for nanomaterials bound with electrodes that possess catalytic activity only when applying an electric potential. If the enzyme-like activity of such a material is not proven in solution (without applying the potential), such a catalyst should be named an “electronanocatalyst”, not a nanozyme. This paper presents a review of the classification of the nanozymes, their advantages vs. natural enzymes, and potential practical applications. Special attention is paid to nanozyme synthesis methods (hydrothermal and solvothermal, chemical reduction, sol-gel method, co-precipitation, polymerization/polycondensation, electrochemical deposition). The catalytic performance of nanozymes is characterized, a critical point of view on catalytic parameters of nanozymes described in scientific papers is presented and typical mistakes are analyzed. The central part of the review relates to characterization of nanozymes which mimic natural enzymes with analytical importance (“nanoperoxidase”, “nanooxidases”, “nanolaccase”) and their use in the construction of electro-chemical (bio)sensors (“nanosensors”). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Microfluidics by Additive Manufacturing for Wearable Biosensors: A Review
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4236; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154236 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
Wearable devices are nowadays at the edge-front in both academic research as well as in industry, and several wearable devices have been already introduced in the market. One of the most recent advancements in wearable technologies for biosensing is in the area of [...] Read more.
Wearable devices are nowadays at the edge-front in both academic research as well as in industry, and several wearable devices have been already introduced in the market. One of the most recent advancements in wearable technologies for biosensing is in the area of the remote monitoring of human health by detection on-the-skin. However, almost all the wearable devices present in the market nowadays are still providing information not related to human ‘metabolites and/or disease’ biomarkers, excluding the well-known case of the continuous monitoring of glucose in diabetic patients. Moreover, even in this last case, the glycaemic level is acquired under-the-skin and not on-the-skin. On the other hand, it has been proven that human sweat is very rich in molecules and other biomarkers (e.g., ions), which makes sweat a quite interesting human liquid with regards to gathering medical information at the molecular level in a totally non-invasive manner. Of course, a proper collection of sweat as it is emerging on top of the skin is required to correctly convey such liquid to the molecular biosensors on board of the wearable system. Microfluidic systems have efficiently come to the aid of wearable sensors, in this case. These devices were originally built using methods such as photolithographic and chemical etching techniques with rigid materials. Nowadays, fabrication methods of microfluidic systems are moving towards three-dimensional (3D) printing methods. These methods overcome some of the limitations of the previous method, including expensiveness and non-flexibility. The 3D printing methods have a high speed and according to the application, can control the textures and mechanical properties of an object by using multiple materials in a cheaper way. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review all the most recent advancements in the methods for 3D printing to fabricate wearable fluidics and provide a critical frame for the future developments of a wearable device for the remote monitoring of the human metabolism directly on-the-skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical Biosensors Employing Natural and Artificial Heme Peroxidases on Semiconductors
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3692; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133692 - 01 Jul 2020
Abstract
Heme peroxidases are widely used as biological recognition elements in electrochemical biosensors for hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds. Various nature-derived and fully synthetic heme peroxidase mimics have been designed and their potential for replacing the natural enzymes in biosensors has been investigated. The [...] Read more.
Heme peroxidases are widely used as biological recognition elements in electrochemical biosensors for hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds. Various nature-derived and fully synthetic heme peroxidase mimics have been designed and their potential for replacing the natural enzymes in biosensors has been investigated. The use of semiconducting materials as transducers can thereby offer new opportunities with respect to catalyst immobilization, reaction stimulation, or read-out. This review focuses on approaches for the construction of electrochemical biosensors employing natural heme peroxidases as well as various mimics immobilized on semiconducting electrode surfaces. It will outline important advances made so far as well as the novel applications resulting thereof. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Biosensors—Recent Advances and Future Challenges in Electrode Materials
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123561 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
Electrochemical biosensors benefit from the simplicity, sensitivity, and rapid response of electroanalytical devices coupled with the selectivity of biorecognition molecules. The implementation of electrochemical biosensors in a clinical analysis can provide a sensitive and rapid response for the analysis of biomarkers, with the [...] Read more.
Electrochemical biosensors benefit from the simplicity, sensitivity, and rapid response of electroanalytical devices coupled with the selectivity of biorecognition molecules. The implementation of electrochemical biosensors in a clinical analysis can provide a sensitive and rapid response for the analysis of biomarkers, with the most successful being glucose sensors for diabetes patients. This review summarizes recent work on the use of structured materials such as nanoporous metals, graphene, carbon nanotubes, and ordered mesoporous carbon for biosensing applications. We also describe the use of additive manufacturing (AM) and review recent progress and challenges for the use of AM in biosensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Enzyme-Based Biosensors: Tackling Electron Transfer Issues
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123517 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This review summarizes the fundamentals of the phenomenon of electron transfer (ET) reactions occurring in redox enzymes that were widely employed for the development of electroanalytical devices, like biosensors, and enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs). A brief introduction on the ET observed in proteins/enzymes [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the fundamentals of the phenomenon of electron transfer (ET) reactions occurring in redox enzymes that were widely employed for the development of electroanalytical devices, like biosensors, and enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs). A brief introduction on the ET observed in proteins/enzymes and its paradigms (e.g., classification of ET mechanisms, maximal distance at which is observed direct electron transfer, etc.) are given. Moreover, the theoretical aspects related to direct electron transfer (DET) are resumed as a guideline for newcomers to the field. Snapshots on the ET theory formulated by Rudolph A. Marcus and on the mathematical model used to calculate the ET rate constant formulated by Laviron are provided. Particular attention is devoted to the case of glucose oxidase (GOx) that has been erroneously classified as an enzyme able to transfer electrons directly. Thereafter, all tools available to investigate ET issues are reported addressing the discussions toward the development of new methodology to tackle ET issues. In conclusion, the trends toward upcoming practical applications are suggested as well as some directions in fundamental studies of bioelectrochemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Biosensors Based on Advanced Sulfur-Containing Nanomaterials
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3488; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123488 - 19 Jun 2020
Abstract
In recent years, sulfur-containing nanomaterials and their derivatives/composites have attracted much attention because of their important role in the field of biosensor, biolabeling, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging technology, which inspires us to compile this review. To focus on the relationships between advanced [...] Read more.
In recent years, sulfur-containing nanomaterials and their derivatives/composites have attracted much attention because of their important role in the field of biosensor, biolabeling, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging technology, which inspires us to compile this review. To focus on the relationships between advanced biomaterials and biosensors, this review describes the applications of various types of sulfur-containing nanomaterials in biosensors. We bring two types of sulfur-containing nanomaterials including metallic sulfide nanomaterials and sulfur-containing quantum dots, to discuss and summarize the possibility and application as biosensors based on the sulfur-containing nanomaterials. Finally, future perspective and challenges of biosensors based on sulfur-containing nanomaterials are briefly rendered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Membrane-Bound Enzymes in Biomimetic Configurations
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3393; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123393 - 16 Jun 2020
Abstract
In nature, many enzymes are attached or inserted into the cell membrane, having hydrophobic subunits or lipid chains for this purpose. Their reconstitution on electrodes maintaining their natural structural characteristics allows for optimizing their electrocatalytic properties and stability. Different biomimetic strategies have been [...] Read more.
In nature, many enzymes are attached or inserted into the cell membrane, having hydrophobic subunits or lipid chains for this purpose. Their reconstitution on electrodes maintaining their natural structural characteristics allows for optimizing their electrocatalytic properties and stability. Different biomimetic strategies have been developed for modifying electrodes surfaces to accommodate membrane-bound enzymes, including the formation of self-assembled monolayers of hydrophobic compounds, lipid bilayers, or liposomes deposition. An overview of the different strategies used for the formation of biomimetic membranes, the reconstitution of membrane enzymes on electrodes, and their applications as biosensors is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Beyond Sensitive and Selective Electrochemical Biosensors: Towards Continuous, Real-Time, Antibiofouling and Calibration-Free Devices
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3376; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123376 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nowadays, electrochemical biosensors are reliable analytical tools to determine a broad range of molecular analytes because of their simplicity, affordable cost, and compatibility with multiplexed and point-of-care strategies. There is an increasing demand to improve their sensitivity and selectivity, but also to provide [...] Read more.
Nowadays, electrochemical biosensors are reliable analytical tools to determine a broad range of molecular analytes because of their simplicity, affordable cost, and compatibility with multiplexed and point-of-care strategies. There is an increasing demand to improve their sensitivity and selectivity, but also to provide electrochemical biosensors with important attributes such as near real-time and continuous monitoring in complex or denaturing media, or in vivo with minimal intervention to make them even more attractive and suitable for getting into the real world. Modification of biosensors surfaces with antibiofouling reagents, smart coupling with nanomaterials, and the advances experienced by folded-based biosensors have endowed bioelectroanalytical platforms with one or more of such attributes. With this background in mind, this review aims to give an updated and general overview of these technologies as well as to discuss the remarkable achievements arising from the development of electrochemical biosensors free of reagents, washing, or calibration steps, and/or with antifouling properties and the ability to perform continuous, real-time, and even in vivo operation in nearly autonomous way. The challenges to be faced and the next features that these devices may offer to continue impacting in fields closely related with essential aspects of people’s safety and health are also commented upon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Enhancement of Biosensors by Implementing Photoelectrochemical Processes
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113281 - 09 Jun 2020
Abstract
Research on biosensors is growing in relevance, taking benefit from groundbreaking knowledge that allows for new biosensing strategies. Electrochemical biosensors can benefit from research on semiconducting materials for energy applications. This research seeks the optimization of the semiconductor-electrode interfaces including light-harvesting materials, among [...] Read more.
Research on biosensors is growing in relevance, taking benefit from groundbreaking knowledge that allows for new biosensing strategies. Electrochemical biosensors can benefit from research on semiconducting materials for energy applications. This research seeks the optimization of the semiconductor-electrode interfaces including light-harvesting materials, among other improvements. Once that knowledge is acquired, it can be implemented with biological recognition elements, which are able to transfer a chemical signal to the photoelectrochemical system, yielding photo-biosensors. This has been a matter of research as it allows both a superior suppression of background electrochemical signals and the switching ON and OFF upon illumination. Effective electrode-semiconductor interfaces and their coupling with biorecognition units are reviewed in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessReview
Monitoring with In Vivo Electrochemical Sensors: Navigating the Complexities of Blood and Tissue Reactivity
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3149; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113149 - 02 Jun 2020
Abstract
The disruptive action of an acute or critical illness is frequently manifest through rapid biochemical changes that may require continuous monitoring. Within these changes, resides trend information of predictive value, including responsiveness to therapy. In contrast to physical variables, biochemical parameters monitored on [...] Read more.
The disruptive action of an acute or critical illness is frequently manifest through rapid biochemical changes that may require continuous monitoring. Within these changes, resides trend information of predictive value, including responsiveness to therapy. In contrast to physical variables, biochemical parameters monitored on a continuous basis are a largely untapped resource because of the lack of clinically usable monitoring systems. This is despite the huge testing repertoire opening up in recent years in relation to discrete biochemical measurements. Electrochemical sensors offer one of the few routes to obtaining continuous readout and, moreover, as implantable devices information referable to specific tissue locations. This review focuses on new biological insights that have been secured through in vivo electrochemical sensors. In addition, the challenges of operating in a reactive, biological, sample matrix are highlighted. Specific attention is given to the choreographed host rejection response, as evidenced in blood and tissue, and how this limits both sensor life time and reliability of operation. Examples will be based around ion, O2, glucose, and lactate sensors, because of the fundamental importance of this group to acute health care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessPerspective
Recent Advances in Noninvasive Biosensors for Forensics, Biometrics, and Cybersecurity
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 5974; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20215974 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
Recently, biosensors have been used in an increasing number of different fields and disciplines due to their wide applicability, reproducibility, and selectivity. Three large disciplines in which this has become relevant has been the forensic, biometric, and cybersecurity fields. The call for novel [...] Read more.
Recently, biosensors have been used in an increasing number of different fields and disciplines due to their wide applicability, reproducibility, and selectivity. Three large disciplines in which this has become relevant has been the forensic, biometric, and cybersecurity fields. The call for novel noninvasive biosensors for these three applications has been a focus of research in these fields. Recent advances in these three areas has relied on the use of biosensors based on primarily colorimetric assays based on bioaffinity interactions utilizing enzymatic assays. In forensics, the use of different bodily fluids for metabolite analysis provides an alternative to the use of DNA to avoid the backlog that is currently the main issue with DNA analysis by providing worthwhile information about the originator. In biometrics, the use of sweat-based systems for user authentication has been developed as a proof-of-concept design utilizing the levels of different metabolites found in sweat. Lastly, biosensor assays have been developed as a proof-of-concept for combination with cybersecurity, primarily cryptography, for the encryption and protection of data and messages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessPerspective
Restriction Endonuclease-Based Assays for DNA Detection and Isothermal Exponential Signal Amplification
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 3873; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143873 - 11 Jul 2020
Abstract
Application of restriction endonuclease (REase) enzymes for specific detection of nucleic acids provides for high assay specificity, convenience and low cost. A direct restriction assay format is based on the specific enzymatic cleavage of a target–probe hybrid that is accompanied with the release [...] Read more.
Application of restriction endonuclease (REase) enzymes for specific detection of nucleic acids provides for high assay specificity, convenience and low cost. A direct restriction assay format is based on the specific enzymatic cleavage of a target–probe hybrid that is accompanied with the release of a molecular marker into the solution, enabling target quantification. This format has the detection limit in nanomolar range. The assay sensitivity is improved drastically to the attomolar level by implementation of exponential signal amplification that is based on a cascade of self-perpetuating restriction endonuclease reactions. The cascade is started by action of an amplification “trigger”. The trigger is immobilized through a target-specific probe. Upon the target probe hybridization followed with specific cleavage, the trigger is released into the reaction solution. The solution is then added to the assay amplification stage, and the free trigger induces cleavage of amplification probes, thus starting the self-perpetuating cascade of REase-catalyzed events. Continuous cleavage of new amplification probes leads to the exponential release of new triggers and rapid exponential signal amplification. The proposed formats exemplify a valid isothermal alternative to qPCR with similar sensitivity achieved at a fraction of the associated costs, time and labor. Advantages and challenges of the approach are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
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