Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Exercise for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 119933

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University “G. D’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Interests: sport; physical activity; sport statistics; training monitoring; testing; exercise prescription; rate of perceived exertion; fatigue; sport biomechanics; human balance; proprioception; postural control
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Guest Editor
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA
Interests: sport; performance; physical activity; training, exercise physiology; monitoring
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After the success of the first edition (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Exercise_Evaluation), we would love to re-open the Special Issue to continue the development in this topic of particular interest. In line with the previous edition, the idea is to focus on exercise evaluation and prescription, aiming to attract papers related to how to use either laboratory or field evaluations to generate training advice. Training might seem related mostly to athletes, but normal people (and patients) need specific advices as much as the athletes.  We suspect that there are a number of strategies available that will allow the generation of quantitatively specific training advice that is appropriate for individuals within the “exercise universe”.Authors are invited to submit letters, original research papers, case studies, meta-analyses, reviews and viewpoints focusing on exercise evaluation and prescription on patients, healthy people, and athletes, based on findings observed in laboratory or field evaluation.

Prof. Dr. Cristina Cortis
Dr. Andrea Fusco
Prof. Dr. Carl Foster
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • exercise prescription
  • exercise testing
  • training programs
  • translation of exercise testing to exercise prescription

Published Papers (31 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 238 KiB  
Editorial
Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—Second Edition
by Carl Foster, Cristina Cortis and Andrea Fusco
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8010005 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
In the first volume of “Exercise Evaluation and Prescription” in the Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

11 pages, 865 KiB  
Article
Electromyographic Analysis of the Lumbar Extensor Muscles during Dynamic Exercise on a Home Exercise Device
by John M. Mayer, Brian E. Udermann and Joe L. Verna
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010026 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
Resistance exercise with devices offering mechanisms to isolate the lumbar spine is effective to improve muscle strength and clinical outcomes. However, previously assessed devices with these mechanisms are not conducive for home exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Resistance exercise with devices offering mechanisms to isolate the lumbar spine is effective to improve muscle strength and clinical outcomes. However, previously assessed devices with these mechanisms are not conducive for home exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lumbar extensor muscles during dynamic exercise on a home back extension exercise device. Ten adults (5 F, 5 M) performed dynamic lumbar extension exercise on a home device at three loads: 1.00 × body weight (BW), 1.25 × BW and 1.50 × BW. Surface EMG activity from the L3/4 paraspinal region was collected. The effect of exercise load, phase of movement, and position in the range of motion on lumbar extensor EMG activity (normalized to % maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was assessed. Lumbar extensor EMG activity significantly increased from 1.00 BW to 1.50 BW loads (p = 0.0006), eccentric to concentric phases (p < 0.0001), and flexion to extension positions (p < 0.0001). Exercise using a home back extension exercise device progressively activates the lumbar extensor muscles. This device can be used for home-based resistance exercise programs in community-dwelling adults without contraindications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
Drop Jumping on Sand Is Characterized by Lower Power, Higher Rate of Force Development and Larger Knee Joint Range of Motion
by George Giatsis, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos and Iraklis A. Kollias
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010017 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3755
Abstract
Plyometric training on sand is suggested to result in advanced performance in vertical jumping. However, limited information exists concerning the biomechanics of drop jumps (DJ) on sand. The purpose of the study was to compare the biomechanical parameters of DJs executed on rigid [...] Read more.
Plyometric training on sand is suggested to result in advanced performance in vertical jumping. However, limited information exists concerning the biomechanics of drop jumps (DJ) on sand. The purpose of the study was to compare the biomechanical parameters of DJs executed on rigid (RIGID) and sand (SAND) surface. Sixteen high level male beach-volleyball players executed DJ from 40 cm on RIGID and SAND. Force- and video-recordings were analyzed to extract the kinetic and kinematic parameters of the DJ. Results of paired-samples t-tests revealed that DJ on SAND had significantly (p < 0.05) lower jumping height, peak vertical ground reaction force, power, peak leg stiffness and peak ankle flexion angular velocity than RIGID. In addition, DJ on SAND was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) larger rate of force development and knee joint flexion in the downward phase. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the temporal parameters. The compliance of SAND decreases the efficiency of the mechanisms involved in the optimization of DJ performance. Nevertheless, SAND comprises an exercise surface with less loading during the eccentric phase of the DJ, thus it can be considered as a surface that can offer injury prevention under demands for large energy expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Impact of BMI, Physical Activity, and Sitting Time Levels on Health-Related Outcomes in a Group of Overweight and Obese Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes
by Roberto Pippi, Lucia Cugusi, Marco Bergamin, Vittorio Bini, Carmine Giuseppe Fanelli, Valentina Bullo, Stefano Gobbo and Andrea Di Blasio
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010012 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3356
Abstract
Physical activity level and sedentary behaviors affect health status in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM2); their assessment is mandatory to properly prescribe exercise programs. From January 2011 to February 2014, 293 overweight/obese adults (165 women and 128 men, mean age [...] Read more.
Physical activity level and sedentary behaviors affect health status in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM2); their assessment is mandatory to properly prescribe exercise programs. From January 2011 to February 2014, 293 overweight/obese adults (165 women and 128 men, mean age of 51.9 ± 9.5 years and 54.6 ± 8.3 years, respectively), with and without DM2, participated in a three-month intensive exercise program. Before starting, participants were allocated into three subgroups (overweight, body mass index or BMI = 25–29.9; class 1 of obesity, BMI = 30–34.4; or class 2 (or superior) of obesity, BMI > 35). The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-it) was used to evaluate participants’ baseline sitting time (SIT) and physical activity level (PAL). Stratified multiple analyses were performed using four subgroups of SIT level according to Ekelund et al., 2016 (low, 8 h/day of SIT) and three subgroups for PAL (high, moderate, and low). Health-related measures such as anthropometric variables, body composition, hematic parameters, blood pressure values, and functional capacities were studied at the beginning and at the end of the training period. An overall improvement of PAL was observed in the entire sample following the three-month intensive exercise program together with a general improvement in several health-related measures. The BMI group factor influenced the VO2 max variations, leg press values, triglycerides, and anthropometric variables, while the SIT group factor impacted the sitting time, VO2 max, glycemic profile, and fat mass. In this study, baseline PAL and SIT did not seem to influence the effects of an exercise intervention. The characteristics of our educational program, which also included a physical exercise protocol, allowed us to obtain positive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 634 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Accumulated Workloads in Collegiate Women’s Soccer: A Comparison of Starters and Reserves
by Andrew R. Jagim, Andrew T. Askow, Victoria Carvalho, Jason Murphy, Joel A. Luedke and Jacob L. Erickson
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010011 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
Research quantifying the unique workload demands of starters and reserves in training and match settings throughout a season in collegiate soccer is limited. Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to compare accumulated workloads between starters and reserves in collegiate soccer. Methods: [...] Read more.
Research quantifying the unique workload demands of starters and reserves in training and match settings throughout a season in collegiate soccer is limited. Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to compare accumulated workloads between starters and reserves in collegiate soccer. Methods: Twenty-two NCAA Division III female soccer athletes (height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.42 ± 6.33 kg; fat-free mass: 48.99 ± 3.81 kg; body fat %: 25.22 ± 4.78%) were equipped with wearable global positioning systems with on-board inertial sensors, which assessed a proprietary training load metric and distance covered for each practice and 22 matches throughout an entire season. Nine players were classified as starters (S), defined as those playing >50% of playing time throughout the entire season. The remaining 17 were reserves (R). Goalkeepers were excluded. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the extent of differences in accumulated training load throughout the season by player status. Results: Accumulated training load and total distance covered for starters were greater than reserves ((S: 9431 ± 1471 vs. R: 6310 ± 2263 AU; p < 0.001) and (S: 401.7 ± 31.9 vs. R: 272.9 ± 51.4 km; p < 0.001), respectively) throughout the season. Conclusions: Starters covered a much greater distance throughout the season, resulting in almost double the training load compared to reserves. It is unknown if the high workloads experienced by starters or the low workloads of the reserves is more problematic. Managing player workloads in soccer may require attention to address potential imbalances that emerge between starters and reserves throughout a season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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8 pages, 1164 KiB  
Article
Influence of COVID-19 Restrictions on Training and Physiological Characteristics in U23 Elite Cyclists
by Peter Leo, Iñigo Mujika and Justin Lawley
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated mobility restrictions caused many athletes to adjust or reduce their usual training load. The aim of this study was to investigate how the COVID-19 restrictions affected training and performance physiology measures in U23 elite cyclists. METHODS: [...] Read more.
PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated mobility restrictions caused many athletes to adjust or reduce their usual training load. The aim of this study was to investigate how the COVID-19 restrictions affected training and performance physiology measures in U23 elite cyclists. METHODS: Twelve U23 elite cyclists (n = 12) participated in this study (mean ± SD: Age 21.2 ± 1.2 years; height 182.9 ± 4.7 cm; body mass 71.4 ± 6.5 kg). Training characteristics were assessed between 30 days pre, during, and post COVID-19 restrictions, respectively. The physiological assessment in the laboratory was 30 days pre and post COVID-19 restrictions and included maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), peak power output for sprint (SprintPmax), and ramp incremental graded exercise (GXTPmax), as well as power output at ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). RESULTS: Training load characteristics before, during, and after the lockdown remained statistically unchanged (p > 0.05) despite large effects (>0.8) with mean reductions of 4.7 to 25.0% during COVID-19 restrictions. There were no significant differences in maximal and submaximal power outputs, as well as relative and absolute V̇O2max between pre and post COVID-19 restrictions (p > 0.05) with small to moderate effects. DISCUSSION: These results indicate that COVID-19 restrictions did not negatively affect training characteristics and physiological performance measures in U23 elite cyclists for a period of <30 days. In contrast with recent reports on professional cyclists and other elite level athletes, these findings reveal that as long as athletes are able to maintain and/or slightly adapt their training routine, physiological performance variables remain stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 827 KiB  
Article
High-Intensity Functional Training Guided by Individualized Heart Rate Variability Results in Similar Health and Fitness Improvements as Predetermined Training with Less Effort
by Justin A. DeBlauw, Nicholas B. Drake, Brady K. Kurtz, Derek A. Crawford, Michael J. Carper, Amanda Wakeman and Katie M. Heinrich
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040102 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4326
Abstract
Heart rate variability (HRV) may be useful for prescribing high-intensity functional training (HIFT) exercise programs. This study aimed to compare effects of HRV-guided and predetermined HIFT on cardiovascular function, body composition, and performance. Methods: Recreationally-active adults (n = 55) were randomly assigned [...] Read more.
Heart rate variability (HRV) may be useful for prescribing high-intensity functional training (HIFT) exercise programs. This study aimed to compare effects of HRV-guided and predetermined HIFT on cardiovascular function, body composition, and performance. Methods: Recreationally-active adults (n = 55) were randomly assigned to predetermined HIFT (n = 29, age = 24.1 ± 4.1 years) or HRV-guided HIFT (n = 26, age = 23.7 ± 4.5) groups. Both groups completed 11 weeks of daily HRV recordings, 6 weeks of HIFT (5 d·week-1), and pre- and post-test body composition and fitness assessments. Meaningful changes in resting HRV were used to modulate (i.e., reduce) HRV-guided participants’ exercise intensity. Linear mixed models were used with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment for analysis. Results: All participants significantly improved resting heart rate, lean mass, fat mass, strength, and work capacity. However, no significant between-groups differences were observed for cardiovascular function, body composition, or fitness changes. The HRV-guided group spent significantly fewer training days at high intensity (mean difference = −13.56 ± 0.83 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion: HRV-guided HIFT produced similar improvements in cardiovascular function, body composition, and fitness as predetermined HIFT, despite fewer days at high intensity. HRV shows promise for prescribing individualized exercise intensity during HIFT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 1846 KiB  
Article
Hippocampal Adaptations to Continuous Aerobic Training: A Functional and Ultrastructural Evaluation in a Young Murine Model
by Ida Cariati, Roberto Bonanni, Gabriele Pallone, Manuel Scimeca, Claudio Frank, Virginia Tancredi and Giovanna D’Arcangelo
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040101 - 8 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2436
Abstract
Aerobic training is known to influence cognitive processes, such as memory and learning, both in animal models and in humans. Particularly, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that aerobic exercise can increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, improve hippocampal long-term potentiation [...] Read more.
Aerobic training is known to influence cognitive processes, such as memory and learning, both in animal models and in humans. Particularly, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that aerobic exercise can increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, improve hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), and reduce age-related decline in mnemonic function. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Based on this evidence, the aim of our study was to verify whether the application of two aerobic training protocols, different in terms of speed and speed variation, could modulate synaptic plasticity in a young murine model. Therefore, we assessed the presence of any functional changes by extracellular recordings in vitro in mouse hippocampal slices and structural alterations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that an aerobic training protocol, well designed in terms of speed and speed variation, significantly contributes to improving synaptic plasticity and hippocampal ultrastructure, optimizing its benefits in the brain. Future studies will aim to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity induced by aerobic training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 671 KiB  
Article
Supervised Versus Unsupervised Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism: A Valuable Alternative in COVID Era
by Vasileios T. Stavrou, Michalis Griziotis, George D. Vavougios, Dimitrios G. Raptis, Fotini Bardaka, Eleni Karetsi, Athanasios Kyritsis, Zoe Daniil, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Filippos Triposkiadis, Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis and Foteini Malli
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040098 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
The aim of our study was to assess the effect of 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) during unsupervised PR (unSPRgroup) versus supervised PR (SPRgroup) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters, sleep quality, [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to assess the effect of 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) during unsupervised PR (unSPRgroup) versus supervised PR (SPRgroup) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters, sleep quality, quality of life and cardiac biomarkers (NT-pro-BNP). Fourteen patients with PE (unSPRgroup, n = 7, vs. SPRgroup, n = 7) were included in our study (age, 50.7 ± 15.1 years; BMI, 30.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2). We recorded anthropometric characteristics and questionnaires (Quality of life (SF-36) and Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI)), we performed blood sampling for NT-pro-BNP measurement and underwent CPET until exhausting before and after the PR program. All patients were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography prior to PR. The SPRgroup differed in mean arterial pressure at rest before and after the PR program (87.6 ± 3.3 vs. 95.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p = 0.010). Patients showed increased levels of leg fatigue (rated after CPET) before and after PR (p = 0.043 for SPRgroup, p = 0.047 for unSPRgroup) while the two groups differed between each other (p = 0.006 for post PR score). Both groups showed increased levels in SF-36 scores (general health; p = 0.032 for SPRgroup, p = 0.010 for unSPRgroup; physical health; p = 0.009 for SPRgroup, p = 0.022 for unSPRgroup) and reduced levels in PSQI (cannot get to sleep within 30-min; p = 0.046 for SPRgroup, p = 0.007 for unSPRgroup; keep up enough enthusiasm to get things done; p = 0.005 for SPRgroup, p = 0.010 for unSPRgroup) following the PR program. The ΝT-pro-BNP was not significantly different before and after PR or between groups. PR may present a safe intervention in patients with PE. The PR results are similar in SPRgroup and unSPRgroup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 958 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Post-Training Hypotensor Effect in Paralympic and Conventional Powerlifting
by Felipe J. Aidar, Ângelo de Almeida Paz, Dihogo de Matos Gama, Raphael Fabricio de Souza, Lúcio Marques Vieira Souza, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos, Paulo Francisco Almeida-Neto, Anderson Carlos Marçal, Eduardo Borba Neves, Osvaldo Costa Moreira, Nuno Domingos Garrido, Breno Guilherme Araújo Tinôco Cabral, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Victor Machado Reis, Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis and Beat Knechtle
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040092 - 1 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2985
Abstract
High blood pressure (HBP) has been associated with several complications and causes of death. The objective of the study was to analyze the hemodynamic responses in Paralympic bench press powerlifting (PP) and conventional powerlifting (CP) before and after training and up to 60 [...] Read more.
High blood pressure (HBP) has been associated with several complications and causes of death. The objective of the study was to analyze the hemodynamic responses in Paralympic bench press powerlifting (PP) and conventional powerlifting (CP) before and after training and up to 60 minutes (min) after training. Ten PP and 10 CP athletes performed five sets of five repetition maximal bench press exercises, and we evaluated systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and MBP, respectively), heart rate (HR), heart pressure product (HPP), and myocardial oxygen volume (MVO2). The SBP increased after training (p < 0.001), and there were differences in the post training and 30, 40, and 60 min later (p = 0.021), between 10 and 40 min after training (p = 0.031, η2p = 0.570), and between CP and PP (p =0.028, η2p = 0.570). In the MBP, there were differences between before and after (p = 0.016) and 40 min later (p = 0.040, η2p = 0.309). In the HR, there was a difference between before and after, and 5 and 10 min later (p = 0.002), and between after and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min later (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.767). In HPP and MVO2, there were differences between before and after (p = 0.006), and between after and 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min later (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.816). In CP and PP, there is no risk of hemodynamic overload to athletes, considering the results of the HPP, and training promotes a moderate hypotensive effect, with blood pressure adaptation after and 60 min after exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) Load and Training Impulse Are Strongly Correlated to GPS-Derived Measures of External Load in NCAA Division I Women’s Soccer Athletes
by Andrew T. Askow, Alexa L. Lobato, Daniel J. Arndts, Will Jennings, Andreas Kreutzer, Jacob L. Erickson, Phil E. Esposito, Jonathan M. Oliver, Carl Foster and Andrew R. Jagim
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040090 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3367
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether session rating of perceived exertion-derived training load (sRPE-TL) correlates with GPS-derived measures of external load in National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division I female soccer athletes. Methods: Twenty-one NCAA Division 1 collegiate women’s [...] Read more.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether session rating of perceived exertion-derived training load (sRPE-TL) correlates with GPS-derived measures of external load in National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division I female soccer athletes. Methods: Twenty-one NCAA Division 1 collegiate women’s soccer athletes (11 starters, 10 non-starters; 65.1 ± 7.2 kg, 168.4 ± 7.9 cm, 20.3 ± 1.5 yrs) volunteered to take part in this study. Data for this study were collected over the course of 16 weeks during the 2018 NCAA women’s soccer season. External load and heart rate (HR) data were collected during each training session and match during the season. At least 30 min after the end of an activity (e.g., match or practice), athletes were prompted to complete a questionnaire reporting their perceived exertion for the session. sRPE-TL was calculated at the end of the season by multiplying perceived exertion by the respective session duration. Results: sRPE-TL was very strongly correlated with total distance, distance covered in velocity zones 1–3, the number of accelerations in zones 4 and 5, total PlayerLoad™, and PlayerLoad™. For internal load, sRPE-TL correlated very strongly (0.70 ≤ |r| < 0.90) with Edward’s and Bannister’s TRIMP and strongly (0.50 ≤ |r| < 0.70) with duration spent in in heart rate zones 5 and 6 (80–90% and 90–100% max HR, respectively) while correlations with maximum HR (bpm), mean HR (bpm), and mean HR (%) and sRPE-TL were moderate (0.30 ≤ |r| < 0.50). Conclusions: In NCAA Division I women soccer, sRPE-TL is strongly associated with external measures of workload. These relationships were stronger during match play, with acceleration load and total distance exhibiting the strongest relationship with sRPE-TL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Effects of 12 Months of Vitamin D Supplementation on Physical Fitness Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes
by Claudio Melibeu Bentes, Pablo B. Costa, Monique Resende, Claudia Netto, Ingrid Dias, Anderson Luiz Bezerra da Silveira, Fabrizio Di Masi, Humberto Miranda, Lucas Monteiro de Carvalho and Lizanka Marinheiro
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040087 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
Introduction: It is common for postmenopausal women to receive a vitamin D supplementation prescription to assist in preventing future falls and to maintain bone health. However, the association between vitamin D supplementation and physical fitness components has not been studied in older women [...] Read more.
Introduction: It is common for postmenopausal women to receive a vitamin D supplementation prescription to assist in preventing future falls and to maintain bone health. However, the association between vitamin D supplementation and physical fitness components has not been studied in older women with diabetes. Objective: We examined the influence of 12 months of vitamin D supplementation on the components of physical fitness in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty-five postmenopausal women (62.48 ± 7.67 years; 154.6 ± 5.11 cm; 73.93 ± 15.43 kg; 31.13 ± 5.82 BMI) with a diagnosis of T2DM participated in this longitudinal study where participants were supplemented with 1000 IU/day of vitamin D over 12 months. Subjects performed fasting blood samples, anthropometric assessments, body composition, clinical exams, and physical tests at 6-month intervals (P0, P6, and P12). Results and Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation alone was effective in postmenopausal women in increasing serum vitamin D levels, altering muscle strength levels, promoting improvements in muscle function, as well as preventing and controlling fragility caused by T2DM and aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Association of Performance in Strength and Plyometric Tests with Change of Direction Performance in Young Female Team-Sport Athletes
by Hallvard Nygaard Falch, Eirik Lindset Kristiansen, Markus Estifanos Haugen and Roland van den Tillaar
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040083 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3937
Abstract
The change of direction (COD) ability is a task-specific skill dependent on different factors such as the degree of the turn, which has led to differentiating CODs as more force- (>90°) or velocity-oriented (<90°). Considering force and velocity requirements is of importance when [...] Read more.
The change of direction (COD) ability is a task-specific skill dependent on different factors such as the degree of the turn, which has led to differentiating CODs as more force- (>90°) or velocity-oriented (<90°). Considering force and velocity requirements is of importance when designing sport-specific training programs for enhancing COD performance. Thus, 25 female handball and soccer players participated in this study, which investigated the association between three different strength and plyometric exercises and force- and velocity-oriented COD performance. By utilizing the median split analysis, the participants were further divided into a fast (n = 8) and a slow (n = 8) COD group, to investigate differences in step kinematics between fast and slow performers. The correlational analysis revealed that the bilateral back squat and unilateral quarter squat were significantly associated with several force- and velocity-oriented COD performance (r = −0.46 to −0.64), while the association between plyometric and COD performance was limited (r < 0.44). The fast COD group revealed higher levels of strength, jump height, peak velocities, higher step frequencies, shorter ground contact times, and greater acceleration and braking power (d > 1.29, p < 0.03). It was concluded that the observed correlation between strength and COD performance might be due to stronger athletes being able to produce more workload in a shorter time, which was supported by the step kinematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Tensiomyographic Responses to Warm-Up Protocols in Collegiate Male Soccer Athletes
by Michael J. Redd, Tristan M. Starling-Smith, Chad H. Herring, Matt S. Stock, Adam J. Wells, Jeffrey R. Stout and David H. Fukuda
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040080 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4043
Abstract
The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement (Dm) of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of both legs before and after each warm-up, while countermovement jump height variables, 20 m sprint, t-test and sit-and-reach were measured following the warm-ups. TMG was analyzed using a three-way [condition × time × leg] ANOVA, while performance variables were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. Main effects of time were observed for BF-Tc (p = 0.035), RF-Td (p < 0.001), and BF-Td, (p = 0.008), and a main effect of condition was seen for RF-Tc (p = 0.038). Moreover, participants’ 20 m sprint improved following SSG (p = 0.021) compared to DYN and PLY. Sit-and-reach was greater following PLY (p = 0.021). No significant interactions were noted for the measured TMG variables. Warm-up-specific improvements were demonstrated in sprint speed and flexibility following SSG and PLY, respectively. The present study revealed changes in certain TMG measures following the warm-ups that suggest enhanced response of lower leg muscles regardless of specific activities used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
13 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Pressure. A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Concussion and Injury Risk in Retired Professional Rugby Players
by Ed Daly, Adam White, Alexander D. Blackett and Lisa Ryan
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030078 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4110
Abstract
This study interviewed retired professional rugby union players (≤10 years since retirement) to discuss their careers in the game of rugby union. The primary aim of the study was to document their understanding of concussion knowledge and the analogies they use to describe [...] Read more.
This study interviewed retired professional rugby union players (≤10 years since retirement) to discuss their careers in the game of rugby union. The primary aim of the study was to document their understanding of concussion knowledge and the analogies they use to describe concussion. In addition, these interviews were used to determine any explicit and implicit pressures of playing professional rugby as described by ex-professional rugby players. Overall, 23 retired professional rugby players were interviewed. The participants had played the game of rugby union (n = 23) at elite professional standard. A semi-structured individual interview design was conducted with participants between June to August 2020. The research team reviewed the transcripts to identify the major themes from the interviews using a reflexive thematic analysis approach. Four major themes were identified: (1) medical and theoretical understanding of concussion, (2) descriptions of concussion and disassociated language, (3) personal concussion experience, and (4) peer influences on concussion within the sport. These were further divided into categories and subcategories. The interviews highlighted that players did not fully understand the ramifications of concussive injury and other injury risk, as it became normalised as part of their sport. This normalisation was supported by trivialising the seriousness of concussions and using dismissive language amongst themselves as players, or with coaching staff. As many of these ex-professional players are currently coaching rugby (48%), these interviews could assist coaches in treating concussion as a significant injury and not downplaying the seriousness of concussion in contact sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
13 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Exploring Physical Fitness Profile of Male and Female Semiprofessional Basketball Players through Principal Component Analysis—A Case Study
by Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona, David Mancha-Triguero, José Pino-Ortega and Sergio J. Ibáñez
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030067 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
Basketball is a sport in continuous evolution, being one of these key aspects of the players’ physical fitness that has an impact on the game. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and identify the physical fitness level and profiles of basketball players according [...] Read more.
Basketball is a sport in continuous evolution, being one of these key aspects of the players’ physical fitness that has an impact on the game. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and identify the physical fitness level and profiles of basketball players according to sex. Total of 26 semi-professional basketball players were assessed (13 male, 13 female) through inertial devices in different previously validated fitness tests. T-test for independent samples and principal component analysis were used to analyze sex-related differences and to identify physical fitness profiles. The results showed differences according to sex in all physical fitness indexes (p < 0.01; d > 1.04) with higher values in males, except in accelerometer load during small-sided games (p = 0.17; d < 0.20). Four principal components were identified in male and female basketball players, being two common ([PC1] aerobic capacity and in-game physical conditioning, [PC4 male, PC3 female] unipodal jump performance) and two different profiles (male: [PC2] bipodal jump capacity and acceleration, [PC3] curvilinear displacement; female: [PC2] bipodal jump capacity and curvilinear displacement, [PC4] deceleration). In conclusion, training design must be different and individualized according to different variables, including physical fitness profiles between them. For practical applications, these results will allow knowing the advantages and weaknesses of each athlete to adapt training tasks and game systems based on the skills and capabilities of the players in basketball. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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8 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Functional Translation of Exercise Responses from Exercise Testing to Exercise Training: The Test of a Model
by Tristan Tyrrell, Jessica Pavlock, Susan Bramwell, Cristina Cortis, Scott T. Doberstein, Andrea Fusco, John P. Porcari and Carl Foster
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030066 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Exercise prescription based on exercise test results is complicated by the need to downregulate the absolute training intensity to account for cardiovascular drift in order to achieve a desired internal training load. We tested a recently developed generalized model to perform this downregulation [...] Read more.
Exercise prescription based on exercise test results is complicated by the need to downregulate the absolute training intensity to account for cardiovascular drift in order to achieve a desired internal training load. We tested a recently developed generalized model to perform this downregulation using metabolic equivalents (METs) during exercise testing and training. A total of 20 healthy volunteers performed an exercise test to define the METs at 60, 70, and 80% of the heart rate (HR) reserve and then performed randomly ordered 30 min training bouts at absolute intensities predicted by the model to achieve these levels of training intensity. The training HR at 60 and 70% HR reserve, but not 80%, was significantly less than predicted from the exercise test, although the differences were small. None of the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) values during training were significantly different than predicted. There was a strong overall correlation between predicted and observed HR (r = 0.88) and RPE (r = 0.52), with 92% of HR values within ±10 bpm and 74% of RPE values within ±1 au. We conclude that the generalized functional translation model is generally adequate to allow the generation of early absolute training loads that lead to desired internal training loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 3273 KiB  
Article
Pattern of the Heart Rate Performance Curve in Subjects with Beta-Blocker Treatment and Healthy Controls
by Philipp Birnbaumer, Heimo Traninger, Matteo C. Sattler, Andrea Borenich and Peter Hofmann
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030061 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
(1): Heart rate performance curve (HRPC) in incremental exercise was shown to be not uniform, causing false intensity estimation applying percentages of maximal heart rate (HRmax). HRPC variations are mediated by β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity. The aim was to study age and [...] Read more.
(1): Heart rate performance curve (HRPC) in incremental exercise was shown to be not uniform, causing false intensity estimation applying percentages of maximal heart rate (HRmax). HRPC variations are mediated by β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity. The aim was to study age and sex dependent differences in HRPC patterns in adults with β-blocker treatment (BB) and healthy controls (C). (2): A total of 535 (102 female) BB individuals were matched 1:1 for age and sex (male 59 ± 11 yrs, female 61 ± 11 yrs) in C. From the maximum incremental cycle ergometer exercise a first and second heart rate (HR) threshold (Th1 and Th2) was determined. Based on the degree of the deflection (kHR), HRPCs were categorized as regular (downward deflection (kHR > 0.1)) and non-regular (upward deflection (kHR < 0.1), linear time course). (3): Logistic regression analysis revealed a higher odds ratio to present a non-regular curve in BB compared to C (females showed three times higher odds). The odds for non-regular HRPC in BB versus C decreased with older age (OR interaction = 0.97, CI = 0.94–0.99). Maximal and submaximal performance and HR variables were significantly lower in BB (p < 0.05). %HRmax was significantly lower in BB versus C at Th2 (male: 77.2 ± 7.3% vs. 80.8 ± 5.0%; female: 79.2 ± 5.1% vs. 84.0 ± 4.3%). %Pmax at Th2 was similar in BB and C. (4): The HRPC pattern in incremental cycle ergometer exercise is different in individuals receiving β-blocker treatment compared to healthy individuals. The effects were also dependent on age and sex. Relative HR values at Th2 varied substantially depending on treatment. Thus, the percentage of Pmax seems to be a stable and independent indicator for exercise intensity prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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9 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Official and Common Field-Based Fitness Tests in Elite Soccer Referees
by Veronica Romano, Manuel Tuzi, Ada Di Gregorio, Anna Maria Sacco, Immacolata Belviso, Felice Sirico, Stefano Palermi, Daria Nurzynska, Franca Di Meglio, Clotilde Castaldo, Angelo Pizzi and Stefania Montagnani
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030059 - 1 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2828
Abstract
Official tests are used to assess the fitness status of soccer referees, and their results correlate with match performance. However, FIFA-approved tests expose the referees to high physical demands and are difficult to implement during the sportive year. The aim of our study [...] Read more.
Official tests are used to assess the fitness status of soccer referees, and their results correlate with match performance. However, FIFA-approved tests expose the referees to high physical demands and are difficult to implement during the sportive year. The aim of our study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 × 40-m sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (IR1) official tests and other field-based tests that require no or little equipment, are not time-consuming, and impose low physical demands. All tests were performed by male referees from the Regional Section of the Italian Referee Association (n = 30). We observed a strong correlation between 6 × 40-m sprint and Illinois agility tests (r = 0.63, p = 0.001) and a moderate correlation between Yo-Yo IR1 and hand-grip strength in the dominant (r = 0.45, p = 0.014) and non-dominant hand (r = 0.41, p = 0.031). Interestingly, only a moderate correlation (r = −0.42, p = 0.025) was observed between the FIFA official tests, 6 × 40-m sprint and Yo-Yo IR1. These results suggest that Illinois agility and hand-grip tests could represent simple and low-physical-impact tools for repeated assessment and monitoring of referee fitness throughout the sportive season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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9 pages, 3825 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Exercise Capacity and Training Prescription from the 6-Minute Walk Test and Rating of Perceived Exertion
by John P. Porcari, Carl Foster, Maria L. Cress, Rachel Larson, Hannah Lewis, Cristina Cortis, Scott Doberstein, Marc Donahue, Andrea Fusco and Kimberly Radtke
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020052 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4523
Abstract
Walking tests, such as the 6-min walk test (6MWT), are popular methods of estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in clinical populations. However, the strength of the distance vs. VO2peak relationship is not strong, and there are no equations for [...] Read more.
Walking tests, such as the 6-min walk test (6MWT), are popular methods of estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in clinical populations. However, the strength of the distance vs. VO2peak relationship is not strong, and there are no equations for estimating ventilatory threshold (VT), which is important for training prescription and prognosis. Since the 6MWT is often limited by walking mechanics, prediction equations that include simple additional predictors, such as the terminal rating of perceived exertion (RPE), hold the potential for improving the prediction of VO2max and VT. Therefore, this study was designed to develop equations for predicting VO2peak and VT from performance during the 6MWT, on the basis of walking performance and terminal RPE. Clinically stable patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program (N = 63) performed the 6MWT according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. At the end of each walk, the subject provided their terminal RPE on a 6–20 Borg scale. Each patient also performed a maximal incremental treadmill test with respiratory gas exchange to measure VO2peak and VT. There was a good correlation between VO2peak and 6MWT distance (r = 0.80) which was improved by adding the terminal RPE in a multiple regression formula (6MWT + RPE, R2 = 0.71, standard error of estimate, SEE = 1.3 Metabolic Equivalents (METs). The VT was also well correlated with walking performance, 6MWT distance (r = 0.80), and was improved by the addition of terminal RPE (6MWT + RPE, R2 = 0.69, SEE = 0.95 METs). The addition of terminal RPE to 6MWT distance improved the prediction of maximal METs and METs at VT, which may have practical applications for exercise prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 607 KiB  
Article
Effects of Activity Tracker-Based Counselling and Live-Web Exercise on Breast Cancer Survivors during Italy COVID-19 Lockdown
by Andrea Di Blasio, Teresa Morano, Federica Lancia, Gianluca Viscioni, Angelo Di Iorio, Simona Grossi, Ettore Cianchetti, Lucia Cugusi, Stefano Gobbo, Marco Bergamin, Anna D’Eugenio, Laura Masini, Massimo Rinaldi, Maria Teresa Scognamiglio, Anastasios Vamvakis and Giorgio Napolitano
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020050 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
Background: To prevent and fight the increase of daily sedentary time and to promote and stimulate the positive effects of physical activity and exercise on health, both traditional interventions and new strategies are important for breast cancer survivors (BCS). The research goal was [...] Read more.
Background: To prevent and fight the increase of daily sedentary time and to promote and stimulate the positive effects of physical activity and exercise on health, both traditional interventions and new strategies are important for breast cancer survivors (BCS). The research goal was to compare the effects of weekly personal feedback, based on objectively measured physical activity, on the trends of both daily sedentary time and on the physical activity of BCS (E group) with those of an intervention also including online supervised physical exercise sessions (E+ group), during the Italy COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: The Italian COVID-19 emergency allowed the possibility to also observe the effects of social and personal limitations. A total of 51 BCS were studied over an 18-week period and had an objective registration of day-to-day sedentary time, physical activity, and sleep. Both subsamples received weekly or fortnight personal feedback. Data were analysed considering four key periods, according to the COVID-19 emergency steps. Results: Statistical analysis showed an additive effect for sedentary time and a multiplicative effect both for light-to vigorous and light-intensity physical activities. The E group had a high overall sedentary time and a different trend of light-to vigorous and light-intensity physical activities, with a reduction from the 1st to the 2nd periods (national and personal restrictions), showing a significant rise just at the end of the national restrictions. Conclusions: The use of an activity tracker and its accompanying app, with the reception of weekly tailored advice and supervised online physical exercise sessions, can elicit proper physical activity recomposition in BCS in the COVID-19 era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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9 pages, 436 KiB  
Article
Workload Accomplished in Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation
by Katrina L. Schultz, Carl Foster, Kimberley Radtke, Susan Bramwell, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco and John P. Porcari
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020047 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2915
Abstract
Exercise training is an important component of clinical exercise programs. Although there are recognized guidelines for the amount of exercise to be accomplished (≥70,000 steps per week or ≥150 min per week at moderate intensity), there is virtually no documentation of how much [...] Read more.
Exercise training is an important component of clinical exercise programs. Although there are recognized guidelines for the amount of exercise to be accomplished (≥70,000 steps per week or ≥150 min per week at moderate intensity), there is virtually no documentation of how much exercise is actually accomplished in contemporary exercise programs. Having guidelines without evidence of whether they are being met is of limited value. We analyzed both the weekly step count and the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) of patients (n = 26) enrolled in a community clinical exercise (e.g., Phase III) program over a 3-week reference period. Step counts averaged 39,818 ± 18,612 per week, with 18% of the steps accomplished in the program and 82% of steps accomplished outside the program. Using the sRPE method, inside the program, the patients averaged 162.4 ± 93.1 min per week, at a sRPE of 12.5 ± 1.9 and a frequency of 1.8 ± 0.7 times per week, for a calculated exercise load of 2042.5 ± 1244.9 AU. Outside the program, the patients averaged 144.9 ± 126.4 min, at a sRPE of 11.8 ± 5.8 and a frequency of 2.4 ± 1.5 times per week, for a calculated exercise load of 1723.9 ± 1526.2 AU. The total exercise load using sRPE was 266.4 ± 170.8 min per week, at a sRPE of 12.6 ± 3.8, and frequency of 4.2 ± 1.1 times per week, for a calculated exercise load of 3359.8 ± 2145.9 AU. There was a non-linear relationship between steps per week and the sRPE derived training load, apparently attributable to the amount of non-walking exercise accomplished in the program. The results suggest that patients in a community clinical exercise program are achieving American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, based on the sRPE method, but are accomplishing less steps than recommended by guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 1458 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Psychological Responses to Three Distinct Exercise Training Regimens Performed in an Outdoor Setting: Acute and Delayed Response
by Stefano Benítez-Flores, Carlos A. Magallanes, Cristine Lima Alberton and Todd A. Astorino
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020044 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3024
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the acute responses to three time-matched exercise regimens. Ten trained adults (age, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) = 25.9 ± 5.6 yr, 50.9 ± 5.4 mL·kg−1·min−1 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the acute responses to three time-matched exercise regimens. Ten trained adults (age, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) = 25.9 ± 5.6 yr, 50.9 ± 5.4 mL·kg−1·min−1, and 22.1 ± 1.8 kg·m−2) completed sprint interval training (SIT) requiring 14 × 5 s efforts with 35 s of recovery, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) consisting of 18 × 15 s efforts at ~90% of peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 15 s of recovery, and vigorous continuous training (CT) consisting of 8.75 min at ~85 %HRpeak, in randomized order. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion, affective valence, and enjoyment were monitored. Moreover, indices of neuromuscular function, autonomic balance, diet, mental stress, incidental physical activity (PA), and sleep were measured 24 h after each session to analyze the magnitude of recovery. Both HIIT and CT exhibited a greater %HRpeak and time ≥ 90 %HRpeak than SIT (p < 0.05). Blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion were higher in response to SIT and HIIT vs. CT (p < 0.05); however, there were no differences in enjoyment (p > 0.05). No differences were exhibited in any variable assessed along 24 h post-exercise between conditions (p > 0.05). These data suggest that HIIT and CT accumulate the longest duration at near maximal intensities, which is considered a key factor to enhance VO2max. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Strength and Muscle Activation Indicators in Sticking Point Region of National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes
by Felipe J. Aidar, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Dihogo Gama de Matos, Anderson Carlos Marçal, Raphael Fabrício de Souza, Osvaldo Costa Moreira, Paulo Francisco de Almeida-Neto, José Vilaça-Alves, Nuno Domingos Garrido, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos, Ian Jeffreys, Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Victor Machado Reis, Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral, Thomas Rosemann and Beat Knechtle
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020043 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
Background: The sticking region is considered an intervening factor in the performance of the bench press with high loads. Objective: To evaluate the strength indicators in the sticking point region in Powerlifting Paralympic athletes. Methods: Twelve Brazilian Powerlifting Paralympic athletes performed maximum isometric [...] Read more.
Background: The sticking region is considered an intervening factor in the performance of the bench press with high loads. Objective: To evaluate the strength indicators in the sticking point region in Powerlifting Paralympic athletes. Methods: Twelve Brazilian Powerlifting Paralympic athletes performed maximum isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), time at MIF, velocity, dynamic time in sticking, and surface electromyography in several distances from the bar to the chest. Results: For velocity, there was a difference between the pre-sticking and sticking region (1.98 ± 0.32 and 1.30 ± 0.43, p = 0.039) and dynamic time between the pre-sticking and the sticking region (0.40 ± 0.16 and 0.97 ± 0.37, p = 00.021). In static test for the MIF, differences were found between 5.0 cm and 15.0 cm (CI 95% 784; 1088; p = 0.010) and between 10.0 cm and 5.0 cm (CI 95% 527; 768; p < 0.001). Regarding the RFD, differences were found (CI 95% 938; 1240; p = 0.004) between 5.0 cm and 25.0 cm and between 10.0 cm and 25.0 cm (CI 95% 513; 732; p < 0.001). In relation to time, there were differences between 5.0 cm and 15.0 cm (CI 95% 0.330; 0.515; p < 0.001), 5.0 cm, and 25.0 cm (CI 95% 0.928; 1.345; p = 0.001), 10.0 cm and 15.0 cm (p < 0.05) and 15.0 cm and 25.0 cm (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the muscles in electromyography, although the triceps showed the highest muscle activation values. Conclusions: The maximum isometric force, rate of force development, time, velocity, and dynamic time had lower values, especially in the initial and intermediate phases in the sticking region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 1089 KiB  
Article
Detection of the Anaerobic Threshold in Endurance Sports: Validation of a New Method Using Correlation Properties of Heart Rate Variability
by Bruce Rogers, David Giles, Nick Draper, Laurent Mourot and Thomas Gronwald
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020038 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8921
Abstract
Past attempts to define an anaerobic threshold (AnT) have relied upon gas exchange kinetics, lactate testing and field-based evaluations. DFA a1, an index of heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) fractal correlation properties, has been shown to decrease with exercise intensity. The intent of [...] Read more.
Past attempts to define an anaerobic threshold (AnT) have relied upon gas exchange kinetics, lactate testing and field-based evaluations. DFA a1, an index of heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) fractal correlation properties, has been shown to decrease with exercise intensity. The intent of this study is to investigate whether the AnT derived from gas exchange is associated with the transition from a correlated to uncorrelated random HRV pattern signified by a DFA a1 value of 0.5. HRV and gas exchange data were obtained from 15 participants during an incremental treadmill run. Comparison of the HR reached at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) was made to the HR reached at a DFA a1 value of 0.5 (HRVT2). Based on Bland–Altman analysis and linear regression, there was strong agreement between VT2 and HRVT2 measured by HR (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Mean VT2 was reached at a HR of 174 (±12) bpm compared to mean HRVT2 at a HR of 171 (±16) bpm. In summary, the HR associated with a DFA a1 value of 0.5 on an incremental treadmill ramp was closely related to that of the HR at the VT2 derived from gas exchange analysis. A distinct numerical value of DFA a1 representing an uncorrelated, random interbeat pattern appears to be associated with the VT2 and shows potential as a noninvasive marker for training intensity distribution and performance status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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9 pages, 1079 KiB  
Article
Predictive Validity of the Snatch Pull Force-Velocity Profile to Determine the Snatch One Repetition-Maximum in Male and Female Elite Weightlifters
by Ingo Sandau, Helmi Chaabene and Urs Granacher
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020035 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6436
Abstract
Background: The prediction of one repetition-maximum (1RM) performance from specific tests is highly relevant for the monitoring of training in weightlifting. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the predictive validity of the theoretical 1RM snatch (snatchth) computed from the two-point [...] Read more.
Background: The prediction of one repetition-maximum (1RM) performance from specific tests is highly relevant for the monitoring of training in weightlifting. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the predictive validity of the theoretical 1RM snatch (snatchth) computed from the two-point snatch pull force-velocity relationship (FvR2) to determine actual snatch 1RM performance in elite weightlifters. Methods: Eight (three female, five male) elite weightlifters carried out a 1RM snatch test followed by a snatch pull test with loads of 80% and 110% of the previously determined 1RM snatch. Barbell kinematics were determined for all lifts using video-tracking. From the snatch pull barbell kinematics, the snatch pull FvR2 was modeled and the snatchth was calculated. Results: The main findings indicated a non-significant (p = 0.706) and trivial (d = 0.01) mean difference between the actual 1RM snatch performance and the snatchth. Both measures showed an extremely large correlation (r = 0.99). The prediction accuracy of the actual 1RM snatch from snatchth was 0.2 ± 1.5 kg (systematic bias ± standard deviation of differences). Conclusions: This study provides a new approach to estimate 1RM snatch performance in elite weightlifters using the snatch pull FvR2. The results demonstrate that the snatchth-model accurately predicts 1RM snatch performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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Review

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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Review
The Efficacy of Flywheel Inertia Training to Enhance Hamstring Strength
by Joey O’ Brien, Declan Browne, Des Earls and Clare Lodge
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010014 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3399
Abstract
The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the efficacy of flywheel inertia training to increase hamstring strength. Hamstring strain injury is common in many sports, and baseline strength deficits have been associated with a higher risk of hamstring strain injury. As [...] Read more.
The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the efficacy of flywheel inertia training to increase hamstring strength. Hamstring strain injury is common in many sports, and baseline strength deficits have been associated with a higher risk of hamstring strain injury. As a result, strength and conditioning professionals actively seek additional techniques to improve hamstring strength with the aim of minimising the incidence of hamstring strain injury. One method of strength training gaining popularity in hamstring strength development is flywheel inertia training. In this review, we provide a brief overview of flywheel inertia training and its supposed adaptions. Next, we discuss important determinants of flywheel inertia training such as familiarisation, volume prescription, inertia load, technique and specific exercise used. Thereafter, we investigate its effects on hamstring strength, fascicle length and hamstring strain injury reduction. This article proposes that hamstring specific flywheel inertia training can be utilised for strength development, but due to the low number of studies and contrary evidence, more research is needed before a definite conclusion can be made. In addition, as with any training modality, careful consideration should be given to flywheel inertia training determinants. This review provides general recommendations of flywheel inertia training determinants that have value when integrating flywheel inertia training into a hamstring strengthening program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
11 pages, 881 KiB  
Review
Negative Effects of Mental Fatigue on Performance in the Yo-Yo Test, Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests: A Meta-Analysis
by Jozo Grgic, Ivan Mikulic and Pavle Mikulic
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010010 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
We aimed to examine the effects of mental fatigue on the Yo-Yo test and Loughborough soccer passing and shooting tests performance using a meta-analysis. The search for studies was performed through eight bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AUSPORT, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the effects of mental fatigue on the Yo-Yo test and Loughborough soccer passing and shooting tests performance using a meta-analysis. The search for studies was performed through eight bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AUSPORT, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science). The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro checklist. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed for data analysis. After reviewing 599 search results, seven studies with a total of ten groups were included in the review. All studies were classified as being of good methodological quality. Mental fatigue reduced the distance covered in the Yo-Yo test (Cohen’s d: −0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66, −0.32). In the Loughborough soccer passing test, mental fatigue increased the original time needed to complete the test (Cohen’s d: −0.24; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.03), increased penalty time (Cohen’s d: −0.39; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.31), and decreased performance time (Cohen’s d: −0.52; 95% CI: −0.80, −0.24). In the Loughborough soccer shooting test, mental fatigue decreased points per shot (Cohen’s d: −0.37; 95% CI: −0.70, −0.04) and shot speed (Cohen’s d: −0.35; 95% CI: −0.64, −0.06). Overall, the findings presented in this review demonstrated that mental fatigue negatively impacts endurance-based running performance as well as soccer passing and shooting skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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22 pages, 13219 KiB  
Review
Indirect Structural Muscle Injuries of Lower Limb: Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Exercise
by Stefano Palermi, Bruno Massa, Marco Vecchiato, Fiore Mazza, Paolo De Blasiis, Alfonso Maria Romano, Mariano Giuseppe Di Salvatore, Elisabetta Della Valle, Domiziano Tarantino, Carlo Ruosi and Felice Sirico
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030075 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6607
Abstract
Muscle injuries are the most common trauma in team and individual sports. The muscles most frequently affected are those of the lower limb, and in particular hamstrings, adductors, rectus femoris and calf muscles. Although several scientific studies have tried to propose different rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Muscle injuries are the most common trauma in team and individual sports. The muscles most frequently affected are those of the lower limb, and in particular hamstrings, adductors, rectus femoris and calf muscles. Although several scientific studies have tried to propose different rehabilitation protocols, still too often the real rehabilitation process is not based on scientific knowledge, especially in non-elite athletes. Moreover, the growing use of physical and instrumental therapies has made it increasingly difficult to understand what can be truly effective. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to review proposed therapeutic algorithms for muscle injuries, proposing a concise and practical summary. Following a three-phase rehabilitation protocol, this review aims to describe the conservative treatment of indirect structural muscle injuries, which are the more routinely found and more challenging type. For each phase, until return to training and return to sport are completed, the functional goal, the most appropriate practitioner, and the best possible treatment according to current evidence are expressed. Finally, the last section is focused on the specific exercise rehabilitation for the four main muscle groups with a structured explanatory timetable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
23 pages, 399 KiB  
Review
Applicability of Field Aerobic Fitness Tests in Soccer: Which One to Choose?
by Daniel Bok and Carl Foster
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030069 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7213
Abstract
A desire to make fitness testing cheaper and easier to conduct in a team-sport setting has led to the development of numerous field aerobic fitness tests. This has contributed to a growing confusion among strength and conditioning coaches about which one to use. [...] Read more.
A desire to make fitness testing cheaper and easier to conduct in a team-sport setting has led to the development of numerous field aerobic fitness tests. This has contributed to a growing confusion among strength and conditioning coaches about which one to use. The main aim of this narrative review was to examine the reliability, validity, sensitivity and usefulness of the commonly used field aerobic fitness tests and to provide practical guidelines for their use in soccer. The University of Montreal track test (UMTT) and Vam Eval test seem the best options for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while the highest signal-to-noise ratio of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15IFT) suggests its superior sensitivity to track changes in fitness. The UMTT and 30-15IFT are the best solutions for prescription of long and short high-intensity interval training sessions, respectively. All field tests mostly present with marginal usefulness, but the smallest worthwhile change for UMTT or Vam Eval test, Yo-YoIRT2 and 30-15IFT are smaller than their stage increment making the improvement of only one stage in the test performance already worthwhile. Strength and conditioning coaches are advised to choose the test based on their specific purpose of testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)

Other

7 pages, 616 KiB  
Case Report
Relationships between Workload, Heart Rate Variability, and Performance in a Recreational Endurance Runner
by Daniel Boullosa, André R. Medeiros, Andrew A. Flatt, Michael R. Esco, Fabio Y. Nakamura and Carl Foster
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010030 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4275
Abstract
Background: The association between heart rate variability (HRV), training load (TL), and performance is poorly understood. Methods: A middle-aged recreational female runner was monitored during a competitive 20-wk macrocycle divided into first (M1) and second mesocycle (M2) in which best performances over 10 [...] Read more.
Background: The association between heart rate variability (HRV), training load (TL), and performance is poorly understood. Methods: A middle-aged recreational female runner was monitored during a competitive 20-wk macrocycle divided into first (M1) and second mesocycle (M2) in which best performances over 10 km and 21 km were recorded. Volume (km), session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), TL, and monotony (mean TL/SD TL) were the workload parameters recorded. The root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals (RMSSD), its coefficient of variation (RMSSDcv), and the RMSSD:RR ratio were the HRV parameters monitored. Results: During M2, RMSSD (p = 0.006) and RMSSD:RR (p = 0.002) were significantly increased, while RR was significantly reduced (p = 0.017). Significant correlations were identified between monotony and volume (r = 0.552; p = 0.012), RR (r = 0.447; p = 0.048), and RMSSD:RR (r = −0.458; p = 0.042). A sudden reduction in RMSSD (from 40.31 to 24.34 ms) was observed the day before the first symptoms of an influenza. Conclusions: The current results confirm the practicality of concurrent HRV and sRPE monitoring in recreational runners, with the RMSSD:RR ratio indicative of specific adaptations. Excessive training volume may be associated to both elevated monotony and reduced RMSSD:RR. Identification of mesocycle patterns is recommended for better individualization of the periodization used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—2nd Edition)
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