Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Exercise for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 24465

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health, University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale, Viale dell’Università, 03043 Cassino, Italy
Interests: sport; physical activity; sport statistics; training monitoring; testing; exercise prescription; rate of perceived exertion; fatigue; sport biomechanics; human balance; proprioception; postural control
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Guest Editor
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA
Interests: sport; performance; physical activity; training, exercise physiology; monitoring

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After the success of the first (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Exercise_Evaluation), second (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Exercise_Evaluation2) and third (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Exercise_Evaluation3) editions of Exercise Evaluation and Prescription, we would love to re-open the Special Issue to continue the development of this topic of particular interest. In line with the previous editions, the idea is to focus on exercise evaluation and prescription, aiming to attract papers related to how to use either laboratory or field evaluations to generate training advice. Training might seem related mostly to athletes, but normal people (and patients) need specific advice as much as athletes. We suspect that there are a number of strategies available that will allow the generation of quantitatively specific training advice that is appropriate for individuals within the “exercise universe”. Authors are invited to submit letters, original research papers, case studies, meta-analyses, reviews and viewpoints focusing on exercise evaluation and prescription on patients, healthy people and athletes, based on findings observed in laboratory or field evaluation.

Dr. Cristina Cortis
Dr. Andrea Fusco
Prof. Dr. Carl Foster
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise prescription
  • exercise testing
  • training programs
  • translation of exercise testing to exercise prescription

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Variations in Postmenopausal Body Composition: A Cross-Sectional Comparison between Physical Activity Practitioners and Sedentary Individuals
by Camila Mahara Dias Damasceno, Fernando José de Sá Pereira Guimarães, Keyla Brandão Costa, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy Figueiredo, Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo and Manoel da Cunha Costa
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9010012 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Physical activity is broadly recognized for promoting weight reduction and bestowing numerous health benefits. Nonetheless, robust evidence concerning the impact of physical activity on postmenopausal women, undergoing physiological shifts, remains scant. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between physical activity and body [...] Read more.
Physical activity is broadly recognized for promoting weight reduction and bestowing numerous health benefits. Nonetheless, robust evidence concerning the impact of physical activity on postmenopausal women, undergoing physiological shifts, remains scant. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between physical activity and body composition among postmenopausal women. Employing a cross-sectional and retrospective design, 702 women were examined. Data on physical activity and body composition were amassed through anthropometric assessments and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). A significant proportion of women exhibited anthropometric alterations indicative of overweight/obesity, alongside elevated values in Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Waist-to-Height, and bone mass, signifying a heightened risk for disease onset. While a majority engaged in some form of physical activity, this did not yield notable reductions in the assessed metrics. Noteworthy changes were only discerned in BMI and bone mass among pre-menopausal women; whereas among postmenopausal women, in addition to disparities in bone mass, those inactive were 1.18 times more prone to a very high disease risk, as gauged by WC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
14 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Offensive Play in Elite Water Polo Using the Team Sport Assessment Procedure (TSAP) over an Entire Competitive Season
by Andrea Perazzetti, Milivoj Dopsaj, Mauro Mandorino and Antonio Tessitore
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030130 - 5 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
In water polo, the team’s technical and tactical performance is determined by the sum of the players’ activities. This study aimed to investigate the playing offensive performance of an Italian First League team performed during all matches (n = 19) of the 2021/22 [...] Read more.
In water polo, the team’s technical and tactical performance is determined by the sum of the players’ activities. This study aimed to investigate the playing offensive performance of an Italian First League team performed during all matches (n = 19) of the 2021/22 championship using the Team Sport Assessment Procedure (TSAP). For all subjects (n = 15), gaining possession of the ball (received balls (RB) and conquered balls (CB)) and disposing of the ball (neutral balls (NB); lost balls (LB); offensive ball (OB) and successful Shots (SS)) parameters, as well as volume of play (VP), efficiency index (EI) and performance score (PS) indexes, were analyzed in relation to the playing positions, season phase, match location and final score difference. Multiple linear regression showed a significant association between the playing position and VP and PS. Perimetral players showed the highest VP (65%) and PS (66%) values, and center defenders showed the highest values of CB (30%), while center forwards gained the highest amount of exclusion when handling the ball (48%). Although they were not significant, the other contextual factors showed that season phase and match location could affect the TSAP indexes. For water polo coaches, the TSAP represents an effective tool to assess how players interpret the match. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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14 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
A Mixed-Methods Study of Women’s Empowerment through Physical Activities: Relationships with Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Levels
by Aspen E. Streetman, Madiera M. Lister, Averie Brown, Halle N. Brin and Katie M. Heinrich
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030118 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Participation in empowering physical activities may increase self-efficacy and facilitate long-term engagement. This explanatory sequential mixed-methods study examined the relationship between physical activity empowerment, exercise self-efficacy, and engagement. Midwestern women (N = 147) aged 18–65, 90% white, completed an online cross-sectional survey [...] Read more.
Participation in empowering physical activities may increase self-efficacy and facilitate long-term engagement. This explanatory sequential mixed-methods study examined the relationship between physical activity empowerment, exercise self-efficacy, and engagement. Midwestern women (N = 147) aged 18–65, 90% white, completed an online cross-sectional survey that captured exercise engagement and self-efficacy for exercise. Participants entered up to five types of physical activities and ranked them from most to least empowering. Physical activities were coded by training type for statistical comparisons using independent t-tests. After survey completion, seventeen women completed a 30 min, 8-question semi-structured interview. Women ranked resistance training as the most empowering physical activity type (38%), followed by running (14%). Total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise scores did not vary between women empowered by cardiorespiratory or resistance training (i.e., total physical activity t(136) = 1.13, p = 0.11; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity t(136) = 2.42, p = 0.06; and self-efficacy for exercise t(136) = 0.66, p = 0.07). Themes identified from the interviews included: (1) women’s physical activity participation barriers are gender-centric, (2) physical activity participation benefits extend beyond physical health, (3) some exercise types are more empowering than others, and (4) empowerment and enjoyment are closely related. Exploring empowerment in exercise may reveal mechanisms to facilitate exercise self-efficacy and engagement in physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
11 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Exercise Prescription Principles among Physicians and Physical Therapists for Patients with Impaired Glucose Control: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Michael A. Petrie, Kristin A. Johnson, Olga Dubey and Richard K. Shields
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030112 - 7 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
Exercise confers a multitude of benefits with limited adverse side effects, making it a powerful “medication” for a plethora of diseases. In people living with uncontrolled glucose levels, exercise can be an effective “medication” to assist in the management of hyperglycemia. We sought [...] Read more.
Exercise confers a multitude of benefits with limited adverse side effects, making it a powerful “medication” for a plethora of diseases. In people living with uncontrolled glucose levels, exercise can be an effective “medication” to assist in the management of hyperglycemia. We sought to survey healthcare providers (physicians and physical therapists) to determine the current state of exercise recommendation for people with glucose control issues. Healthcare providers were surveyed from six academic medical centers in the Midwest to determine the recommended exercise parameters (type, frequency, duration, intensity, and timing) for patients with glucose control issues. Data from 209 practitioners who completed the survey were used for analysis. Chi-square tests were used to determine differences in exercise recommendations between physical therapists (PTs) and physicians (MD/DOs). PTs and MD/DOs recommended similar exercise parameters. Of all respondents, 78.9% recommended exercise to patients with glucose control issues. Respondents who considered themselves to be active exercisers were more likely to recommend exercise than those who were not exercisers. Only 6.1% of all respondents recommended post-meal exercise. Healthcare providers overwhelmingly recommended exercise for people with glucose control issues, but the “timing” is not congruent with best practice recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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16 pages, 624 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Depth Jumps Performed by Female and Male National Collegiate Athletics Association Basketball Athletes and Young Adults
by Talin Louder, Brennan J. Thompson, Alex Woster and Eadric Bressel
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030108 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
The depth jump (DJ) is commonly used to evaluate athletic ability, and has further application in rehabilitation and injury prevention. There is limited research exploring sex-based differences in DJ ground reaction force (GRF) measures. This study aimed to evaluate for sex-based differences in [...] Read more.
The depth jump (DJ) is commonly used to evaluate athletic ability, and has further application in rehabilitation and injury prevention. There is limited research exploring sex-based differences in DJ ground reaction force (GRF) measures. This study aimed to evaluate for sex-based differences in DJ GRF measures and determine sample size thresholds for binary classification of sex. Forty-seven participants from mixed-sex samples of NCAA athletes and young adults performed DJs from various drop heights. Force platform dynamometry and 2-dimensional videography were used to estimate GRF measures. Three-way mixed analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects and interactions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the combined sensitivity and specificity of dependent measures to sex. Results revealed that reactive strength index scores and rebound jump heights were greater in males than females (p < 0.001). Additionally, young adult females showed greater peak force reduction than young adult males (p = 0.002). ROC curve analysis revealed mixed results that appeared to be influenced by population characteristics and drop height. In conclusion, sex-based differences in DJ performance were observed, and the results of this study provide direction for future DJ investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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11 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Whole Body Substrate Metabolism during Different Exercise Intensities with Special Emphasis on Blood Protein Changes in Trained Subjects—A Pilot Study
by Wondyefraw Mekonen, Günther Schwaberger, Manfred Lamprecht and Peter Hofmann
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030102 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 952
Abstract
Contrary to carbohydrate and fat metabolism, the influence of a single exercise dose on protein metabolism has not been adequately explored yet. We assessed the effects of different exercise intensities and durations on blood protein changes and their association with carbohydrate (CHO) and [...] Read more.
Contrary to carbohydrate and fat metabolism, the influence of a single exercise dose on protein metabolism has not been adequately explored yet. We assessed the effects of different exercise intensities and durations on blood protein changes and their association with carbohydrate (CHO) and fat metabolism in six eligible trained subjects. Subjects performed maximal incremental (IE100: at 100%VO2max) and submaximal continuous exercise (CE) at 75%VO2max for 30 min (CE75) and at 50%VO2max for 90 min (CE50). Blood samples were collected at rest (R), end of exercise (EE), and 1 h after recovery to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma amino acids (AA), glucose, lactate, FFA, and glycerol. In IE100 blood lactate, CHO-oxidation (g/min), energy expenditure (kcal/min), and RER were significantly increased during rest (p < 0.05). CE50 induced significantly higher BUN, FFA, glycerol, and fat oxidation (g/min) (p < 0.05). At recovery, the mean sum of the free AA pool (µmol/L) reduced by 8% (p < 0.03) during CE50. Values for CE75 were between IE100 and CE50. Beside lipolysis, also proteolysis (BUN) was an important source of fuel for low-to-moderate intensity CE50. An increased uptake of AA from the plasma bed during CE50 suggests the importance for oxidation and synthesis of other metabolic sources such as gluconeogenesis necessary for recovery. Therefore, one needs to be cautious of protein diet following prolonged cycle exercise training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
14 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Female Collegiate Dancers’ Physical Fitness across Their Four-Year Programs: A Prospective Analysis
by Jatin P. Ambegaonkar, Jena Hansen-Honeycutt, Kelley R. Wiese, Catherine M. Cavanagh, Shane V. Caswell, Shruti J. Ambegaonkar and Joel Martin
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030098 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Dance is physically demanding, requiring physical fitness (PF) that includes upper body, lower body, core fitness, and balance for successful performance. Whether PF changes as dancers advance from when they enter (freshmen) to when they graduate from their collegiate program (seniors) is unclear. [...] Read more.
Dance is physically demanding, requiring physical fitness (PF) that includes upper body, lower body, core fitness, and balance for successful performance. Whether PF changes as dancers advance from when they enter (freshmen) to when they graduate from their collegiate program (seniors) is unclear. We prospectively compared collegiate dancers’ freshman-to-senior PF. We recorded PF in regard to upper body strength endurance (push-ups), core strength endurance (front, left-side, right-side, and extensor plank hold times), lower body power (single leg hop—SLH—distances % height; Leg Symmetry Index: LSI = higher/lower × 100, %), and balance (anterior reach balance, % leg length, LL; LSI balance = higher/lower × 100, %) in 23 female collegiate dancers (freshman age = 18.2 ± 0.6 years). Repeated measures ANOVAs (p ≤ 0.05) were used to compare measures from freshman to senior years. Across their collegiate programs, dancers’ PF remained unchanged. Specifically, their upper body strength endurance push-up numbers (p = 0.93), their core strength endurance plank times (left: p = 0.44, right: p = 0.67, front: p = 0.60, p = 0.22), their SLH distances (left: p = 0.44, right: p = 0.85), and their symmetry (p = 0.16) stayed similar. Also, dancers’ right leg (p = 0.08) and left leg balance (p = 0.06) remained similar, with better balance symmetry (p < 0.001) in seniors. Overall, dancers’ PF did not change across their collegiate programs. Thus, female dancers’ freshman PF may be an adequate baseline reference measure when devising rehabilitation programs and determining readiness-to-return-to-activity post injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
5 pages, 514 KiB  
Communication
Short-Term Speed Variability as an Index of Pacing Stochasticity in Athletic Running Events
by Daniel Boullosa, Eliésdras Patrocínio, Andrew Renfree, Arturo Casado, Brian Hanley and Carl Foster
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020086 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
We aimed to compare differences in performance and pacing variability indices between 5000 m heats and finals during major championships in men and women. Data with 100 m time resolution were used to compare overall pacing variability (standard deviation of 100 m section [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare differences in performance and pacing variability indices between 5000 m heats and finals during major championships in men and women. Data with 100 m time resolution were used to compare overall pacing variability (standard deviation of 100 m section times, SD; and coefficient of variation, CV%) and short-term pacing variability (root mean square of successive differences between 100 m section times, RMSSD). The changes in performance and pacing indices differed between races and competitions. For instance, the men’s final in Beijing 2008 was quicker than the heat (p < 0.01) while the CV% was reduced (p = 0.03) and RMSSD increased (p < 0.01). For women, the heats and the final exhibited a similar mean time in London 2017 (p = 0.33) but with CV% (p < 0.001) and RMSSD (p < 0.001) showing opposite trends. Individual analyses of men’s and women’s champions revealed highly individual variability metrics. The use of RMSSD can complement overall variability indices for better characterization of pacing stochasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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19 pages, 1883 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Anchor Schemes on Performance Fatigability, Neuromuscular Responses and the Perceived Sensations That Contributed to Task Termination
by Robert W. Smith, Terry J. Housh, Jocelyn E. Arnett, John Paul V. Anders, Tyler J. Neltner, Dolores G. Ortega, Richard J. Schmidt and Glen O. Johnson
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020049 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
The present study examined the effect of anchor schemes on the time to task failure (TTF), performance fatigability, neuromuscular responses, and the perceived sensations that contributed to task termination following the sustained, isometric forearm flexion tasks. Eight women completed sustained, isometric forearm flexion [...] Read more.
The present study examined the effect of anchor schemes on the time to task failure (TTF), performance fatigability, neuromuscular responses, and the perceived sensations that contributed to task termination following the sustained, isometric forearm flexion tasks. Eight women completed sustained, isometric forearm flexion tasks anchored to RPE = 8 (RPEFT) and the torque (TRQFT) that corresponded to RPE = 8. The subjects performed pre-test and post-test maximal isometric contractions to quantify performance fatigability and changes in electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and neuromuscular efficiency (NME). In addition, the subjects completed a post-test questionnaire (PTQ) to quantify the contributions of perceived sensations to task termination. Repeated measure ANOVAs were used to assess the mean differences for TTF, performance fatigability, and neuromuscular responses. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests were used to assess the differences between anchor schemes for the average values from the PTQ item scores. For TTF, the RPEFT was longer than the TRQFT (174.9 ± 85.6 vs. 65.6 ± 68.0 s; p = 0.006). Collapsed across the anchor scheme, there were decreases in torque (23.7 ± 5.5 Nm vs. 19.6 ± 4.9 Nm; p < 0.001) and NME (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 0.76 ± 0.15; p = 0.003). There were no significant (p > 0.577) changes for EMG AMP. For the PTQ, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between anchor schemes. There were, however, inter-individual differences in the response scores. The current findings indicated that performance fatigability was likely due to peripheral fatigue (based on NME), not central fatigue (based on EMG AMP). Furthermore, the use of a PTQ may serve as a simple tool to assess the contributions of perceived sensations to task termination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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Review

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25 pages, 20091 KiB  
Review
Exercise Prescription for the Work–Life Population and Beyond
by Gisela Sjøgaard, Karen Søgaard, Anne Faber Hansen, Anne Skov Østergaard, Sanel Teljigovic and Tina Dalager
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020073 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1788
Abstract
The background for this paper concerns a high frequency of work-related disorders that may result from physical exposure at work being highly sedentary, repetitive–monotonous, or physically demanding. This may result in levels of physical inactivity or strenuous activity impairing health. The aim is [...] Read more.
The background for this paper concerns a high frequency of work-related disorders that may result from physical exposure at work being highly sedentary, repetitive–monotonous, or physically demanding. This may result in levels of physical inactivity or strenuous activity impairing health. The aim is to present an evidence-based exercise prescription for the work–life population and beyond. The exercise program is designed to be feasible for use at the workplace and/or during leisure time and to improve health, workability, productivity, sickness absence, etc. The specific concept of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training, IPET, includes the assessment of several health-related variables, including musculoskeletal disorders, physical capacity, and physical exposure at work and/or daily life activity. An algorithm with cut-points for prescribing specific exercises is provided. Exercise programs in praxis are addressed through descriptions of precise executions of various prescribed exercises and possible alternatives to optimize variation and adherence. Finally, perspectives on the significance of introducing IPET and the ongoing, as well as future lines of development, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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13 pages, 830 KiB  
Review
Fiber-Type-Specific Hypertrophy with the Use of Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Resistance Training: A Systematic Review
by Brad J. Schoenfeld, Dan Ogborn, Alec Piñero, Ryan Burke, Max Coleman and Nicholas Rolnick
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020051 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4537
Abstract
Emerging evidence indicates that the use of low-load resistance training in combination with blood flow restriction (LL-BFR) can be an effective method to elicit increases in muscle size, with most research showing similar whole muscle development of the extremities compared to high-load (HL) [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence indicates that the use of low-load resistance training in combination with blood flow restriction (LL-BFR) can be an effective method to elicit increases in muscle size, with most research showing similar whole muscle development of the extremities compared to high-load (HL) training. It is conceivable that properties unique to LL-BFR such as greater ischemia, reperfusion, and metabolite accumulation may enhance the stress on type I fibers during training compared to the use of LLs without occlusion. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper was to systematically review the relevant literature on the fiber-type-specific response to LL-BFR and provide insights into future directions for research. A total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria. Results of the review suggest that the magnitude of type I fiber hypertrophy is at least as great, and sometimes greater, than type II hypertrophy when performing LL-BFR. This finding is in contrast to HL training, where the magnitude of type II fiber hypertrophy tends to be substantially greater than that of type I myofibers. However, limited data directly compare training with LL-BFR to nonoccluded LL or HL conditions, thus precluding the ability to draw strong inferences as to whether the absolute magnitude of type I hypertrophy is indeed greater in LL-BFR vs. traditional HL training. Moreover, it remains unclear as to whether combining LL-BFR with traditional HL training may enhance whole muscle hypertrophy via greater increases in type I myofiber cross-sectional area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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16 pages, 1514 KiB  
Review
Insights into Non-Exercise Physical Activity on Control of Body Mass: A Review with Practical Recommendations
by Diego A. Bonilla, Javier O. Peralta-Alzate, Jhonny A. Bonilla-Henao, Roberto Cannataro, Luis A. Cardozo, Salvador Vargas-Molina, Jeffrey R. Stout, Richard B. Kreider and Jorge L. Petro
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020044 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4468
Abstract
Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), also called unstructured or informal physical activity, refers to those daily activities that require movement of the human body without planning or strict control of the physical effort made. Due to new technologies and motorized transportation devices, the general [...] Read more.
Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), also called unstructured or informal physical activity, refers to those daily activities that require movement of the human body without planning or strict control of the physical effort made. Due to new technologies and motorized transportation devices, the general population has significantly decreased its NEPA. This increase in sedentary lifestyles, physical inactivity, and excessive energy intake is considered a risk factor for obesity, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and all-cause mortality. Searching in PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases, a narrative review of NEPA was carried out to address its conceptualization, promotion strategies for the general population, and monitoring through wearable devices. It is strongly recommended that governmental entities, health practitioners, and the construction industry adhere to “The Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030: More Active People for a Healthier World” and implement different salutogenic urban strategies. These strategies aim to generate environments that motivate increases in NEPA, such as cycling and walking transportation (between 5000–12,500 steps per day), and the progression to physical exercise. There is a wide variety of electronic devices for personal use, such as accelerometers, smartphone apps, or “smart clothes”, that allow for the monitoring of NEPA, some with a wide range of analysis variables contributing to the estimation of total daily energy expenditure and the promotion of healthy habits. In general, the further promotion and monitoring of NEPA is required as part of a strategy to promote healthy habits sustainable over time for the prevention and control of obesity and NCDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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