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Special Issue "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Milan, Italy
Interests: crop protection; plant diseases; agrochemicals; abiotic stresses; food production; food security; food safety; global climate change; bioactive phytochemicals; agrochemicals; mycotoxins; medicinal plants; ethnobotany
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that the same food intake can produce varying outcomes in different people. For example, one person may increase his or her body weight differently to another: some people develop hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes; others are affected by food allergies, some types of cancer, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Such inter-individual variability in response to diet is, to a large extent, determined by genetic factors. Therefore, nutrition represents a key environmental factor that may have the potential to modify genetic predispositions, so as to promote the progression and pathogenesis of diet-related diseases, by modulating the expression of genes involved in the metabolic pathways associated with these disorders. Currently, advances in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are revolutionizing our knowledge concerning the complex interactions between genes and nutrients, which are relevant to health and disease; understanding these interactions requires a basic understanding of nutrition, genetics, and a range of “omic” technologies, so as to investigate these issues.

We invite investigators to submit both original research and review articles that explore all the aspects of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Nutrigenetics
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Epigenetics
  • Epigenomics
  • Non-coding RNAs
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Bioactive phytochemicals

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • genetics
  • epigenetic mechanisms
  • epigenetic regulators
  • chronic-degenerative diseases
  • nutritional therapy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism, S447X, on Postprandial Triacylglycerol and Glucose Response to Sequential Meal Ingestion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030397 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. Given that postprandial assessment of lipoprotein metabolism may provide a more physiological perspective of disturbances in lipoprotein homeostasis compared to assessment in the [...] Read more.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. Given that postprandial assessment of lipoprotein metabolism may provide a more physiological perspective of disturbances in lipoprotein homeostasis compared to assessment in the fasting state, we have investigated the influence of two commonly studied LPL polymorphisms (rs320, HindIII; rs328, S447X) on postprandial lipaemia, in 261 participants using a standard sequential meal challenge. S447 homozygotes had lower fasting HDL-C (p = 0.015) and a trend for higher fasting TAG (p = 0.057) concentrations relative to the 447X allele carriers. In the postprandial state, there was an association of the S447X polymorphism with postprandial TAG and glucose, where S447 homozygotes had 12% higher TAG area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.037), 8.4% higher glucose-AUC (p = 0.006) and 22% higher glucose-incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (p = 0.042). A significant gene–gender interaction was observed for fasting TAG (p = 0.004), TAG-AUC (Pinteraction = 0.004) and TAG-IAUC (Pinteraction = 0.016), where associations were only evident in men. In conclusion, our study provides novel findings of an effect of LPL S447X polymorphism on the postprandial glucose and gender-specific impact of the polymorphism on fasting and postprandial TAG concentrations in response to sequential meal challenge in healthy participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030375 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
(1) Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene–diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2) Methods: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3) Results: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191)), but relative quantification (RQ) within the −0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all). (4) Conclusions: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene–diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Renal Transcriptome Analysis of Programmed Hypertension Induced by Maternal Nutritional Insults
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17826-17837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160817826 - 03 Aug 2015
Cited by 26
Abstract
Maternal nutrition can affect development, leading to long-term effects on the health of offspring. The most common outcome is programmed hypertension. We examined whether alterations in renal transcriptome are responsible for generating programmed hypertension among four different models using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) [...] Read more.
Maternal nutrition can affect development, leading to long-term effects on the health of offspring. The most common outcome is programmed hypertension. We examined whether alterations in renal transcriptome are responsible for generating programmed hypertension among four different models using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received 50% caloric restriction (CR), intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin, 60% high-fructose (HF) diet, or 1% NaCl in drinking water to conduct CR, diabetes, HF, or high-salt models, respectively. All four models induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring. We observed 16 shared genes in a two-week-old kidney among four different models. The identified differential expressed genes (DEGs) that are related to the regulation of blood pressure included Adrb3, Alb, Apoe, Calca, Kng1, Adm2, Guca2b, Hba2, Hba-a2, and Ppara. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and glutathione metabolism pathway were shared by the CR, diabetes, and HF models. Conclusively, a variety of maternal nutritional insults induced the same phenotype—programmed hypertension with differential alterations of renal transcriptome in adult male offspring. The roles of DEGs identified by the NGS in this study deserve further clarification to develop ideal maternal dietary interventions and thus spare the next generations from the burden of hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutrigenomics and Beef Quality: A Review about Lipogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060918 - 10 Jun 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
The objective of the present review is to discuss the results of published studies that show how nutrition affects the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and how diet manipulation might change marbling and composition of fat in beef. Several key points [...] Read more.
The objective of the present review is to discuss the results of published studies that show how nutrition affects the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and how diet manipulation might change marbling and composition of fat in beef. Several key points in the synthesis of fat in cattle take place at the molecular level, and the association of nutritional factors with the modulation of this metabolism is one of the recent targets of nutrigenomic research. Within this context, special attention has been paid to the study of nuclear receptors associated with fatty acid metabolism. Among the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) stand out. The mRNA synthesis of these transcription factors is regulated by nutrients, and their metabolic action might be potentiated by diet components and change lipogenesis in muscle. Among the options for dietary manipulation with the objective to modulate lipogenesis, the use of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, starch concentrations, forage ratios and vitamins stand out. Therefore, special care must be exercised in feedlot feed management, mainly when the goal is to produce high marbling beef. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessReview
Nutrigenetics and Nutrimiromics of the Circadian System: The Time for Human Health
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030299 - 26 Feb 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
Even though the rhythmic oscillations of life have long been known, the precise molecular mechanisms of the biological clock are only recently being explored. Circadian rhythms are found in virtually all organisms and affect our lives. Thus, it is not surprising that the [...] Read more.
Even though the rhythmic oscillations of life have long been known, the precise molecular mechanisms of the biological clock are only recently being explored. Circadian rhythms are found in virtually all organisms and affect our lives. Thus, it is not surprising that the correct running of this clock is essential for cellular functions and health. The circadian system is composed of an intricate network of genes interwined in an intrincated transcriptional/translational feedback loop. The precise oscillation of this clock is controlled by the circadian genes that, in turn, regulate the circadian oscillations of many cellular pathways. Consequently, variations in these genes have been associated with human diseases and metabolic disorders. From a nutrigenetics point of view, some of these variations modify the individual response to the diet and interact with nutrients to modulate such response. This circadian feedback loop is also epigenetically modulated. Among the epigenetic mechanisms that control circadian rhythms, microRNAs are the least studied ones. In this paper, we review the variants of circadian-related genes associated to human disease and nutritional response and discuss the current knowledge about circadian microRNAs. Accumulated evidence on the genetics and epigenetics of the circadian system points to important implications of chronotherapy in the clinical practice, not only in terms of pharmacotherapy, but also for dietary interventions. However, interventional studies (especially nutritional trials) that include chronotherapy are scarce. Given the importance of chronobiology in human health such studies are warranted in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29732-29743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226195 - 12 Dec 2015
Cited by 21
Abstract
Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i) post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation); (ii) DNA global [...] Read more.
Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i) post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation); (ii) DNA global hypomethylation; (iii) promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv) posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by noncoding microRNA. These epigenetic aberrations can be readily reversible and responsive to both synthetic agents and natural components of diet. A source of one of such diet components are cruciferous vegetables, which contain high levels of a number of glucosinolates and deliver, after enzymatic hydrolysis, sulforaphane and other bioactive isothiocyanates, that are involved in effective up-regulation of transcriptional activity of certain genes and also in restoration of active chromatin structure. Thus a consumption of cruciferous vegetables, treated as a source of isothiocyanates, seems to be potentially useful as an effective cancer preventive factor or as a source of nutrients improving efficacy of standard chemotherapies. In this review an attempt is made to elucidate the role of sulforaphane in regulation of gene promoter activity through a direct down-regulation of histone deacetylase activity and alteration of gene promoter methylation in indirect ways, but the sulforaphane influence on non-coding micro-RNA will not be a subject of this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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