Special Issue "Water and Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Luigi Falciola
Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
Interests: water contamination; emerging pollutants; microplastics; integrated on-line and on-site monitoring; water disinfection; modified electrodes; nanomaterials; electroanalysis
Dr. Valeria Ancona
Website
Guest Editor
Water Research Institute of Italian National Research Council, Bari, Italy
Interests: water contamination; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); heavy metals; bioremediation; pollutants monitoring
Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Milan, Italy
Interests: crop protection; plant diseases; agrochemicals; abiotic stresses; food production; food security; food safety; global climate change; bioactive phytochemicals; agrochemicals; mycotoxins; medicinal plants; ethnobotany
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The increasing interest towards qualitative aspects of water resources is ascribable to the fact that, in the last decades, an increase in water contamination by thousands of chemicals has been observed globally. Even the least persistent compounds can pose a serious danger to health and the environment if released in large quantities or affected by bio-transformations that can increase their toxic risk. Particular attention has to be devoted to the risk associated with the presence of emerging pollutants in aquatic environments, most of which are polar and biologically active, and, actually, not yet regulation. A realistic assessment of the environmental and health risks associated with the presence of these contaminants in the aquatic environments requires evaluations related to their mobility, distribution, and interaction with the biological sphere, with particular regard to the assessment of the actual levels of exposure, of the possible bioaccumulation in living organisms, and the understanding of biological disturbance mechanisms. The presence of complex mixtures of chemicals and their metabolites, documented with increasing frequency in the aquatic environments, determines the growing difficulty of being able to predict the effects or evaluate the quality of an ecosystem based on chemical analysis alone. Biomolecular and eco-toxicological methods are the appropriate tools for detecting the effects capable of altering the balance of the aquatic ecosystem. The need to develop methodologies based on the coupling of chemical and biological techniques for the study of the different interactions between toxic substances and environmental factors is increasingly important to guide monitoring activities of resources, providing information on priorities and management methods, as well as defining suitable and eco-sustainable approaches for recovering contaminated waters.

Since water availability and its quality are essential aspects for human health and the environment, in this Special Issue, the submission of papers focused on innovative methods and strategies for the monitoring, protection, and the recovery of aquatic ecosystems is encouraged.

Prof. Luigi Falciola
Dr. Valeria Ancona
Prof. Marcello Iriti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water contamination
  • Organic pollutants
  • Heavy metals
  • Pesticides
  • Emerging pollutants
  • Microplastics
  • Water resource monitoring
  • Integrated on-line and on-site monitoring
  • Water disinfection
  • Health
  • Bioremediation
  • Biomolecular and/or eco-toxicological methods

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Pharmaceutical Residues in Surface Waters of the Eastern Cape Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114067 - 07 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environments. Their presence poses toxicological effects in humans and animals even at trace concentrations. This study investigated the presence of antibiotics, anti-epilepsy and anti-inflammatory drugs in river water of selected rivers in the Eastern Cape Province [...] Read more.
Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environments. Their presence poses toxicological effects in humans and animals even at trace concentrations. This study investigated the presence of antibiotics, anti-epilepsy and anti-inflammatory drugs in river water of selected rivers in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for screening of sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones antibiotics. The samples were collected in upper-stream, middle-stream and lower-stream regions of the rivers and effluent of selected wastewater treatment plants. Pre-concentration of the samples was conducted using lyophilisation and extraction was conducted using solid phase extraction (SPE) on Waters Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced cartridge. The percentage recovery after sample clean-up on SPE was 103% ± 6.9%. This was followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The detected analytes were sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin and carbamazepine. Carbamazepine and erythromycin were detected in high concentrations ranging from 81.8 to 36,576.2 ng/L and 11.2 to 11,800 ng/L respectively, while clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole were detected at moderate concentrations ranging from 4.8 to 3280.4 ng/L and 6.6 to 6968 ng/L, respectively. High concentrations of pharmaceuticals were detected on the lower-stream sites as compared to upper-stream sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Deploying Elemental Iodine in a Vapor Form to Disinfect Water and to Clear Biofilms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103489 - 16 May 2020
Abstract
Traditionally, iodine has been delivered as a solution, tablet or resin to disinfect water. In this study we evaluated the “I2 vapor infusion” (I2VP) technology which passes an airstream through a matrix containing elemental iodine (I2) to produce [...] Read more.
Traditionally, iodine has been delivered as a solution, tablet or resin to disinfect water. In this study we evaluated the “I2 vapor infusion” (I2VP) technology which passes an airstream through a matrix containing elemental iodine (I2) to produce I2 vapor as an innovative method of iodine delivery for water disinfection. Pressured air was provided either by a compressor or hand pump. Testing was performed with water inoculated with either Gram-negative (Escherichia, Salmonella) or Gram-positive (Enterococcus) bacteria or with pre-formed Acinetobacter or Staphylococcus biofilms. Bacterial colony forming units were used to assess efficacy of the device. In distilled water all bacteria and biofilms were eliminated after brief exposures (<90 s). Culturable bacteria were also eliminated from pond and municipal sewer water, but the technology was mostly ineffective against dairy lagoon water with high turbidity and organic particulate. Longer duration infusion and higher air volumes used to overcome interference from organic matter were also associated with higher concentrations of residual iodine. We conclude that I2 vapor infusion has the potential to be useful for emergency water treatment and potentially for reducing microbiological contamination of some waste streams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Quality Assessment: A Quali-Quantitative Method for Evaluation of Environmental Pressures Potentially Impacting on Groundwater, Developed under the M.I.N.O.Re. Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061835 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: At global level, the vulnerability of aquifers is deteriorating at an alarming rate due to environmental pollution and intensive human activities. In this context, Local Health Authority ASL Lecce has launched the M.I.N.O.Re. (Not Compulsory Water Monitoring Activities at Regional level) project, [...] Read more.
Background: At global level, the vulnerability of aquifers is deteriorating at an alarming rate due to environmental pollution and intensive human activities. In this context, Local Health Authority ASL Lecce has launched the M.I.N.O.Re. (Not Compulsory Water Monitoring Activities at Regional level) project, in order to assess the vulnerability of the aquifer in Salento area (Puglia Region) by performing several non-compulsory analyses on groundwater samples. This first paper describes the quali-quantitative approach adopted under the M.I.N.O.Re. project for the assessment of environmental pressures suffered by groundwater and determines the number of wells to be monitored in specific sampling areas on the basis of the local potential contamination and vulnerability of the aquifer. Methods: We created a map of the entire Lecce province, interpolating it with a grid that led to the subdivision of the study area in 32 quadrangular blocks measuring 10 km × 10 km. Based on current hydrogeological knowledge and institutional data, we used GIS techniques to represent on these 32 blocks the 12 different layers corresponding to the main anthropic or environmental type of pressures potentially impacting on the aquifer. To each kind of pressure, a score from 0 to 1 was attributed on the basis of the potential impact on groundwater. A total score was assigned to each of the 32 blocks. A higher number of wells was selected to be monitored in those blocks presenting higher risk scores for possible groundwater contamination due to anthropic/environmental pressures. Results: The range of total scores varied from 2.4 to 42.5. On the basis of total scores, the 10 km × 10 km blocks were divided into four classes of environmental pressure (1st class: from 0,1 to 10,00; 2nd class: from 10,01 to 20,00; 3rd class: from 20,1 to 30,00; 4th class: from 30,01 to 42,50). There were 11 areas in the 1st class, 9 areas in the 2nd class, 8 areas in the 3rd class and 4 areas in the 4th class. We assigned 1 monitoring well in 1st class areas, 2 monitoring wells in 2nd class areas, 3 monitoring wells in 3rd class areas and 4 monitoring wells in 4th class areas. Conclusion: The methodology developed under the M.I.N.O.Re. project could represent a useful model to be used in other areas to assess the environmental pressures suffered by aquifers and the quality of the groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Colistin-Resistant, Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Proteobacteria in Hospital Water Bodies and Out-Falls of West Bengal, India
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031007 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics has resulted in a catastrophic increase in the levels of antibiotic resistance in India. Hospitals treat critical bacterial infections and thus can serve as reservoirs of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Hence, this study was conducted to gauge the prevalence [...] Read more.
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics has resulted in a catastrophic increase in the levels of antibiotic resistance in India. Hospitals treat critical bacterial infections and thus can serve as reservoirs of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Hence, this study was conducted to gauge the prevalence patterns of MDR bacteria in hospital wastewater. Water samples collected from 11 hospitals and 4 environmental sources belonging to 5 most-densely populated districts of West Bengal, India were grown on MacConkey and Eosin Methylene Blue agar. A total of 84 (hospital-associated = 70, environmental water sources = 14) isolates were characterized. The predominant species found in water from hospital-associated areas (HAA) were Acinetobacter baumannii (22.9%), Escherichia coli (28.6 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.7%). Greater than 75% of the HAA isolates were found to be mcr-1 gene negative and colistinresistant. Meropenem non-susceptibility was also high among the HAA isolates at 58.6%, with the presence of the carbapenemase gene and blaNDM in 67.1% of the non-susceptible isolates. Among the three predominant species, significantly higher numbers of E. coli isolates were found to be non-susceptible to meropenem ((80%), p-value = 0.00432) and amikacin (AK (90%), p-value = 0.00037). This study provides evidence for the presence of high numbers of colistin-resistant and carbapenem-hydrolyzing Proteobacteriain hospital wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Chloramine Disinfection-Induced Nitrification Activities and Their Potential Public Health Risk Indications within Deposits of a Drinking Water Supply System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030772 - 26 Jan 2020
Abstract
Microsensors were applied to study the diffusion reaction and activity of a nitrogen species of deposit sediment from a drinking water supply system. Microprofiles of dissolved oxygen (DO), NH4+-N, NO3-N, and NO2N in the [...] Read more.
Microsensors were applied to study the diffusion reaction and activity of a nitrogen species of deposit sediment from a drinking water supply system. Microprofiles of dissolved oxygen (DO), NH4+-N, NO3-N, and NO2N in the sediment indicated that the DO concentration decreased from the highest at the sediment surface to zero at the bottom of the sediment. Similarly, with the increase of depth, NH4+-N initially increased rapidly and then decreased slowly, while the concentration of NO3-N reached a maximum at around 6000 μm and then decreased to about 0.1 mg·L−1 near the bottom of the sediment. Almost no change was observed for NO2-N. The decrease of NH4+-N and DO corresponded well with the increase of NO3-N. Furthermore, based on a consumption and production rate analysis, DO has always been consumed; the NH4+-N consumption rate increased rapidly within 0–1000 μm, reaching about 14 mg·L−1·S−1·10−9. A small amount of NH4+-N was produced in 2000–6000 μm, which could be attributed to denitrification activity. There was no change deeper than 6000 μm, while NO3-N was produced at a depth between 0 and 6000 μm and was consumed in the deeper zone. At the depth of 9000 μm, the NO3-N consumption reached a maximum of 5 mg·L−1·S−1·10−9. The consumption of DO and NH4+-N, which corresponded with the production of NO3-N in a specific microscale range within the sediment, demonstrated nitrification and denitrification activities. In addition, the time required for the diffusion of only DO, NH4+-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N was estimated as 14 days; however, in the practical, even after 60 days of operation, there was still a continuous reaction, which provided further evidence towards microbial activities within the sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Variation and Source of Dissolved Heavy Metals in the Lancangjiang River, Southwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030732 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Dissolved heavy metals are not only the essential micronutrients, but also the toxic elements for human bodies. To investigate the heavy metal sources and assess the water quality of the Lancangjiang River, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Pb were detected in [...] Read more.
Dissolved heavy metals are not only the essential micronutrients, but also the toxic elements for human bodies. To investigate the heavy metal sources and assess the water quality of the Lancangjiang River, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Pb were detected in this study. The results show that dissolved Ni and Mo, Cr and Pb, and Cu and Zn were similarly distributed within the drainage basin. The correlation analysis exhibited that dissolved Ni and Mo had correlation with water parameter, and dissolved Cu was weakly correlated with Ni, indicating that they might be affected by natural processes. The principal component analysis explained 68.342% of the total variance for three principal components, of which dissolved Ni, Mo, and Cu were controlled by natural inputs; dissolved Cu and Cr were affected by anthropogenic activities; and dissolved Zn was influenced by agricultural activities in the downstream. The water quality showed that the water in upstream was worse than in midstream and downstream, and the whole drainage basin had water of excellent quality. Water within the drainage basin poses no risks to human bodies via daily diets and dermal routes. Dissolved Zn, Cu, and Mo occupied the major proportion of heavy metals transporting into the Mekong River. The agricultural inputs of dissolved Zn might pose potential risks to the Mekong River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Chromium (VI) Reduction in Microcosms Amended with Lactate or Yeast Extract: A Laboratory-Scale Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030704 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
A laboratory-scale study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater bioremediation potential of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), taking into account the chromate pollution of an industrial site located in Southern Italy (Apulia Region). The reduction of Cr(VI) was studied on laboratory microcosms, set up [...] Read more.
A laboratory-scale study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater bioremediation potential of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), taking into account the chromate pollution of an industrial site located in Southern Italy (Apulia Region). The reduction of Cr(VI) was studied on laboratory microcosms, set up in different experimental conditions, namely: ABIO (soil and water sterilized), BIO (soil and water not sterilized), LATT (with the addition of lactate), and YE (with the addition of yeast extract). Control test lines, set up by using sterilized matrices and amendments, were employed to assess the occurrence of the pollutant reduction via chemical processes. By combining molecular (microbial abundance, specific chromate reductase genes (ChR) and the Shewanella oinedensis bacterial strain) with chemical analyses of chromium (VI and III) in the matrices (water and soil) of each microcosm, it was possible to investigate the response of microbial populations to different experimental conditions, and therefore, to assess their bioremediation capability in promoting Cr(VI) reduction. The overall results achieved within this work evidenced the key role of amendments (lactate and yeast extract) in enhancing the biological reduction of hexavalent chromium in the contaminated aqueous phase of laboratory microcosms. The highest value of Cr(VI) removal (99.47%) was obtained in the YE amended microcosms at seven days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Phthalate Esters and Their Potential Risk in PET Bottled Water Stored under Common Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010141 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A great deal of attention has been paid lately to release of phthalate esters (PAEs) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into PET bottled drinking water due to their potential endocrine-disrupting effects. Three kinds of PAEs, including diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and [...] Read more.
A great deal of attention has been paid lately to release of phthalate esters (PAEs) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into PET bottled drinking water due to their potential endocrine-disrupting effects. Three kinds of PAEs, including diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), were detected in 10 popular brands of PET bottles in Beijing, ranging from 101.97 μg/kg to 709.87 μg/kg. Meanwhile, six kinds of PAEs, including DEP, DMP, DBP, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were detected in PET bottled water, ranging from 0.19 μg/L to 0.98 μg/L, under an outdoor storage condition, while their concentrations ranged from 0.18 μg/L to 0.71 μg/L under an indoor storage condition. Furthermore, the concentrations of PAEs in brand D and E bottles were slightly increased when the storage time was prolonged. In addition, the concentrations of PAEs in commercial water contained in brand B and H bottles and pure water contained in brand E and G bottles were also slightly increased with the increase of storage temperature. Interestingly, DBP mainly contributed to the increased PAEs levels in simulation water. These results suggest that a part of the PAEs in PET bottled water originated from plastic bottles, which was related to the storage time and temperature. However, the PAEs in PET bottled water only pose a negligible risk to consumers if they follow the recommendations, such as storage at a common place (24 °C), away from sun and in a short period of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Providing Students with Adequate School Drinking Water Access in an Era of Aging Infrastructure: A Mixed Methods Investigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010062 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ensuring students’ access to safe drinking water at school is essential. However, many schools struggle with aging infrastructure and subsequent water safety problems and have turned to bottled water delivery systems. Little is known about whether such systems are feasible and effective in [...] Read more.
Ensuring students’ access to safe drinking water at school is essential. However, many schools struggle with aging infrastructure and subsequent water safety problems and have turned to bottled water delivery systems. Little is known about whether such systems are feasible and effective in providing adequate student water access. This study was a mixed-methods investigation among six schools in an urban district in the U.S. with two types of water delivery systems: (1) tap water infrastructure, with updated water fountains and bottle fillers, and (2) bottled water coolers. We measured students’ water consumption and collected qualitative data from students and teachers about their perceptions of school drinking water. Student water consumption was low—between 2.0 (SD: 1.4) ounces per student and 2.4 (SD: 1.1) ounces per student during lunch. Students and teachers reported substantial operational hurdles for relying on bottled water as a school’s primary source of drinking water, including difficulties in stocking, cleaning, and maintaining the units. While students and teachers perceived newer bottle filler units positively, they also reported a distrust of tap water. Bottled water delivery systems may not be effective long-term solutions for providing adequate school drinking water access and robust efforts are needed to restore trust in tap water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Chlorine Dioxide Degradation Issues on Metal and Plastic Water Pipes Tested in Parallel in a Semi-Closed System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224582 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been widely used as a disinfectant in drinking water in the past but its effects on water pipes have not been investigated deeply, mainly due to the difficult experimental set-up required to simulate real-life water pipe conditions. [...] Read more.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been widely used as a disinfectant in drinking water in the past but its effects on water pipes have not been investigated deeply, mainly due to the difficult experimental set-up required to simulate real-life water pipe conditions. In the present paper, four different kinds of water pipes, two based on plastics, namely random polypropylene (PPR) and polyethylene of raised temperature (PERT/aluminum multilayer), and two made of metals, i.e., copper and galvanized steel, were put in a semi-closed system where ClO2 was dosed continuously. The semi-closed system allowed for the simulation of real ClO2 concentrations in common water distribution systems and to simulate the presence of pipes made with different materials from the source of water to the tap. Results show that ClO2 has a deep effect on all the materials tested (plastics and metals) and that severe damage occurs due to its strong oxidizing power in terms of surface chemical modification of metals and progressive cracking of plastics. These phenomena could in turn become an issue for the health and safety of drinking water due to progressive leakage of degraded products in the water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Chemistry and Blood Pressure: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132289 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: We assessed the association of groundwater chemicals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Methods: Blood pressure data for ≥35-year-olds were from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey in 2011. Groundwater chemicals in 3534 well water samples from [...] Read more.
Background: We assessed the association of groundwater chemicals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Methods: Blood pressure data for ≥35-year-olds were from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey in 2011. Groundwater chemicals in 3534 well water samples from Bangladesh were measured by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in 1998–1999. Participants who reported groundwater as their primary source of drinking water were assigned chemical measures from the nearest BGS well. Survey-adjusted linear regression methods were used to assess the association of each groundwater chemical with the log-transformed blood pressure of the participants. Models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, geographical region, household wealth, rural or urban residence, and educational attainment, and further adjusted for all other groundwater chemicals. Results: One standard deviation (SD) increase in groundwater magnesium was associated with a 0.992 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.986, 0.998) geometric mean ratio (GMR) of SBP and a 0.991 (95% CI: 0.985, 0.996) GMR of DBP when adjusted for covariates except groundwater chemicals. When additionally adjusted for groundwater chemicals, one SD increase in groundwater magnesium was associated with a 0.984 (95% CI: 0.972, 0.997) GMR of SBP and a 0.990 (95% CI: 0.979, 1.000) GMR of DBP. However, associations were attenuated following Bonferroni-correction for multiple chemical comparisons in the full-adjusted model. Groundwater concentrations of calcium, potassium, silicon, sulfate, barium, zinc, manganese, and iron were not associated with SBP or DBP in the full-adjusted models. Conclusions: Groundwater magnesium had a weak association with lower SBP and DBP of the participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Chromium Pollution in European Water, Sources, Health Risk, and Remediation Strategies: An Overview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155438 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Chromium is a potentially toxic metal occurring in water and groundwater as a result of natural and anthropogenic sources. Microbial interaction with mafic and ultramafic rocks together with geogenic processes release Cr (VI) in natural environment by chromite oxidation. Moreover, Cr (VI) pollution [...] Read more.
Chromium is a potentially toxic metal occurring in water and groundwater as a result of natural and anthropogenic sources. Microbial interaction with mafic and ultramafic rocks together with geogenic processes release Cr (VI) in natural environment by chromite oxidation. Moreover, Cr (VI) pollution is largely related to several Cr (VI) industrial applications in the field of energy production, manufacturing of metals and chemicals, and subsequent waste and wastewater management. Chromium discharge in European Union (EU) waters is subjected to nationwide recommendations, which vary depending on the type of industry and receiving water body. Once in water, chromium mainly occurs in two oxidation states Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and related ion forms depending on pH values, redox potential, and presence of natural reducing agents. Public concerns with chromium are primarily related to hexavalent compounds owing to their toxic effects on humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. Risks for human health range from skin irritation to DNA damages and cancer development, depending on dose, exposure level, and duration. Remediation strategies commonly used for Cr (VI) removal include physico-chemical and biological methods. This work critically presents their advantages and disadvantages, suggesting a site-specific and accurate evaluation for choosing the best available recovering technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Open AccessReview
A Detailed Review Study on Potential Effects of Microplastics and Additives of Concern on Human Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041212 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 29
Abstract
The distribution and abundance of microplastics into the world are so extensive that many scientists use them as key indicators of the recent and contemporary period defining a new historical epoch: The Plasticene. However, the implications of microplastics are not yet thoroughly understood. [...] Read more.
The distribution and abundance of microplastics into the world are so extensive that many scientists use them as key indicators of the recent and contemporary period defining a new historical epoch: The Plasticene. However, the implications of microplastics are not yet thoroughly understood. There is considerable complexity involved to understand their impact due to different physical–chemical properties that make microplastics multifaceted stressors. If, on the one hand, microplastics carry toxic chemicals in the ecosystems, thus serving as vectors of transport, they are themselves, on the other hand, a cocktail of hazardous chemicals that are added voluntarily during their production as additives to increase polymer properties and prolong their life. To date, there is a considerable lack of knowledge on the major additives of concern that are used in the plastic industry, on their fate once microplastics dispose into the environment, and on their consequent effects on human health when associated with micro and nanoplastics. The present study emphasizes the most toxic and dangerous chemical substances that are contained in all plastic products to describe the effects and implications of these hazardous chemicals on human health, providing a detailed overview of studies that have investigated their abundance on microplastics. In the present work, we conducted a capillary review of the literature on micro and nanoplastic exposure pathways and their potential risk to human health to summarize current knowledge with the intention of better focus future research in this area and fill knowledge gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
Characterization of Chromosome-Mediated BlaOXA-894 in Shewanella xiamenensis Isolated from Pig Wastewater
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193768 - 08 Oct 2019
Abstract
A new variant of the blaOXA-546 gene, namely blaOXA-894, was identified on the chromosome of Shewanella xiamenensis isolated from pig wastewater in rural China. OXA-894 differs from OXA-546 (A46V, I219del) and OXA-48 (T167I, I219del) with two [...] Read more.
A new variant of the blaOXA-546 gene, namely blaOXA-894, was identified on the chromosome of Shewanella xiamenensis isolated from pig wastewater in rural China. OXA-894 differs from OXA-546 (A46V, I219del) and OXA-48 (T167I, I219del) with two amino acid substitutions, respectively. The isolate was resistant to ampicillin, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem and fosfomycin. Carba NP test confirmed S. xiamenensis strain sx20 as a carbapenemase-producer. The blaOXA-894 gene was located between the gene encoding a LysR family transcriptional regulator and the C15 gene. Its gene environment was similar to other S. xiamenensis with chromosome-located blaOXA-48-like genes. The T24H and T94V amino acid substitutions of LuxS protein were predicted to be deleterious, which may affect the virulence phenotype. The occurrence and potential health risk of carbapenem-resistant S. xiamenensis in a water environment is of concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Health)
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